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Full text of "The BrickBuilder (July-Dec.1898)"

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CALIFORNIA 

STATE LIBRARY 






I 



c 



"7 C 

- ' / 



CALIFORNIA STATE LIBRARY 

SACRAMENTO 

This book is dae on the last date stamped below. 

Books may be renewed if not requested by other 
borrowers. 

Failure to return books promptly may result in 
withdrawal of borrowing privileges. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. xix 



WALDO BROTHERS, 

BOSTON. 
NEW ADDRESS, X02 .lllbiln ^tVCCtt "^^^^^^^^^^'^^ ^^^* ^^^^^^"^^^• 

IMPORTERS AND DEALERS IN 

HIGH GRADE BUILDING MATERIALS. 

AGENTS FOR 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. Welsh Quarry Tiles. Shepherd & Gay Lime. 

Atwood Faience Co. Alsen Portland Cement. Bostwick Metal Lath. 

Front Bricks in all colors. Atlas Cement. Morse Wall Ties. 

English Glazed Bricks. Brooks, Shoobridge & Co. Portland Cement. Akron Sewer Pipe. 

Baltimore Retort and Fire Brick Co. Phoenix, Shield, Wedge, and Cleopatra Portland Cement. H. H. Meier & Co.'s Puzzo- 

Gartcraig Fire Bricks. Hoffman Rosendale Cement. Ian Portland Cement. 

WHARVES: yv YARD: 

Waldo, 548 Albany Street. W On N. E. R.R. Tracks, near 

Tudor, 1 Charles River Avenue. Congress Street, South Boston. 

TELEPHONES : 

1294 Boston — 1 1 Boston — 11^ Charlestown. 



Charles E. Willard 

192 Devonshire Street, BOSTON, MASS. 

Terra-Cotta, Fire-Proofing, 
Front Brick, Sheet Metal, Etc. 

New England Agents for 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company 
Webster Fire Brick Company, Mottled Brick 
Darlington Coal & Clay Mfg. Company, 

White, Cream, Gray, and Fire=Flashed Brick 
National Brick Company, I^ed Pressed Brick 
Pioneer Fire-Proofing Company 



XX 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 






WP^' 






TRADE 



RARITAN 



MARK. 



l^ Molded brick for the entire trim of brick exteriors to 
bond with our front brick. 

RARITAN HOLLOW & POROUS BRICK CO., 

8f4 Broadway, New York. 





R GUASTAVINO CO. 

Fire-Proof 
Construction. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 
J J East 59th St. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 
19 Milk St. 



TELEPHONE CONNECTION. 



Floors, 
Roofs, 
Subways, 



Ceilings, 
Staircases, 
Ducts, etc, etc. 



ALL IN BURNT CLAY. 



Empire Fire-Proofing Co., 



Manufacturers and Contractors 
For All Kinds of 



FIRE-PROOF WORK IN 



Hollow Tile & 

Porous TerraCotta 

FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 

Room 827 Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111, 



NEW YORK OmCE, 

874 BROADWAY. 



C4M.»F<WmA 



gITATe UBB«*'»1' 



-'I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofmg 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




rL.6rt«iNo> DETAIL OF I5"ARCH. « 

Obt Pateilen Traisrerse Systei of Floor Arcli CoDStmctloD 



SECTION OF ARCH. 

Mailelii9,10.12aiiillSliicli( 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL BuMng Brick, 

And other Qay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
tW^ Material, Hard= 
^ Burned Clay and 

Porous Terra=Cotta. 



T40I I 0\A/ RI r\f^V^ ForFIat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
riWLLw VV DLWv..>l\0, tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY, SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, MCTir VADIT 
156 FIFTH AVE., JNtW lUKK. 

Works, LORILLARD (Keyport P. O.), N. J. 



XXll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow^ Porous, Front, and Paving Brick* 



WORKS at PITTSBURGH, PA., and at WASHINGTON, N. J. 



General Offices: CARNEGIE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office : Townsend Building, corner Broadway and 25th St., New York City. 




The accompanying illustration is of 

The American Express Co/s Building, 

BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
GOOCH & PRAY Builders. 




FIRE-PROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

J 66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



L 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXlll 



Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



Floor Arches^ 
Partitions, 
Furring, 



Roofing, Etc* 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

.New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Agent. 




Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings* 



Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks* 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 



Factories,. 



MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



H, J. Hardenbergh, 

A rchitect. 



MANHATTAN HOTEL. 

42d|Street and Madison Avenue. 



Marc Eidlitz & Son, 
Builders. 




iTTT""l 

" Excelsior " End-Constructiun Flal Arcli (Patented). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method- 



One of the latest additions to New York's magnificent Hotels, and thoroughly fire-proof. 

FLOORS. — " Excelsior " end-construction Arches. 

PARTITIONS, etc., Hollow Tile throughout. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1898, 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 

Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 

Contractors for Structural Steel Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS, COPLEY SQUARE, BOSTON. 

HENRY E. CREGIER, ARCHITECT. WOODBURY & LEIQHTON, CONTRACTORS. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 45 1 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. xxv 



(^ entral Fireproofing 
Company, 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 

Hollow 

Tile 

and 

Porous 

Terra- 

Cotta 



Fireproofing. 



874 Broadway, New York* 



XXVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE ATWOOD 



FAIENCE 




COMPANY, 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Enameled Brick and Tile 
Faience Mantels, 

Terra-Vitrae. 

Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 
Mantel dealers. 



Grueby Faience Co. 

Makers of 

GLAZED AND ENAMELED 
ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA FOR 
INTERIORS AND 
EXTERIORS. 
FAIENCE MANTELS 
TILES IN COLORS FOR 
WAINSCOTS, 
BATHS, ETC. 
MOORISH TILES. 



164 Devonshire Street, -ir^oston* 



F. W. Silkman, 



IMPORTER AND DEALER IN 



^ 

^ 



Cbemtcale, /fcinerate, 
Claii>6, nnb Colors. 



For Potters, Terra=Cotta, and Enameled Brick Manufacturers. 



Correspondence Invited. 



231 pearl Street, Bew l^ork. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXVI 1 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HENRV S. HARRIS, Vice-President. 



VVil,L. R. CLARKK, Secretary and Treasurer. 
ALVORD B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARTISTIC ROOFING TILK, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 



WE illustrate in this issue our series of combination tiles, from which it will appear that several of the old and much favored 
shapes, such as Grecian, Gothic, Diamond, Hexagon, Octagon, etc., not only can be made and laid so as to secure an abso- 
lutely tight roof, by our lip and lap construction, without the use of any cement, — a thing impossible with the ordinary flat 
shingle cut to these shapes, — but also combinations of different designs together can be made so as to produce effects sometimes desired 
by the architect, and not heretofore possible with any of the styles of tile now on the market. 

From the fact that by our construction all of a dozen different styles of tile have exactly the same shape on the upper half of the 
tile, they can be laid together and will interlock, no matter what the shape of the bottom. 

For example, we show herewith two different combinations in fancy shapes ; one is a so-called Horn-Gothic, and.the other a Net-dia- 
mond ; in the one, the effect of the regular flat Gothic tile is broken up by a projection, giving a greater variety of light and shade on the 
roof, and in the other, by the combination together, the effect of a large knotted net, spread over the roof, is secured. This design might 
be used effectivel}- in some roof work at seaside residences. In this shape of tile the possibility for special designs is limited only by the 
desire and the design of the architect. Any conceit that can be condensed into the size shown, 8 x I2 ins. on each tile, can be secured. 





HORN-GOTHIC. 



NET-DIAMOND. 



The various shapes of our combination tiles in regular patterns is shown in the following cut, but some of our special designs in 
these shapes will be shown in a later article. 



RHINOCEROS 

1 


GOTHIC 

> i; 

k 

t I i! 


6 

CONCAVO 


4 

GRECIAN 


4 

WAVE 

^ 1:! 


4 

DIAMOND 

^ v. 


4 

PERSIAN 

\ i 1,' 


4 

CABLE TILE 

\ • I.' 


> 

GABLE TILE 


4 

■MID IIP 

1 tl> 


4 

sFnon 
• I It 


aiiiiK 
1 lit 


4 

Till 


EAVE TILE 


i 

; 1 ; \t . 


4 



An}' one of these shapes of tile is absolutely weather proof when together or in combinaliun with each otiier. Each tile has a lip 
and a lap of i in. in height, so that no back set or draught can cause a leak, and we are prepared to guarantee any roof covered with 
these tiles free from any diflicully arising from poor material or defective workmanship, so far as weather conditions are concerned. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 
SUITE 1123-4, 156 FIFTH AVENUE. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 
SUITE 1001-2, 204 DEARBORN STREET. 



xxvni 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE DELMONICO BUILDING. 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE.. NEW YORK CITY. 



JAMES BROWN LORD, ARCHITECT 



TERRACOTTA AND BRICK BY THE 



NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 

PHILADELPHIA. 38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK CITY. 



« 



BOSTON. 




OFFICE 
85 



g ««»» »a 



IBRICKBVlLDERi 



WATER Wl 
6TREET \r/\ 
BOSTON ^, 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY, 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in tlie Postal Union ..... $3-S° P^r year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBIHI.DER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

THE BOSTON .SUBWAY; A LOST OPPORTUNITY. 

IT is the present expectation that the Boston Subway will be com- 
pleted and in actual use early this fall, possibly by the first of 
September. About a third of it has been in operation now for nearly 
a year, and the public has had a pretty good opportunity to judge of 
its value. We believe that we are right in saying that the general 
consensus of opinion is that as an engineering structure it is well 
planned, well built, and that on the whole it fulfils all the practical 
requirements had in view at the time of its inception. The surface 
tracks which it was intended to supplant have not yet been removed, 
but the traffic on the streets above has been made very much more 
free, and there has been an almost entire absence of blockades in 
the subway itself. As a means of inter-communication between dif- 
ferent portions of the city it is undoubtedly a success. 

The suljway has been built under the direction of a commission 
which was appointed by the Governor. This commission, as originally 
constituted, included three lawyers, one professor of engineering, 
and one gentleman who could, perhaps, be most fairly classed as a 
capitalist. The changes which have occurred in the commission 
have not altered the proportion of lawyers, nor have any other pro- 
fessions been represented. At no time has there been upon the 
board, either as member or adviser, an architect or any one with the 
slightest claim to trained artistic ability. It would be hard to select 
a commission composed of men more thoroughly matter of fact 
and business-like in every attribute. They have done their work 
admirably from a mechanical standpoint. They have drawn around 
them the very best of engineering advice, there has not been a sug- 
gestion of anything but the most strict, business-like proceeding from 



first to last, and as far as the commission has gone it is certainly 
deserving of the most hearty thanks for the manner in which it has 
conducted the work. If the subway were nothing but a big sewer, 
or a system of underground conduits to carry water, we should say 
that nothing more could have been ho])ed for or desired. Unfor- 
tunately it is a work of public utility which is constantly before the 
eyes of thousands of citizens, and it is a matter of the deepest regret 
that the commission, after having shown such unusual executive 
ability, and after having solved so satisfactorily the practical con- 
siderations, should have seen fit to so utterly ignore every considera- 
tion of art or beauty below ground. The interior of the subway 
is about as enlivening and cheerful as a second century catacomb. 
There is not one single redeeming feature about it in an esthetic 
sense, and it is the strongest sort of epitome of the unfortunate way in 
which the artistic element is so totally disregarded in our public work. 

The average Philistine of the type which is represented by our 
able subway commission seems to be imbued with the feeling that art 
is a condition which can be tolerated, and within certain limitations 
grudgingly admired, provided it does not entail any expense; that the 
moment the artistic element begins to count as a factor in the cost 
it must be sternly suppressed. We, as a nation, are gradually devel- 
oping into an appreciation of the educational value of good looks. 
We are not there yet, by any means, and the prospect is sometimes 
dreary, but we are not quite so badly off in this respect as we were 
two generations ago, and there are fortunately a few leading spirits 
who appreciate that a public work is not put up simply as a money- 
saving machine, that works of public utility may rightfully take to 
themselves a certain element of artistic appearance, and that the ex- 
penditure of a small added percentage in money is well repaid by 
the constant enjoyment which it can afford. We appreciate this 
sentiment in our public parks. Boston is spending millions of money 
every year to provide and maintain a park system which shall be not 
merely healthful, not merely afford good air to the poor, but shall be 
positively and appreciably beautiful and artistic. No one questions 
the wisdom of this expenditure, no one would have it restricted, and 
everyone enjoys the results. In exactly the same manner the Boston 
Subway should have been treated as an opportunity to not only ac- 
commodate the people in a thoroughly business-like manner, but also 
to accommodate them in surroundings which would at least not be 
distressingly ugly. 

Specific compari.sons may be dangerous, but we cannot forbear 
referring our readers to the issue of this journal under date of 
December, 1S93, wherein was shown a po.ssible arrangement for the 
subway which would have permitted of a very considerable display 
of taste, good proportions, and pleasing colors, without involving a 
decided additional cost. If any one doubts the possibility of the 
successful treatment of such a problem as the subway presents he 
has only to recall such a building as the .so-called Mosijuc at Cordova, 
a structure the style of which could have been reproduced in our 
subway stations with extremely effective results and in a manner 
which would have been much more permanent than the ghastly 
painted white columns and girders and the absolutely uninteresting 
lines of the existing structures. We will venture to say that any one 
of fifteen or twenty architects throughout this country who could 
have been selected could have made the subway interesting, worth 
the going to see for itself, and every bit as valuably in a practica 



134 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



sense without involving an added expenditure of more than ten per 
cent. We believe, as we have repeatedly stated in these columns, 
that the only material suitable for constructing a work of this kind is 
brick in one or another of its forms; that had the ceiling been 
vaulted throughout in substantial masonry, the construction would 
have been more permanent and would have allowed a better oppor- 
tunity for pleasing effects ; and even if artistic considerations must 
perforce give way to engineering judgment, and we are obliged to 
use the species of steel-skeleton construction which was followed in 
the subway for the walls, it at least might have been lined through- 
out with enameled brick, not necessarily a plain white, but in some 
pleasing colors which would rest the eye and give a little relief to the 
senses. The commissioners made some very careful investigations 
as to what material to use for lining the.se walls. They finally 
decided on a facing of Keene's cement, which has been put in the 
finished portion throughout, except at the stations, and when fresh 
presented a very pleasing appearance ; but before the work had been 
in use a month it began to look disreputable, and is now simply an 
unsightly, blotchy plaster wall. We were told at the time that the 
reason for this selection was that to use enameled bricks throughout 
would involve an added expense of #300,000. This is simply an exam- 
ple of that thrift which is the curse of so many of our public monu- 
ments and for which our descendants will not rise up and bless us. 

The unthinking passenger who rushes down the subway steps, 
buys his ticket, and rushes off through the swiftly moving cars, may 
reason that the tunnel as built is as good as though better looking, 
that as long as the work is done well and the cars expeditiously 
despatched, that is all that can be expected ; but the man who 
thinks, the man who knows what might be and has had opportunity 
to appreciate the influence in the long run, on the passing crowd, of 
good proportions, agreeable colors, and artistic arrangement, will 
feel every day he enters the subway, that it is a lost opportunity, 
that we might have had in this undertaking a piece of engineering 
work which could have been clothed with architectural beauty and 
been a pride to the city ([uite as truly as our parks or gardens. We 
have to thank the subway commission for their excellent work, their 
scrupulous business methods, but, unfortunately, we have also to 
thank them for building an ugly hole in the ground, constructed so 
well that we can never hope to afford to tear it out and do it as it 
ought to have been done. 



BOOK REVIEW. 



THE LAW OF MECHANICS' LIENS UPON REAL ESTATE 
IN MASSACHUSETTS. By Henrv T. Lummus, LL. B., of 
the Essex Bar. Little, Brown & Co , Boston. 

Very few works have been written upon the topic of lien laws> 
and fewer still have any tangible value to the layman, as it is a sub- 
ject which in its practical application can most safely be left to one's 
lawyer. The best that can be hoped from such a volume, in as far 
as it appeals to a possible party to a suit, is that it shall present a 
careful classification of decisions and intelligent generalizing of con- 
clusions. In order to be of real value such a work must of nece.ssity be 
quite local in its nature, as the customs vary greatly in the different 
States. Mr. Lummus has put into very compact shape the present law 
of Massachusetts as regards mechanics' liens. The subject matter 
is presented in a very easily understood form, and is accompanied by 
a thorough cross index which makes the work unusually valuable. 
While the best way to avoid liens on a building is to have nothing 
to do with any but thoroughly responsible contractors, still the most 
careful architects and owners are occasionally caught unawares, and 
a study of the 139 pages of this book will go a long ways towards 
posting one as to individual rights and the way to obtain them. 



PERSONAL. 



study of the "Science of Cities" for the University of Pennsylva- 
nia. In this connection Mr. Kelsey expects to deliver a course of 
lectures on " Focal Points in Foreign Cities," " Urban Circulation, 
Transportation and Delivery," and " Commercial Architecture." 

Mk. J. George Morgan, architect, Philadelphia, member of 
the T Square Club, has been appointed second lieutenant in the Vol- 
unteer Engineer Corps, U. S. A. 

Frank E. Wetherell, architect, formerly of Peoria, 111., has 
opened an office at Oskaloosa, Iowa. Catalogues desired. 

A. B. RosENTHAi,, architect, has removed his office from 620 
Milwaukee Avenue to 81 Dearborn Street, Chicago, Suite 341-43. 

J. L. O'Connor, architect, Openheimer Building, Austin, Texas, 
will be glad to receive catalogues. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE following illustrations appear in our advertising pages: 
Land, Title, and Trust Company's Building, Philadelphia, 
Pa., D. H. Burnham & Co., architects ; advertisement of Conkling, 
Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, page v; mantel in hall of Miss 




4'o 



Albert Kelsey, former president of the T Square Club, Phila- 
delphia, has just returned from an eighteen months' stay in Paris 
and the Continental cities of Europe, where he has made an especial 



HERALDIC I'A.NEL KRO.M THE HOTEL RALEKiH, WASHINGTON, IJ. C. 

Executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Colla Company. 

H. J. HardenbergJi, Architect. 

Fitzgerald's house, Roxbury, Mass., William G. Preston, architect ; 
advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vii ; residence of Louis 
Schoellkopf, Esq., Buffalo, N. Y., C. D. Swan, architect; advertise- 
ment of The Harbison & Walker Company, page xv ; .Manhattan 
Hotel, New York City, H. J. Hardenbergh, architect ; advertisement 
of Henry Maurer & Son, page xxiii ; shapes of roofing tile made by 
the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, in their advertisement, 
page xxvii ; illustration showing ten positions in which the Bolles 
Revolving Sash may be placed, page xxxvi. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



135 



The American Schoolhouse. IX. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

THE schools in which courses in mechanical training are given 
in conjunction with the principal courses of high schools are 
known either as "Manual Training" or "Mechanic Arts High" 
schools. 

In these schools manual skill is not taught for its own sake. Hy 
the course of instruction offered, intellectual activity is encouraged 
through knowledge of tools, materials, and forces, as well as through 
books. Manual training is but one, and in many cases the smaller, 
part of the instruction given; such training is used as a means to an 
end and not as an end in itself. " Mechanic Arts High," although a 
clumsy word, more closely designates the purposes of such schools, 
while the name of " Manual Training " confuses the purpose with that 
of the technical trade schools, whose object is purely utilitarian. If 
the mechanic arts high schools have a future success commensurate 
with that of the past it is not improbable that a better designation 
need not be sought, and the need will not exist to use any other 
name than that of high school. 

Schools of this type, the most distinctly American development 
of schoolhouse architecture, are provided with the class rooms, 
recitation rooms, and laboratories, and drawing rooms of the high 
schools, and in addition have rooms equipped with machinery for 
wood and metal working, with carpenters' benches, forge shops, and 
in some cases molding and modeling rooms. 

These schoolhouses are the most complex and latest develop- 
ment of the high school in this country, and as such necessarily have 
not yet been perfected in all their features. Hut few schools of the 
type completely designed for this purpose have as yet been built and 



On the second floor is the second-year schoolroom with eighty- 
eight desks, this cla.ss being composed of four divisions of twenty- 
two each. Here, also, is a wood-working room with twenty-four 
benches and twenty-four turning lathes, a molding and soldering 
room with twenty-four benches, and a drawing room. 

In the first story is the office of the principal, the third-year 
schoolroom with sixty-three desks, the forging shop with twenty-two 
forges and anvils, of which but twenty are shown on the plan here 
given. There is no basement under the forge shop. The machine 
shop is also on this floor. This room is equipped with lathes, drills, 
and other machine tools and has fourteen benches, marked H on the 
plan, and dressing lockers (marked C). A small chemical laboratory 
adjoins the first-year schoolroom. 

The second and third floors are provided with the requisite 
washrooms; hose for the first-floor shops are placed in the base- 
ment. Here, also, are dressing rooms and toilet rooms, the engine 
room, the repair shop, a lunch room and a warm-air chamber, the 
boiler being in a separate building. Under the steps is the fire- 
proof oil room. 

Dr. C. M. Woodward, the director of this school and author of 
a treatise on " The Manual Training School," says, in criticism of 
the plan of the Toledo school : — 

"I. The forging shop, which is the noisiest shop in all, is 
rather too near the schoolrooms. In warm weather, when the win- 
dows are open, the noise is somewhat troublesome. I should prefer 
a plan which turned the shop wing ninety degrees to the left, so as 
to place the forging shop directly beyond the machine shop. In 
other words, I would put the school and drawing rooms at the head 
of a T, and the shops in the long central part, with the forging shops 
at the extreme end. 

" 2. There is no well or shaft for the transmission of power to 




FIRST FLOOR. 



SECOND FLOOR. 
ST. LOUIS MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



IIIIRD I'LOOU. 



there are no foreign models to help us except in regard to minor 
details. The development of the plan of the mechanic arts high 
school offers still an important field for the joint labors of our edu- 
cators and architects. 

In many cases, to meet the needs of such instruction, existing 
buildings have been adapted for shops. At St. Louis, Chicago, 
Cambridge, and Boston, especially designed high schools of this 
type have been built. At Toledo, an addition for work shops, etc., 
has been added to a high school building. 

The St. Louis Manual Training School was built partly in 1S79 
and partly in 1882, at a time when there was little precedent to guide 
its projectors. On the third floor of this building is the first-year 
schoolroom fitted with ninety-six desks for first-year pupils, two 
recitation rooms, each fitted with twenty-four shelf chairs, a drawing 
room, physical laboratory, one wood-working room with benches 
for twenty pupils. 



the several floors from the basement. The transmission should be 
from floor to floor by belts with suitable tighteners. Kach shop 
should be furnished with a clutch, by means of which the teacher in 
charge may turn on his shop or turn it off at pleasure, without in- 
terfering with the other shops. At times the teacher needs a ([uiet 
room where his voice may be easily heard as he gives the theory of 
a machine, explains the details of a process, or criticizes work be- 
fore a class. In the transfer of power, gearing is too noisy for a 
school. The main shafting and pulleys of the machine shop of the 
St. Louis school cannot be stopped without stopping the engine. 
While this defect is hard to remedy, it may easily be avoided in a 
new plan. 

"3. On the third floor I would interchange the wood-working 
shop with the drawing and physics rooms. This would accomplish two 
things; first, it would place the drawing room and physical laboratory 
over a comparatively quiet room, as there is no noise in the molding 



136 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



room : and, secondly, no divisions would pass through a shop where 
the boys arc at work." 

Dr. Woodward further suggests that, " As a rule, the study and 
recitation rooms should be separated from the shops by two walls en- 
closing halls, stairways, or yard ; at the same time I should prefer 
to have all the rooms for a class on the same floor, or as nearly so as 
possible, and but a few steps away. It may not work badly to have 
a division cross the yard, but I advise strongly against sending a 
division out of the yard, or across the street. I do not favor the 
transfer of a division of 
students from one principal 
to another and back again. 
No principal would like that 
arrangement in the case of 
such a study as arithmetic 
or spelling, and shop work 
and drawing should be 
treated with precisely the 
same consideration. The 
same precautions should in 
all cases be taken to prevent 
irregularities and loss of 
time. In short, manual 
work should be treated as 
school work, and watched 
and guarded and sustained 
as such." 

The High and Manual 
Training School of Toledo, 
Ohio, is an addition made in 
1885 to a large high school. 
It has three stories and a 
high basement, in which is 
placed the forge room or 
blacksmith shop, the mold- 
ing room, lum!)er room, and 
engine room. The large 
shops are 40 by 55 ft. The 
machine shop is on the first 
floor. Here, also, is the 
wood-working room, which 
is fitted with lathes and 
twenty-four benches. The 
wood-working room on the 
second floor is fitted with 
benches only. 

In the Toledo school 
provision is made for man- 
ual training for girls. The 
girls are taught in divisions 
by themselves drawing, light 
woodwork and carving, 
cooking as a branch of ap- 
plied chemistry, needlework, 
cutting, and fitting. One of 
the large rooms of the 
second story, and in the third 
story the corresponding 

space, is divided into two rooms, one of which is the cooking room, 
which is thus described in the catalogue of the school : — 

" This is 40 by 27 ft., with one large Garland range, two gas 
cooking stoves, and five double tables 5 ft. long by 5 ft. wide, each 
table accommodating four pupils. Each girl has her own table space 
for work, and there is a small gas stove for every two pupils. Each 
table space has a drawer and cupboard below it for all essential 
utensils, and each pupil must personally go through every process 
taught. At the other end of the room are pantry clo.sets for the 
teacher's use, and a commodious wash room, with all conveniences 




TOLEDO HIGH AND MA.NUAL TKAI.\I.\G SCHOOL, TOLEDO, OHIO. 



for girls, including individual closets for the keeping of aprons, 
clothes, etc." 

In the Toledo school each work room is provided with ample 
wash rooms, which are very important adjuncts of schools of this 
type. 

The Cambridge Manual Training School for boys was founded 
by Mr. Frederick H. Rindge. The shops and drawing rooms are 
in a building by themselves, connected by a covered way with the 
building assigned to the academic course. 

In this latter building 
l!10^^ If : I I are the schoolrooms, physi- 

P iiy.l-^.?M ^'^°" * ^-^^1 laboratory, assembly hall, 
I ^^^* 1 «ii^ 1 »iif 1 ■* ' I fire drill hall, and gymna- 

BEc:ir»Tio» ^ iSTOBtSl "•' 

°°°" slum. 

The following descrip- 
tion of the building for man- 
ual training is quoted from 
the report of the Cambridge 
High for 1892, written by 
Dr. Parmenter, now master 
of the Boston Mechanic 
Arts High School. 

THE WOOD-WOKKING ROOM. 

In this room there are 
two departments, one being 
for general carpentry, and 
one for turning and pattern- 
making. On the east side 
are eight wood-worker's 
benches, 34 ins. high, with a 
top 66 by 43 ins. A vertical 
board, 5 ins. high, divides 
the top of each bench into 
two equal parts, thus making 
it possible for two pupils to 
work at the same liench, 
one on each side, without 
danger of interference. Be- 
low the top of the table, at 
the right of the worker, are 
three drawers, 23 by sH 
ins., with a depth of 26 ins., 
each fitted with a lock. 
Each pupil has one of these 
drawers in which to keep 
the individual tools supplied 
to him, and his unfinished 
work. The remaining space 
below the top of the table is 
converted into a closet de- 
signed to hold most of the 
implements used in common 
by the members of different 
divisions. 

The saws are kept in a 
s])ecial case provided for 
them in the front end of the 
room. They are numbered to correspond with the lienches, and 
each pupil is charged with those which he receives and is held 
responsible for their return, in good condition, to their proper place, 
at the end of each working period. Between two of the windows is 
a case for storing the " blue prints " from which the pupils work. 
This case is 4 ft. 6 ins. high, 2 ft. wide, and 12 ins. deep, and is con- 
veniently divided into pigeon holes for fifteen sets of " blue prints." 
Near the benches are several stationary glue-pots heated by steam 
and always ready for use. Conveniently located for preparing ma- 
terials for the work of pupils is a double arbor bench saw, capable 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



137 



of being quickly adjusted for either cross-cutting or splitting, and 
furnished with the most approved devices for facilitating work. 

Running the entire length of the west side of the room, in 
front of the windows, is a bench supplied with pattern-maker's 
tools, and adapted to be used by divisions of twelve pupils. Attached 
to this bench, separated by convenient distances, are twelve Fitch- 
burg quick-action vises, with 9 in. jaws, and near each vise is a set 
of three drawers, one of which is assigned to each pupil for his in- 




CAMBRIDGE MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL, CAMIiRIUGK, MASS. 

dividual tools and unfinished work. By the side of the drawers, in 
each section, is a locker designed to contain tlie tools which are used 
in common by members of different divisions. 

In front of this bench, at a convenient distance from it, is a row 
of twelve pattern-maker's lathes, each having a 6 ft. bed, and capable 
of doing work 12 ins. in diameter. Two lathes are placed side by 
side, 2 ft. apart, their bed pieces being connected by a case carrying 
two drawers, each fitted with a lock, and designed to hold the tools 
used in wood turning. 

At one end of this row of lathes is a large pattern-maker's lathe, 
having an 8 ft. bed and being capaljle of doing work 20 ins. in 
diameter. This lathe is fitted with the most approved devices for 
doing all kinds of work, and is designed to be used only by the in- 
structor and by pupils who develop special skill and demonstrate their 
ability to do a high order of work. By its side are two iron speed 
lathes, 9 in. swing, 42 in. bed, constructed in the machine shop by 
the members of the class of '91. Near at hand are a band saw, 26 
in. wheel, fitted with an adjustable iron table and a scroll saw, both 
of the most approved pattern. A tool closet, located in the center of 
this room, is supplied with a great variety of tools adapted to every 
possible need of a wood-working establishment. The lumber loft is 
easily reached by a flight of stairs leading to the top of this closet., 

THE IRON-WORKING ROOM. 

This room, like the wood-working room, is fitted for two distinct 
kinds of work. The appliances upon the west side are adapted to 
general iron fitting, — chipping, filing, drilling, scraping, etc. ; while 
those on the east side are for use in machine-shop work. Upon the 
west side are located four benches 3 ft. high, and having a top 9 ft. 
by 3 ft. 8 ins. A vertical wire screen, 24 ins. high, divides the top of 
each table in the center and serves to protect pupils on opposite sides 
from the chips which fly from each other's work. Each side of 
these benches is furnished with two vises and two sets of four 
drawers, the upper drawer of each set being used in common by the 
pupils of different divisions. One of the three other drawers is 
assigned to each pupil for his individual tools and work. At the 
beginning of a lesson each pupil obtains from the tool room a tray 
which fits the upper drawer of each set, and which contains all 
the tools used by the pupil except the hammer. 

In addition to the benches descriljed above, there is a side bench 
furnished with a large number of tools needed for special work. 



Four small speed lathes are also used in this department for drilling, 
hand-turning, and polishing. 

On the opposite side of the room are the equipments of the 
machine-shop department, consisting of engine lathes, four 16 in., 
one 15 in., seven 14 in., and one 11 in.; one Brainard, No. 3, milling 
machine, with attachments; one cutter-grinder; a 24 in. planer; a 
I 5 in. shaper ; a 24 in. upright drill ; a sensitive drill ; a 36 in. grind- 
stone, and an emery grinder. The entire side of the room is occu- 
pied by a long bench like that found in the pattern- 
making department, fitted with twelve machinist's 
vises and as many sets of drawers in which are kept 
the tools. 

The tool room is furnished with drills, reamers, 
arbors, taps, lathe dogs, and tools of every variety 
in sufficient number to supply each boy with what- 
ever he needs to complete a given job. The common 
cutting tools used by each pupil are those which he 
forged the year before. Kach boy is given ten 
checks, bearing his school number, which may be ex- 
changed at the tool room for the articles needed ; 
the check takes the place of the tool loaned until it 
is returned in good condition. A small cupboard, 
attached under each lathe, contains wrenches, change- 
gears, and other lathe accessories. Similar arrange- 
ments are made for the accessories of other machines 
The engine which drives all of the machinery is 
situated in the iron working room, and is under the 
charge of a competent engineer, who gives a course of instruction 
concerning the construction and care of engines and boilers. 

THE FORGE ROOM. 

The room is furnished with fifteen Sturtevant portable forges, 
each connected by proper pipes with a blower, and with an exhaust 
fan which prevents the poisoning of the air by coal gas, and secures 
perfect ventilation. Near each forge is an anvil weighing 125 lbs.; 





FLOOR I'LANS, CAMHRIIJGE MANUAL IRAINING SCHOOL. 

and a tool bench, 25 ins. high, with a top 21 by 16 ins., sur- 
rounded by a rim 2 ins. high, to prevent tools from slipping off. 
Each liench is furnished with three drawers, which occupy the entire 
space below the top. A standard 3 ft. high, attached to the back of 
the bench, supports the "blue prints" from which the pupils work. 
Six wooden pillars are fastened securely into the masonry of 
the floor, in convenient locations, to each of which is attached a 
wrought-iron blacksmith's vise having 4^ in. jaws. Numerous 
other tools, needed for special kinds of work, are to be found in dif- 
ferent parts of the room. Nothing is wanting which is likely to he 
needed by a blacksmith. The boilers which generate steam for 



138 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



the engine and for heating the building are located in this room. 
These boilers also furnish steam for heating the new building for 
the academic department, and for driving the ventilating fan which 
supplies its rooms with fresh air. They are supplied with a feed- 
water heater, feed pump, injector, damper regulator, and all acces- 
sories of practical utility. 

THE DRAWING ROOMS. 

These large, well-lighted rooms, situated upon the second floor, 
contain thirty double tables, 36 ins. high, with a top 24 by 76 ins. 
Each table has two large drawers, designed to hold the drawing 
materials which are used in common by the pupils of different 
divisions. 

The teacher's platform, measuring 6 by 10 ft., is elevated 3 ft. 
above the floor, thus making it possible for the most distant pupils 
to obtain an unobstructed view of the objects placed upon the 
teacher's table, and of the illustrations upon the blackboards, the 
lower edges of which are 3 ft. above the platform. These black- 
boards, three in number, are placed one directly in front of another, 
each being counterbalanced by weights, like an ordinary window 
sash, so that it can be dropped down out of sight. 

In the rear of the room are cases of small drawers, one of 
which is assigned to each pupil for his drawings and individual 



structors and such pupils as desire them. The remaining space in 
this wing is devoted to a supply room, and to a large dining room 
in which pupils eat the lunches which they bring to school. 



RULINGS ON QUESTIONS CONCERNING REAL ES- 
TATE UNDER THE WAR REVENUE LAW. 

A SERIES of hypothetical questions were submitted to the in- 
ternal revenue ofTicials at Washington yesterdav by the 
HerahVs staff in that city, and, with the answers, are reproduced 
below, in the hope that they will make jilain some matters hitherto 
undecided : — 

(Jiii-s/ioii : Must the actual consideration be stated in a deed, 
or will it sufliice to say "$1.00" and stamp to cover the actual 
consideration? Ansuifr: The actual value need not be stated, 
but stamps must be affixed for the full value. 

Question: If a piece of real estate, worth 5io,ooo and sold on 
that basis, is sold for $5,000 cash and a mortgage of $5,000, must 
the deed be stamped to cover the $10,000 or the equitv, $5,000 ? 
Answer: .Stamp must be for the entire value. 

Question: If there is already a mortgage of $5,000 on a parcel 




liASEMIi.NT. FIRST FLOOR. SECO.NU FLOOR. 

FLOOR PLANS OF BUILDING FOR ACADEMIC DEPART.MENT, ERECTED IN 1 893, CA.MItRIDGE MANUAL TRAINING SCHOOL. 



drawing material. Near at hand is the apparatus used in making 
" blue prints," including a most convenient and efficient device for 
holding the prints while they are exposed to the sunlight. 

All the appointments of this room, like those of each of the 
other rooms, are first class in every particular, and the work of the 
pupils shows that they appreciate their advantages. 

Adjoining the drawing rooms are a reading room and a supply 
room. 

THE BASEMENT. 

With the exception of the space required for the janitor's room, 
the central portion of the basement and the entire southern wing are 
devoted to toilet rooms, wash rooms, and two hundred and seventy- 
five large lockers for the accommodation of the pupils' clothing. 
These lockers are grouped about large sinks supplied with hot and 
cold water. Leading from one of the wash rooms is a well-appointed 
shower bath. These rooms are kept in perfect order, and are under 
the constant supervision of an efficient janitor. Every needed con- 
venience has been provided, and no pupil is permitted to form slov- 
enly personal habits. Each pupil must provide himself with a hair 
brush, comb, shoe brush, whisk broom, two towels, wash basin, and 
soap dish. 

In the northern wing is a large kitchen, furnished with a hotel 
range and the best modern appliances. Adjoining the kitchen is a 
small dining room in which dinners are served, at cost, to the in- 



worth $10,000, must the deed be stamped to cover $10,000 or the 
price paid in cash ? Answer: Stamps must be affixed for $10,000. 

Question : Under the law, both promissory notes and mort- 
gages must be stamped. Must the note accompanying a mortgage 
be stamped as well as the mortgage? Ans7uer: Both must be 
stamped. 

Question: It is customary to allow mortgage notes to run 
after they are due without renewal. Would such a note, properly 
stamped when issued, be good beyond the original time if not re- 
stamped ? Answer: Where there is no renewal the original stamp 
is sufficient. 

Question : Mortgage brokers are held to be subject to the $50 
broker's tax. If a broker (real estate) sells a piece of real estate for 
$10,000, of which $5,000 is cash and $5,000 on a mortgage given by 
the purchaser to the vendor, does he become a " mortgage broker "? 
Answer: No. 

Question: If a broker sells a parcel of realty on which there 
is already a mortgage, which the buyer assumes, does he, by such 
business, become a " mortgage broker"? Answer: No ; if he con- 
fines himself to purely real-estate transactions. 

Question: Can a man, not a broker by trade, receive any part 
of a commission for a transaction in which a mortgage figures with- 
out becoming a "mortgage broker"? Ans7ver: No; not in a 
single instance. — Boston Herald. 



\ . 



THE BRlClCBtJILD£R 



139 



Architecture of Apartment Buildings. 

II. 

BY IRVING K. PONU. 

BEFORE going too deeply into the arrangement and disposal of 
the single rooms of an individual apartment, the architect 
should give great consideration to the problem of the public halls 
and corridors. The man who is ordained by fate, beneficent or other- 
wise, to dwell in an apartment must be made to feel, and in the true 
sense, that his apartment is his castle, just as the householder is made 
to feel that his house is his safe 
retreat. It is the rule of the best 
designers of houses in blocks never 
to place in close proximity the main 
entrance doors of two adjacent 
houses, but to make each main en- 
trance a separate and distinct fea- 
ture. This rule exists in response 
to a very natural and proper demand 
on the part of refined and sensitive 
householders to have their homes in 
outward expression, as in absolute 
fact, places of refuge and retire- 
ment. The dweller in an apartment 
has the same rights as has the 
householder, and it is the duty of 
the architect to respect these rights ; 
to go further, even, and inspire this 
feeling for privacy, and foster into 
an abundant growth what might not 
flourish otherwise. It is the rule of 
the best designers to allow, where 
possible, but one, and never more 
than two apartments to open from 
the public hall in any one story. And rather should a designer 
work to apply this rule simply than by misplaced ingenuity seek to 
corral a number of families on one stage, and herd them about one 
stairway or elevator well. There is a loss of self-respect to all con- 
cerned when this rule is not applied, and most especially so when the 
freight elevator is allowed to open off this same public hall ; for 
then the public hall to which only the members of families and their 
friends, and these in street dress at least, should be permitted, be- 
comes the runway of the butcher, 
the baker, the grocer, and the ser- 
vants in the garments of the kitchen 
and the scullery, and where is self 
respect ! The suggestion of privacy 
and isolation should begin at the 
street door, and still be in evidence 
at the thither wall of the rear 
chamber. Trial upon trial has been 
made by designers of recognized 
ingenuity to get the service across 
public corridors without bringing it 
into sight, but never has the success 
been startling. One expedient was 
to cross the public corridor in a 
sort of mezzanine story, but this re- 
quired rather more of a height to the stories than is desirable in any 
but the most sumptuous apartment buildings, and there the question 
never should arise. This point cannot be too strongly insisted upon, 
that all service connected with individual apartments should be re- 
ligiously excluded from the public corridors. 

The position of living room, dining-room, kitchen, and cham- 
bers in relation to each other, and to give the best effect of home- 
likeness, desired privacy, and the highest economy of service, has 
been discussed, but something should be added as to tlie special 




FIQVR.E l2> 




FIGVKE 14 



position or situation of each of these, and of other rooms necessary 
to a complete apartment. 

The living room and library should, of course, be given the 
sunniest and most pleasing prospect compatible with the location of 
the building. 

As to the dining-room, while it is desirable in common with all 
rooms that direct sunlight should penetrate it at least during some 
period of the day, it is not necessary that this room should be as 
sunny, even, as the chambers. The most pleasant and homelike of 
the many repasts are those partaken of under the soft glow of the 
lamps, and social gatherings at the board, almost without exception, 

are under artificial light, when the 
sparkle of the eyes, the soft tints 
of the complexions, the bright colors 
of the garments, and the deep 
shadows against which all is set, 
add charm to the picture and zest 
to the appetite and to the conversa- 
tion. The dining-room may give 
upon a court, but if so the windows 
must be so arranged as to exclude 
unpleasant sights and noises ; but it 
seems unnecessary to give to the 
dining-room a position of promi- 
nence equal to that of the parlor 
or living room, as is generally the 
case in the French apartment. 

The kitchen should have a 
sunny aspect, and should be on the 
open air or on a well-ventilated 
court; and in either case the win- 
dows should be arranged so that 
the work going on within shall not 
be in evidence from chambers or 
other principal rooms on the same 
court. All well-planned apartments will have the ice chest in close 
proximity to the kitchen, but not so near as to get the kitchen heat. 
These refrigerators are attached to the building, and in many in- 
stances the chill is supplied from the ice machines in the basement, 
as the hot water is supplied to kitchen and toilet ro6ms and to plumb- 
ing fixtures in other rooms from the general hot water plant. To- 
day no tenant would consider the kitchen complete without its gas 
or electric range, while for many years now, especially in medium- 
sized apartments, a laundry tub has 
been placed under the drip board of 
the sink making possible the laun- 
drying of light articles at any de- 
sired time and without recourse to 
the main laundry. 

That the chambers should be 
as sunny as is possible to plan for 
goes without saying, for no room 
can be considered perfectly whole- 
some and desirable as a sleeping 
apartment into which the sun does 
not at some time during the day 
freely penetrate. A general laundry 
with three tubs and a dryer should 
be provided for each three apart- 
ments at most, thus giving to each apartment the use of the laundry 
two days in each week. 

The fuel gas for the laundry stoves and dryers goes through in- 
dividual meters, each controlled from the kitchen of its respective 
apartment, so that the careful mistress of the apartment may see, by 
going to the kitchen, that the gas for which she is accountable is 
shut off when the laundry is not in use or when it is in use by other 
parties. This arrangement saves continual trips to the basement or 
the attic, in one of which localities the laundry is placed, when it is 



140 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



not an individual establishment connected directly with the working 
portions of the apartment. 

This last arrangement of course exists only in the most expen- 
sive and elaborately planned apartments. As to whether the laun- 
dries should be in base- 
ment or attic depends 
somewhat on other de- 
tails of the plan. If air 
in free circu 1 a t i o n 
abounds about a well- 
ventilated basement the 
laundries may well be 
placed there. If, how- 
ever, the laundries open 
for ventilation on a nar- 
row, deep court, on which 
chambers and principal 
rooms depend, then odors 
must come in course of 
time to be not a trifle 
obnoxious, and the laun- 
dries themselves become 
u n w h olesome. If the 
roof of the building is 
made a place of resort in 
hot weather as is at- 
tempted now, more or 
less frequently, then the 
attic is no place for laun- 
dries or odor-breeding 
compartments. 

A servants' toilet 
room containing bath- 
tub, basin, and closet is 
the necessary adjunct of 
every well-planned apart' 
ment of more than me- 
dium cost. In the more 

moderate buildings these toilet rooms may l)e placed in the base- 
ment, or, better, off the stair landings of the servants' stairs and 
should be under the daily inspection of the janitor. From four 
apartments at most in which a single servant is employed, or from 
two apartments in which there are two servants, should one of 
these toilet rooms be accessible. Each and every apartment should 
have a good-sized storage room in the dry basement, and the walls 
of these rooms should be of tile or of solid plaster to prevent the 
spread of fire or vermin. Other and sufficient storage space should 
be provided in the apartment in 
the form of closets, cupboards, 
pantries, etc. The criticism never 
has been brought against an apart- 
ment that closets were too great 
in number or too ample in amount 
of storage space provided. 

Probably the stable room 
which was wont to exist at the rear 
of the court of every French 
apartment building is transformed 
nowadays into a bicycle storage 
room. .Sure it is that no apart- 
ment building in this country is 
complete without a conveniently 
located, easily accessible, and well- 

etjuipped room for the bicycles, which are as crying a need in the 
modern household as were babies in the olden. 

The servant's bedroom has always been a matter for serious 
consideration. The most convenient place in most cases is near the 
kitchen, and in most plans opens directly into that room. It is better 




PAHLOK FLOOR. ChAMBE R. FLOOO 



FIGVflE 15 




mvKt \J 



that an air lock should intervene, for kitchen odors, etc., are no more 
acceptable in a servant's bedroom than in a front chamber. At any 
rate, the servant's bedroom should be ample and so situated as to be 
easily and readily ventilated. The advisability of placing the ser- 
vants from all the apart- 
ments in a building in a 
group by themselves is 
not yet determined. In 
France the concierge and 
his generally not numer- 
ous family occupy a 
small apartment at the 
street level, Ijeside the 
carriage entrance to the 
court or near the main 
entrance door. The ser- 
vants in many instances 
are quartered in the entre 
sol, a low story over the 
shops, which may occur 
along the street front, or 
over the stables which 
generally occupy the 
lower story at the rear of 
the court, or they are 
assigned to rooms in the 
attic story. As yet this 
method has not met high 
favor in this country, but 
it may have to be 
adopted as apartments 
become more luxurious 
and proportionately 
greater and higher class 
service is demanded. 
Undoubtedly, the neces- 
sity for more space than 
could be gained advan- 
tageously on one floor is responsible for the grouping of servants' 
quarters in a portion of the building remote from the apartments, as 
it is responsible for the grouping of laundries and storerooms in the 
basements or in the attics of our American apartment buildings. 
This same necessity gives rise to a scheme which has been put 
into practise, not altogether unsuccessfully in some instances, of giv- 
ing considerably reduced height to the story in the portions contain- 
ing the unimportant chambers and the kitchen arrangement, and 
thus getting an increased number of stories in that portion of the 

building as is indicated in section 
in Fig. 13. The difficulty with 
this scheme in general is that it 
requires a wasteful height of story 
in the main portion to get a re- 
spectable story or mezzanine in 
the rear, or it is apt to lead to an 
undesirable complication in plan 
and an awkward change of levels 
in corridors through which there 
is much service. A scheme which 
possibly is an improvement on this 
last, and which is especially adapt- 
able to high buildings on shallow 
lots, is that of using a story and a 
half to each apartment, as is indi- 
cated in section in Fig. 14, and in plan in Figs. 15 and 16. The 
general advantage and the simplicity of the scheme are apparent 
with a little study of these figures. The chambers are entirely 
isolated, and all the rear chambers are quiet, being in a " stack " of 
chambers. The front chambers, to which one descends from the 



riGVRE 16 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



141 



main floor of the apartment to which they belong, are under the 
living rooms with which they communicate, and hence may be kept 




PARLOR. FLOOP. 

FiGVi^e 18 




CHAMBER FLOOR. 



FIOVKE 19 



quiet, as the noises which disturb in an apartment building are those 
which emanate from the story above. 

The final and full development of the idea of using more than 
one floor for the accommodation of the rooms of one apartment is 
seen in section in Fig. 17, and in plan in Figs. 18 and 19, which show 
the living and chamber floors, respectively. The idea consists in 
using two entire floors for the same apartment, gaining all the ad- 
vantages of the two-storied single house, and combining them with 
the general economy of service and the freedom from responsibility 
which are the main points afforded by an apartment. 

It would seem that arguments in favor of the two-story scheme 
for apartments should be unnecessary where it can be applied eco- 
nomically to a particular location ; but arguments have been made 
at times and have failed to convince. However, certain owners have 
recognized the advantages, and the general scheme has been em- 
ployed. The especial plan presented in Figs. 18 and 19 has been 
used greatly to the advantage of itself and its neighbor in a scheme 
on a double narrow lot, as is indicated in Fig. 20. Here every im 
portant room in the building, including the janitor's quarters in the 
basement, gets sunlight, and all room.s, bathroom included, are on 
the free air of the street or of an ample open court. The combina- 
tion of types gives prospective tenants a choice, and so gives added 
value to the property. 

One structural matter now comes to the fore. It is an impor- 
tant matter which has not been overlooked, but which has been re- 
moved from its natural context so as the more to bring it in evidence, 
and it concerns the stairs and elevators. The stair shafts and the 
elevator wells of any apartment building, of no matter how few stories 
in height, should be of absolutely incombustible material ; this applies 
to the servants' stairs as well as to the main stairway. This much 
may be realized in otherwise combustible buildings with little added 



expense, and the architect should insist on at least this much. But, 
better yet, each and every municipality should take the matter in 
hand and insist that every apartment building of 
over two stories in height erected within its borders 
should be of fire-proof — not merely " fire-proofed " 
— construction. The cost should not stand in the 
way; for even in this day of cheap wooden posts 
and studs the fire-proof apartment building will not 
cost more than from 10 to 15 percent, in excess 
of the cost of the tinder-box construction. This 
should not be allowed to weigh against the value of 
life and neighboring property. 

A matter of convenience which should be taken 
well into account is that of bells and calls from 
the living rooms and the chamber quarter to the 
kitchen or servants' quarter, wherever they may be 
placed, and from some readily accessible point in 
each apartment to the janitor's quarters. The 
development of the apartment beyond the Ijounds 
of the tenement or the mere " flat " renders neces- 
sary all the refinements of convenience which are 
to be found in every well-appointed house. 

So far in this review of the development of the 
apartment building only more modest types have 
been presented, and of these only sufficient to illus- 
trate the principles which underlie the planning of 
apartments generally. Nor does it seem necessary 
to present more elaborate examples, for the princi- 
ples are the same, and once understood can be ap- 
plied to any scheme, however modest or however 
elaborate. The difference is in degree and not in 
kind. 

The apartment house problem is worthy of the 
mettle of the most talented architect, on the side 
both of reasonable and a;sthetic planning, and of 
artistic handling of interiors and exteriors. The 
problem is more complicated than that presented in 
the design either of an office building or of a mansion, and compre- 
hends the structural and economic questions involved in the one and 
the aesthetic possibilities inherent in 
the other. 

The designer of the apartment 
building holds it in his power to make 
multitudes see the beauty of simple 
direct solutions of economic problems 
of every-day living, based on a sympa- 
thetic comprehension of what a refined 
•home life may be, and also he holds the 
power to bring home to a great number 
of people by forcing a direct contact, 
an appreciation of the value of asthetic 
surroundings in helping them to realize 
the ideal of living. This can be done, 
if by an architect, only by one who has 
added a mastery of the principles of 
planning and design to a deep appre- 
ciation of what is the real essence of 
a refined, contained, and sincere home 
life. 




Thp: Illinois Hoard of Examiners of 
Architects, after an examination, at the 
University of Illinois, at Urbana, have 
issued certificates to the following com- 
petitors, out of a class of eleven : William C. 
Walter F. Shattuck, Chicago ; Bernhard L. Hulsebus, Peoria ; Albert 
C. Phelps, Joliet ; Theodore W. Pietsch, Chicago; and William H. 
Schroedcr, Chicago. This list is given in the order of merit marks. 



FIQVP.E20 
Swern, Chicago; 



142 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



COOPERATION BETWEEN ARCHITECT, ENGINEER, 
AND TERRA-COTTA MAKER. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 
THE CONSTRUCTION OF BALCONIES. 

TH E fundamental principles of composite construction as applied 
to balconies and other projecting members were reviewed at 
some length in connection with Hgs. 52 to 56. Further examples 
are now given, in one of which (Fig. 57) a balcony of the conven- 




Haup Plan op (opino. \ Half Plan thro'^alustelrs. 




FIG. 57. 



of the terra-cotta remain a secondary consideration. Rightly under- 
stood, the two materials are coordinate in the order of their impor- 
tance, and must be considered interdependent. 

A terra-cotta bracket, such as that now before us, would be 
made with one horizontal partition, dividing the interior into two 
longitudinal chambers. 15y merely filling these chambers with good 
concrete, its strength would be materially increased. But, if a piece 
of I or T section is inserted (as at Fig. 54) and the concrete, then 
rammed in so as to produce mechanical contact, the resulting 
bracket could be made stronger than the capacity of the wall from 
which it projected. We do not, of course, suggest that such addi- 
tional strength is at all necessary in the one under notice, and for 
that reason nothing of the kind has been indicated in the drawing, 
but in many cases this will be found a simple expedient, and one 
which can be conveniently and effectively applied. 

The tensile (or tortional) strength of a well-made terracotta 
bracket is miich greater than is generally supposed. This state- 
ment will appear more explicit if taken in connection with a few of 
the many tests on which it is based. A cornice modillion made by 
the Northwestern Terra-cotta Company was tested in the manner 
shown at V\g. 5S. Measured at the wall line it is 1 1 ^ ins. high, 
8 ins. wide on face, with a projection of 2 ft. It carried a weight of 
more than 2 tons ; but what the breaking strain would have been 
remains an unknown quantity, there being no more castings at hand 
wherewith to increase the load. 

A much smaller modillion made under other conditions, by dif- 
ferent men, from clay mined one thousand miles distant, was simi- 
larly tested at the works of the New York .Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Company. It is but S/4 ins. high, 6 ins. wide at wall line, and has 
a projection of 14 ins. Allowing the same thickness of shell, this 
would be about half the sectional area, but with more than half the 
projection of Fig. 58. It was loaded in the manner shown at A, 
Fig. 59, until it broke at wall line under a weight of 2650 lbs. 
Another bracket pressed from the same mold was afterwards in- 
serted where this one had been, and loaded to the extent of 2,400 
lbs., which weight it has sustained for more than a month. It is 
still intact at date of writing. 

The former of these modillions was slipped a cream white on a 
buff body, and is now used in the cornice of a building in Buffalo. 



tional type is carried on its own brackets, supplemented by a very 
small amount of iron (or steel), and it of the simplest kind. The 4 by 
4 in. cantilevers, for which provision is made in the joints, connect 
with a 5 in. I l>eam built into wall longitudinally. From this they 
have a purchase equal to the thickness of the wall, which, in the 
present instance, is 2 ft., the blocks themselves acting in conjunction 
with the wall as a fulcrum. These blocks, as in those of Fig. 55, are 
molded open on the top bed, and when adjusted to line on a tem- 
porary staging the chambers are filled with concrete. The whole 
platform is then floated off to required grade with about 1)4 ins. of 
granolithic troweled to a smooth surface. 

A platform constructed on these lines would be self-supporting 
under any weight likely to be placed upon it; even though the two 
brackets were taken away altogether it would stand in the case of a 
wall of that thickness. With them, however, 12,000 lbs. equally 
distributed would be considered a safe load for a balcony of the 
same general dimensions. The introduction of a steel triangle, such 
as is shown in Fig. 53, would be not merely superfluous, its pre.sence 
would be decidedly injurious, in brackets of this character. Yet, we 
doubt whether the average engineer could deny himself the gratifica- 
tion of constructing one ; two L's and a gusset plate having an almost 
irresistible charm for the modern man of iron. Facts, figures, and 
exact inferences are said to be his forte, but he has his weak points, 
nevertheless. One of these is his apparent inability to differentiate 
between a technical use of iron ^er se, and the modifications neces- 
sary when it is used as an auxiliary support in connection with a 
material of wholly different characteristics. With him, the exigencies 
of steel receive more than their due share of attention, while those 




FIG. 58. 

The latter was pressed from a clay which, when burned, is an ex- 
cellent match for Indiana limestone. It was an over, left from a 
number used on the Delmonico Building, Fifth Avenue and 44th 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



H3 



Street, New York. No concrete filling or extraneous support of any 
kind was resorted to ; the intention being to obtain the breaking 
strain of the bracket itself exactly as it came from the kiln. 

A slightly larger bracket made of different clay was built into 
wall and loaded with pig iron, as shown at B, Fig. 59. It carried a 




FIG. 59. 

weight of 3,200 lbs., but its ultimate capacity could not be reached 
without endangering the wall from which it projected. This 
bracket was an over from the main cornice of the Citizens' Bank, 
Norfolk, Va., made from a clay mixture that burns to a light shade 
of red. Consols used under balconies being, invariably, much 



obtained can, of course, be used as a basis on which extended cal- 
culations may be made. Other tests are contemplated and, if made, 
the findings will be communicated without reserve ; but these, we 
think, are sufficiently conclusive, so far as the safe support of bal- 
conies is concerned. Meanwhile, the foregoing results, together with 
legitimate inferences to be drawn from them, are placed at the dis- 
posal of architects and engineers, for whose information these tests 
have been made. 

It will be noticed that the balconies with which we have just 
been dealing are in connection with comparatively thick walls, a 
favorable condition of which full advantage has been taken. Archim- 
edes was quite safe in his offer to lift the world on a lever, if any- 
body would but find him a place whereon to rest it. In like manner, 
we stand prepared to construct a terracotta platform, the carrying 
capacity of which shall be limited only by the thickness and weight 
of the wall from which it is projected. This proposal is less extrava- 
gant, but more capable of practical fulfilment, for, as will be observed, 
there is no //"in it. Thick walls, however, are the exception in these 
days, and so we are forced to devise some way of dealing with walls 
in which steel columns and girders come within 4 or 8 ins. of the 
face. 

An example of this kind is shown at Fig. 60, which, taken in 
connection with the engineer's skeleton (Fig. 61), will serve as a 
typical illustration of the class to which it belongs. Here the main 
columns of a fifteen-story building would not allow the consols to 
bond into wall more than 4 ins., an unfortunate, but it would seem 
unavoidable circumstance. Had this not been so, they would have 
entered the wall at least 16 ins. When properly anchored in that 
position there would then have been no excuse for the otherwise 
inevitable steel triangle. Even as it is, we think that this triangle 
might have been dispensed with, arrangements being made whereby 
the consol would have been bolted directly to the face of column. 
The gusset plate, at all events, could have been omitted. The diag- 
onal strut would then have passed through a slot in the consol, con- 
nection being made with the longitudinal I beam before setting the 
egg and dart course between it and the top bed of consol. Con- 
sidering the enormous tensile strength of the slender modillions under 
an eccentric load, as demonstrated in Figs. 58 and 59, some idea may 




nON AT XX 



FIG. 60. 



deeper, with at least three times the sectional area of these examples, 
could not be tested to^their full [capacity in the absence of special 
appliances. These comparatively slender cornice modillions were 
therefore chosen for the greater convenience of loading. The data 



be formed as to the capacity of consols in which the conditions are 
reversed, and that on the side of increased strength. With little 
projection in proportion to its height the strain is changed from tor- 
tion to one of compression, 5 tons being a safe load for each consol. 



144 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



This, we contend, would have justified the omission of the steel 
triangle altogether, allowing the platform to rest on the seven terra- 
cotta consols, which were spaced on rather less than 9 ft. centers. 

As it is, these consols had to be slotted out from the back and 
when finally placed in position, the cavities on each side of gusset 
plate filled with cement. In this way they are, of course, rendered 
quite secure, but they would have been equally so, and in themselves 
much stronger, had the steel triangle been omitted, and the terra- 
cotta consol allowed to remain intact. Indeed, the undoubted 
strength of the steel triangle was very largely neutralized by the 
weakness imposed on the terra-cotta consol. In work of this kind 
the use of steel is permissible only in so far as it is absolutely neces- 
sary, and then in such way as will not make a sacrifice of the 
material it had been intended to supplement. Otherwise, we are 
merely adding strength with one hand and taking it away with the 
other. 

The steel framing for a balustrade of this kind should be fitted 
together temporarily and have some of the connections made with 
bolts instead of rivets. This would admit of its being taken apart 
at will, and reassembled simultaneously 
with the terra-cotta, in such order of 
precedence as may be found most con- 
venient at the time of setting. If the 
iron contractor allows his energies to get 
concentrated too closely on the comple- 
tion of his own work, he is liable to 
forget that clay loses its plasticity once 
it has been burned. He should re- 
member that though the most ductile of 
materials in its natural state, it becomes 
one of the most refractory when made 
into terra-cotta. Iron or steel, on the 
other hand, can be framed, forged, or 
welded to the required shape; and 
secured by either bolts or rivets, with 
almost equal facility. Other things 
beiiii^ equal, the readiest and most eco- 
nomical method must always commend 
itself. But when a contracting engineer 
takes a short-sighted view of his own 
immediate interests he is very likely to 
lose sight of that qualifying condition. 
In such cases the terra-cotta manufac- 
turer may have good cause to remind him of the frog's admonition 
to the boys, " What is play to you is death to us." It would, of 
course, be highly advantageous to all parties, if, in addition to its 
many good (lualities, the clay could be molded around an unnecessary 
or, perhaps, prematurely fastened network of iron and then fired in 
situ. Until that can be done we would advise the next best thing : 
consultation and cooperation between the representatives of the iron 
and the terra-cotta contractors, the architect's decision being ac- 
cepted on all sides as final. 

We have recommended the use of another material to which 
some of the preceding remarks do not apply ; I'iz , cement concrete. 
Full advantage has been taken of its setting and adhesive properties 
in the construction of this and similar platforms. Let the open 
chambers be tamped full, the rough edges of the partitions taking 
hold of the matrix, and we have a monolith of great strength and 
durability. This work, with its surface of granolithic, should be 
done, preferably, by men well accustomed to the handling of cement. 
The problems of the age in which we live are in the hands of 
specialists; even the more scientific use of cement has grown into a 
separate industry. Those engaged in it are more likely to have men 
of experience, the right kind of material, and — which is equally 
important — improved mixing machines at their disposal. A com- 
bination of these is, in itself, a sufficient guarantee against surface 
cracking; the result of either poor material or poor workmanship — 
two things that seem to have a curious affinity for each other. 



Fire-proofing. 




FIG. 61 



FIRE-PROOFING WITH BURNED CLAY. 

liV W. L. li. JEN.VEV. 

THE fundamental question is — What constitutes a good fire- 
proofing.' First, it must protect the steel from becoming 
injuriously heated. 

Second. It must be capable of resisting serious injury, both by 
the fire and by the fire department at the same time. There is a 




&CCTiort Tiino (f"^0£.K.A 



atCT'Orf T»/%0' BC^f^y. 



De.T*.iL. or Flook. ConaTKucTiori 

/iE.vv Yoi^n Lire. Blo^. 



Jennzr it nunoi^ ^mxht*. 



great difference in fire-proofing materials in this respect. There are 
some burnt clays that will readily stand the high temperature of the 
fire, and if allowed to cool slowly would sustain little or no injury, but 
will, if subjected to the dash and force of cold water while at a high 
temperature, suddenly contract and crack and be washed off. For 
example, in the Pittsburgh fire of May, 1897, the lower web of the 
floor arches scaled off, and many columns, and the lower flanges of 
beams, were partially stripped of their fire-proofing. The Board of 
Experts employed to examine the injuries to the building attributed 
the injury to the fire-proofing to other causes, such as movement of 
the building, with which I do not agree. 

The writer had occasion to examine the injury to the side of 
the Schiller Theater after the burning of the adjoining building on 
the east. .\ part of the side wall exposed to the heat of the fire and 
to the water thrown by the fire department was of pressed brick 



r-^s^- 




/y^W yo/</< Lire Olo<^. 



Jenner ^f^ftOi^ S^Qura 



— other parts of hollow fire-proof building tile. They were both 
affected alike. The outer i in. in thickness of the pressed brick and 
the outer web of the hollow tile scaled off and disappeared. Simi- 
lar conditions obtained at the fire in the .Athletic Club, Chicago. 

The lessons taught by these fires are: — 

First. The material must be such that it will successfully with- 
stand at same time heat and water. There is plenty of such mate- 
rial. For example, the linings of coke ovens. When all aglow water 
is poured into the furnace from a 5 in. pipe without material injury 
to the lining. What is known as porous terracotta usually stands 
well if the clay is good. It is manufactured by adding six parts of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



HS 



sawdust to four parts of suitable fire clay. The material can be 
easily tested by heating and plunging into water, which test should 



'''S- 3 ■ 




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ru/^ri, EiLEVAT/o/i Afio Section omoyy/^^ 
TYf/c<AL cox.i//*7/y cofinecTior/s 

fiE vY Yof^K Lire, tixotf 



JCfifi^r^ itz/fote. /r^cfiTi 



always be a part of the specifications, so there is no excuse for using 
an improper or defective material. 

Second. Much care should be given to the shapes that they shall 
thoroughly protect the steel and be themselves thoroughly and sub- 
stantially secured in place and protected from injury. The fire- 
proofing should not be liable to be washed off by the shock of the 
stream of water from the fire engines. To this end it is best to have 
smooth ceilings, that is, without panels, as the projection of the 
girders below the beams, paneling the ceiling, introduces an element 
of weakness in the lower flange protection of the girders that are not 
as firmly secured when they project as when they do not. 

Figs. I and 2 are sections of the floor of the addition to the 
New York Life Building, Chicago. Two channels were used as the 
girder in order to secure a very rigid connection with the columns 
(Fig. 3) as all the wind bracing is thus provided for, doing away with 
the necessity of any other interior bracing, so difficult to manage 
without serious inconveniences. The interior fire-proofing of the 
double channel girders is by special shapes. 

In Fig. I, 9 in. tile arches were proposed. The sleepers to 
which the floor was nailed rested directly on the beams and were 

secured by steel clamps. Tile fur- 
ring was proposed between the 
sleepers. Further study and dis- 
cussion of the subject suggested 
Fig. 2, where a 12 in. arch was 
used, and in order to firmly secure 
the floor sleepers a strip of wood 
xYz ins. thick was shaped and se- 
cured to the top flanges of the 
beams by steel clamps. To this 
strip the floor sleepers are spiked so 
as to be well secured and not lia- 
ble to move by the usage of the 
floor, as has often been the case 
when the sleepers were simply 
bedded in the concrete over the arches. 

On presenting the two diagrams for proposals it was found that 
Fig. 2 would cost something less than Fig. i, and as it was in all 
respects satisfactory, it was adopted. 



f.'s •♦ 




f/EyvYoKK. Lire. /iuii-Qing 



For the protection of the columns Fig. 4 was used, every tile 
being thoroughly clamped to those above and below and around the 
columns. For a warehouse something more is required. 
Fig. 5 was used at the Fair, a great department store. 

All the fire-proofing was set in a mortar composed 
of one part Portland cement and three parts best lime 
mortar, using only clean Lake Shore sand; all tile in drj- 
weather to be wet l)efore laying. 

The concrete on the arches and between the floor 
sleepers is composed of one of Portland cement, three 
of clean Lake Shore torpedo sand, and four of aggre- 
gate ; the aggregate to be composed of broken stone 
(other than lime stone), broken blast furnace slag, or 
waste brick or fire-proofing broken to go through 2 in. 
ring in all directions. This concrete to be pounded 
hard with a tamper weighing 40 lbs., with a cast-iron 
head 8 ins. by 8 ins. face. No cinders to be used. 

The Pittsburgh fire showed the worthlessness of 
cinders in fire-proofing; they are consumed in a fire and 
offer no protection. Limestone would be burned to 
quick lime, would slack and destroy the concrete. 

At a meeting of the Clay- Workers, Mr. Gates, pres- 
ident of one of our terra-cotta companies, offered a 
suggestion that can be made valuable for columns and 
for wall finish when terra-cotta can be used for the finish. 
" Make the terra-cotta the fire-proofing." 

Here is an opportunity for a valuable innovation 
for exterior work and for the interior of a railroad 
station, a grand hall, etc., etc. The entire surface, how- 
ever ornamental it may be, can be of terra-cotta that at the same 
time serves as fire-proofing. The material must be capable of satis- 
fying the conditions of good fire-proofing material. It should be 
uninjured by heating to redness 

and then plunged into cold r,;- s 

water. (Ireat care should be 
taken with the anchorage that 
none of the pieces under any 
conditions that are likely to 
obtain can possibly be knocked 
off or put out of place. 

Good fire-proofing must 
not only save the steel from in- 
jury, but should itself pass 
through the fire uninjured. 

One of the lessons learned 
from the recent fires is that 
while the steel was substan- , 

tially protected from injury the fire-proofing was itself destroyed, 
entailing a severe loss to the underwriters. This is not as it should 
be, nor is it a necessity, and should be avoided. 

Most plastering is worthless after it has gone through a fire. 
Plaster of Paris is of itself worthless under the conditions of heat 
and water. It becomes permanently soft and washes away. There, 
fore no partitions of plaster of Paris blocks should be used ; although 
they do not burn, they are destroyed in a fire and increase the loss. 
An excellent fire-proof plastering is coming into use ; it is known as 
asbestic, and is composed of lime mortar to which a large jiroportion 
of asbestos is added at time of using. It can be hardened and im- 
proved by the addition of Portland cement. Further experiments 
should be made with this material. 





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The British Fire Prevention Committee, embracing in its member- 
ship many of the leading architects of (ireat Britain, and which has 
for its main objects the use of its influence in every direction to- 
wards minimizing the possibilities and dangers of fire, and to bring 
together those scientifically interested in the subject of Fire Preven- 
tion, has issued, in pamphlet form, the paper, by Mr. Francis C. Moore, 
on " How to Build Fireproof," recently printed in these columns. 



146 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Masons' Department. 

Mortar and Concrete. 

QUALITY OF MORTAR. 

NEARLY all of our modern masonry constructions, and certainly 
all brickwork, is built on the assumption that the individual 
blocks, whether brick or stone, are to be imbedded in a matrix of 
mortar, uniting tlie whole into a homogeneous mass. As a matter of 
fact this assumption is rarely perfectly correct, for the reason that 
the mortar, though forming the key to the strength of the whole 
wall or pier, and, consequently, of extreme importance as a factor in 
building operations, very often fails to receive the proper care, and a 
scientific knowledge of the properties of the material is often sadly 
lacking on the part of our builders. It is encouraging to notice, 
however, how much advance has been made in a comparatively few 
years in the uniformity of the product which is used in our more im- 
portant buildings. The old-fashioned way of preparing mortar was 
to burn the lime in a more or less crudely constructed kiln, and to 
mix the materials as they were required on the job in small batches, 
the lime being partially slacked and then being immediately covered 
with a blanket of sand, theoretically to keep the heat in, but practi- 
cally checking the thorough slacking of the particles. Then the 
mortar, whether with lime or cement as a base, was worked over by 
hand on aboard close to the wall, and the brickwork was laid up with 
very little attention to anything except to get the material in place. 

The necessities of modern building operations, no less than the 
scientific study which a few of our best builders have devoted to the 
subject, have resulted in a modern compound specifically known as 
machine-mi.xed mortar, which is so far ahead of the average product 
which we were formerly obliged to depend upon that, though it has 
not achieved perfection, and the results are not as good as were 
brought about by the Roman methods of centuries ago, it is a vast 
improvement over the average hand-mixed mortar. Unfortunately, 
this machine-mixed mortar cannot be ol)tained in all cities. It has 
been used a great deal in New York, and to a certain extent, we 
believe, in the other large cities, but as far as we know, it has not 
been found practicable to ship it to any great distance without 
increasing the cost over hand-mixed mortar ; though if considera- 
tions of the quality of the work were to be put above a matter of a few 
cents per cubic yard in cost, it would be far better for the builders in 
our small towns to have the machine-mixed mortar shipped to them. 
The cost is claimed to be some twenty-five cents per thousand bricks 
less than the average cost of hand-mixed mortar, while it is claimed 
that an additional saving of twenty-two cents a thousand can be 
effected in the labor of laying the brick. 

It is extremely satisfactory to feel that a good material, which is 
a decided improvement upon old methods, results not only in a better 
construction, but in a distinct saving of money. We should be 
inclined to look upon it another way and urge that even if the cost 
were thirty or forty cents more per thousand bricks, it would be well 
worth the difference to use machine-mixed mortar. This, of course, 
is on the assumption that the quality of the mortar is uniform and is 
kept up to high standard. It is much easier to do this mechanically 
than by trusting to manual labor. Any one who has watched the 
ordinary laborer mix mortar will undoubtedly appreciate how very 
variable the quality is. A bricklayer will try to judge of the mortar 
by the way it feels under the trowel. We know of one instance 
where an attempt was made to ascertain how much value could be 
placed upon such means of judgment. Three mixtures were made, 
one with two parts of sand to one part of Rosendale cement, the 
second with three parts of sand to one of cement, and half a portion 
of ordinary loam ; the third mixture was one part cement, one part 
of loam, and four parts of sand. The color of the mortar in each 
case was so nearly the same as to be difficult to distinguish. Three 



bricklayers, to whom these batches of mortar were submitted, united 
in declaring that the one with equal parts of cement and loam was 
the best, their judgment being based simply upon the smoothness 
with which the mortar could be laid in the wall. There is no ques- 
tion but that if the utmost care were taken to thoroughly slack the 
binding material and to properly proportion the sand, giving plenty 
of time to the whole operation, hand-mixed mortar would be per- 
fectly satisfactory in every respect ; but such conditions rarely ob- 
tain in a large building, and by mixing machine-mixed mortar by the 
ton it is perfectly easy to maintain exact proportions, to have the 
binder equally strong in each case, and to have the intimate mixture 
of the components perfectly uniform. 

There is another factor entering into the use of mortar, or per- 
haps, more properly, into the construction of masonry, which is liable 
to be overlooked. There is a saying among what we sometimes call 
the old-fashioned builders, to the effect that a wet building makes a 
dry house, or, in other words, that in a masonry construction, if plenty 
of water is used throughout, the bricks kept well wet, the joints 
thoroughly grouted, the result in the set of the mortar will be vastly 
superior to what one would expect from opposite conditions. This 
is, of course, especially true of work laid up with cement mortar, but 
it applies with very considerable force, also, to lime-mortar work. It 
is a common belief that in cold weather bricks should be heated 
before being set. We are not sure that this is the correct assump- 
tion. We have noticed a number of times that where bricks have 
been used hot the mortar, after a few months, is dry and crumbly 
under the hand, and has the appearance of having been frozen. It 
seems to stand to reason that hydraulic cement which requires a very 
considerable excess of water to set properly would have the life all 
drawn out of it by being set in bricks, which not only are free from 
water, but are heated so that they would absorb all the free water 
from the cement. It, of course, is not always practicable, on account 
of the cold, to wet bricks in winter time, but from personal experi- 
ence we should be inclined to say that a wall would stand better if 
the bricks were laid up cold in winter than if the bricks were first 
heated. And certainly for any work in ordinary weather the liability 
is that it will be kept too dry rather than too wet. 

We had occasion to notice a while ago an instance of the efficacy 
of the liberal use of water in this connection. In a certain promi- 
nent building in this city the door trim and the dado work were all 
constructed of Portland cement applied directly to fire-proof parti- 
tion blocks. After the work had been run there came a spell of 
quite dry, hot weather, and the building was left open, with the result 
that when the cement work had the appearance of being dried out 
it was so soft and porous that it could be brushed away with a 
broom, and there was hardly any surface to it. The builder was 
shrewd enough to try some experiments before going to the expense 
of removing the whole. He stationed a number of laborers around 
the building with pails of water and big sponge.s, and instructions to 
wet the cement work down thoroughly and keep it wet. This treat- 
ment was continued for, if we remember rightly, some ten or twelve 
days, when the cement began to harden, and in a few days more it 
had set up in a perfectly satisfactory manner, and ultimately proved 
to be an exceptionally strong piece of work. We have no doubt 
that much of the poor mortar that is encountered in taking down old 
buildings owes its friability and seemingly poor texture to the fact 
that not enough water was used in the construction. 



MATERIAL MAN. 



THE Supreme Court of California holds that one who agrees to 
furnish certain mantels, tiles, and grates, and the appurte- 
nances of same, for a building, and to deliver and set them in position, 
is a material man, and not an original contractor, within the meaning 
of the mechanics' lien law of that State. 

The same court also holds, a person contracting to furnish doors, 
sashes, blinds, etc., which, instead of manufacturing to order, he 
purchased ready made, is a material man only. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



147 



Hydraulic Cements. 

BY CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 

[Continued.) 

Necessity of Keeping Cement H 'ork Moist or Not. The neces- 
sity of keeping all work done with both kinds of hydrauHc cement 
moist and supplied with water for a long time after setting, in order 
to aid in the hardening process and to prevent drying out and air 
cracking, is apparent. 

It is found that the final strength which different cements attain 
in the process of hardening does not correspond at all to the celerity 
with which they first set. A quick-setting cement, which may show 
a great strength in a few hours, will not ordinarily compare, after the 
lapse of a month or more, favorably with one that is slow setting, 
while Portland cements harden much more rapidly than natural 
cements, although setting much slower. In this respect there is, 
however, a considerable variation in different brands, and those are 
usually considered most desirable which continue to harden after 
long intervals of time. For example, the American Portlands seem 
to gain most of their strength in a few weeks, while the German 
brands will, many of them, be inferior in strength to them at seven 
and twenty-eight days, but will continue to increase for nearly a year 
afterwards, and finally attain an equal strength. It is also worthy 
of note that there is a variation in the way in which cements, espe- 
cially the natural ones, set throughout the mass, some hardening first 
on the exterior and others on the interior. 

Effect of Variations in Composition in Portland Cement. Even 
within the narrow limits of composition for good Portland cements, 
already given, there is sufficient opportunity for variations to produce 
decided differences in character, some of which have been noticed. 
The set is much influenced by the amount of lime, especially when 
the cement is underburned, or by a large amount of alumina. As 
has been said, the more lime a cement contains the more difficult it 
is to bring about proper and complete combination in burning, and 
the higher the temperature and the longer the heat that is required. 
When perfectly made the high-limed cements are much slower in set, 
stronger and better for ordinary use, although they will not stand 
such immediate immersion in water as a low-limed cement will, and 
are, therefore, less suited for use where water is present. They are, 
however, most in demand for ordinary construction, and are especially 
satisfactory for sidewalks and work where a sufficient time must 
elapse before setting to allow of the placing of the material properly. 
Cements high in lime, which are not thoroughly burned or seasoned, 
are generally very quick setting, hot, and unstable, as are those which 
contain too much alumina or are over-clayed, as it is called. They 
have a tendency to expand and to blow or check, which is one of the 
faults of inferior Portland cement to be most carefully guarded 
against. The presence of magnesia is also supposed to bring 
about expansion after the lapse of a considerable period of time, 
while sulphates, as well as magnesia, are considered to be the 
causes of the disintegration of Portland cement in the presence of 
sea water. 

Cements low in lime are sometimes found which, without an 
excess of alumina, but with more silica, are merely deficient in 
strength like underburned cement. A cement with 64 per cent, of 
lime is a highly limed one, with 65 excessively so, with less than 60 
very low limed, and with 62 to 64 a normal cement. Alumina above 
8 per cent, is high, below 5 very low. Magnesia above 3 per cent, is 
excessive, and above 2 high, while sulphuric acid above 1 '/i may 
demand consideration. 

The amount of the two latter constituents ordinarily found in 
Portland cement can be seen in the following determinations in 
cements actually in the American markets during the past few 
years : — 

Magnesia and sulphuric acid in Portland cements: — 



Mgo. 

.86 

2.79 

I.81 

1-45 
1.69 
2.48 
2.84 
1.16 
2.73 
f.8s 
1.32 



SO, 

I.2S 

•71 
1.24 

1. 1 1 

1.50 
1.36 

'•53 
2.71 
1.51 

■39 

1.82 



Magnesia is usually below 2 per cent., and sulphuric aci 
higlier than \%. 

(Continued.) 



not 



STABLE SUBSOIL FOR FOUNDATIONS. 

INVESTIGATIONS preliminary to the foundations of a large 
building are seldom made with sufficient thoroughness. Our 
readers doubtless will recall the famous epitaph on the tombstone of 
an architect who was buried in Westminster, which reads: — 

" Lie heavy on him, Eartli, 
He laid great loads on thee." 

The amount of the loads arising from a great building, and their 
effect upon not only the immediate soil, but upoa the subsoil, is 
often more considerable than we are aware of. Furthermore, even 
with the best of soil the conditions are sometimes such as require 
especial provisions to guard against trouble. Some years ago an 
apartment house of considerable size was in process of erection in 
Brooklyn, upon a street in a newly developed portion of the city 
which had been laid out over a line of low mounds or hillocks, the 
streets having been cut down very nearly to a level, so that the 
finished grade was only a short distance above the bed rock, and 
the foundations of the building were even closer to the substratum. 
The earth in this case was of a clayey nature, and after an unusually 
heavy rain which was allowed to soak in around the foundations and 
get down through to the rock, the whole structure, building, founda- 
tions, clay bottom and all, proceeded to slide down hill and finally 
ended by landing in a heap in the middle of the street. 

There is a great deal more movement of this sort than people are 
aware of. It has been stated on excellent authority that the whole 
southerly slope of Beacon Hill, Boston, with the buildings upon it, has 
been gradually sliding down into the water at a rate which is only a 
few inches a century, but yet quite sufficient to be appreciable ; and 
as the section which it is alleged is in process of transit is occupied 
at points by some of the heaviest structures in the city, it may 
sometime become a question as to how far this species of loading 
can be safely carried when imposed, as in this instance, upon a slop- 
ing substratum of rock. In the more recent New York tall build- 
ings it has been the custom to assume that the soil was worthless to 
resist the loads, and the foundations have accordingly been carried 
clear down to the bed rock. In Chicago, on the other hand, most 
of the large buildings are floated upon a relatively thin and by no 
means very firm layer of alluvial deposit. The Chicago buildings 
settle a good deal, the average Boston building settles slightly, and 
usually unequally, while the more recent New York buildings do not 
settle at all. The latter is obviously the best result, though also the 
most expensive. 

SURETY LIABLE ON BUILDING CONTRACT. 

A PROMISE by the surety of a building contractor, to whom 
the contractor had assigned the money to become due under 
the contract, to pay the claim of a subcontractor, if the latter would 
continue the work, is without consideration, unless the work specified 
was something which the subcontractor was not required to do by 
his contract, and is not binding on the surety unless it is in writing. — 
Sup. Court, N. V. 



148 THEBRICKBUILDER 

Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

Nl-^W YORK. — The past month lias been undeniably dull in 
this city, not only in regard to new building projects, but in 
every branch of the real-estate business. There is very little new 
work in sight, but no uneasiness seems to be felt by architects and 
builders, as both confidently hope for a brisk revival of business 
when peace is restored, and when other lines of business are as 
active as usual. We had hoped to .see the demolition of the old 
reservoir at Fifth Avenue and 42d Street commenced this summer 
and work on Carrere & Hastings beautiful library building started, 
but there are no signs of it as yet, and probably nothing will be done 
during the Tammany administration. The Academy of Design, 
however, will be started at once, as it is not dependent upon the city 
for funds. 

Among the new building projects might be mentioned: Dehli 
& Howard have prepared plans for a new building for .St. Jerome 
Roman Catholic Church, to be built on 137th Street and Alexander 
Avenue; cost, #100,000. 

McKim, Mead & White have planned a five-story brick and 
stone dwelling for W. i;. I). Stokes, Esq., to be built on 54th Street; 
cost, Si 00,000. 

W. Wheeler Smith has planned a two-story brick and stone 
structure to be erected on the Roosevelt Hospital grounds; cost, 
$30,000. 

Rossiter & Wright are preparing plans for a four-story brick 
studio building to be erected on 34tli Street; cost, ? 15,000. 

N. Le Hrun & Sons have prepared plans for a si.\-story brick 
structure to be erected on East 76th Street, for the Academy of the 
Marist Brothers; cost, $50,000. 

E. H. Kendall has completed plans for the eight-story addition 
to the Methodist Book Concern, Fifth Avenue and 20th Street. 

Hill & Turner are preparing plans for a ten-story brick and 
stone apartment house to be erected at Madison Avenue and 53d 
Street. 

Cleverdon & I'ut/.el have planned a tive-story brick mercantile 
building to be erected at Third Avenue and 20th .Street ; cost, 
$60,000. 

Carrere & Hastings are completing plans for a three-story brick 
and stone residence to be built at Morristown, N. J., for Abraham 
Wolff. 

Ernest Flagg is preparing plans for an addition to the .Singer 
Building, to be of brick and stone; cost, $400,000. 

H. T. ffowell has planned a seven-story brick flat and store 
building to be built on the Boulevard near 91st Street ; cost, $80,000. 

W. C. Dickerson has prepared plans for three four-story brick 
flats to be built on Wales Avenue; cost, $60,000. 

James E. Ware & Son have planned a brick and stone flat 
building; cost, $25,000. 

McKim, Mead & White have planned a six-story brick store 
and loft building to be erected at 300 Broadway ; cost, $1 10,000. 



The most remarkable strike that Chicago has seen is that of the 
stereotypers. It is notable because its result has been to prevent 
the appearance, for several days, of all the daily papers except the 
German publications. The pul)li.shers even clo.sed their bulletin 



CH1CA(;0. — Between war' and the strikers Chicago architects 
are feeling blue. The cut stone difficulty, described a month 
ago, was apparently settled by an acceptance of the old wage, — $4 
per day of eight hours, and a minimum of four men instead of eight 
for every planer. But other troubles have arisen, and contractors 
])redict that one will be unable to get even a plain sawed sill for a 
small residence. Another serious strike has been that of the wood- 
workers in sash and door factories. These have been among the 
last of craftsmen to succeed in organizing unions. 'Iheir present 
trouble seems to be settled. 




PARK ROW SYNDICATE BUILDING, NEW YORK. 

Phtilograplied by Hall expressly for Central Kire-Proofing Company. Showing fiie- 

prooting of domes and floors. This is ilie tallest office building in the world. 

K. H. Robertson, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



149 




TOWN HALL, EAST ORANGE, N. J. 

Details shown on Plates 49, 50, 51, 52. 

Boring and Tilton, Architects. 

boards, and Chicago people were wild for newspapers about the time 
Cervera's fleet was destroyed. 

Another fire-proof mercantile or manufacturing building is an- 
nounced. The building, designed by D. Adler, will cost #60,000, 
and be occupied by a wholesale tailor. 

Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge have let contracts for a hotel at 
South Bend, Ind., the cost of which is given at $223,000. The 
building is steel frame and tile-arch construction. The exterior is 
Renaissance in design. The first story is stone, but the other five 
are brick with terra-cotta window trimmings, cornice, etc. The 
Chicago Hydraulic-Press Brick Company and the American Terra- 
Cotta and Ceramic Company are to provide the brick and terra- 
cotta. 

An interesting alteration job is that of the Studebaker Carriage 
Depository on Michigan Avenue. I5y Septeml)er this ten-story 
building will have been transformed (under the hands, very properly, 
of its original architect, S. .S. Beman) into "The Fine Arts Build- 
ing." There will be two music halls — one to seat 1,600, the other 
700, and an assembly hall to accommodate 500. The building is 
intended to be a center for art, educational, and literary interests, 




and is renting space to prominent sculptors and painters, to 
publishers like Harper & Bros., and 1). Appleton & Co., and 
various periodicals, and to musical and art clubs. 

Five hundred Chicago architects have paid each his $2^ 
for a license, and now as each answers the call for his first 
annual #5 fee he sympathizes with the builder contractors who 
have to pay a like annual license fee. The plumbers, however, 
have to pay $30 per year, and at a recent date 800 out of 
1,000 master plumbers were delinquent. 



I 



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H 



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•y^Ltri 



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"THE I AIK " HUILDING, CHICAGO. 

Kxterior of terra-cotta bricks furnished by the Cohimbus Mrick and Terra-Ccjtta Company. 

Jenncy & Mundie, Architects. 



)ITT.SBUK(;il. — The general idea that almost nothing is 
being done at present in the building line does not seem 

to be confirmed by the report of the building inspector. While 

there are very few office or store buildings either in process of 

erection or being contemplated, the inspector reports that the 

number of permits for new build- 
ings in June have increased 27 per '^'~-; 

cent, over those of 1897, while the 

valuation has increased over 43 

per cent. As compared with last 

month, they have fallen off one in 

number but increased in valuation 

10 per cent. This would indicate 

that a better class of dwellings are 

being built, and it is gratifying to 

note a large decrease in the 

number of frame buildings even 

in unrestricted wards, the majority 
being brick houses of from about ten to 
fifteen thousand dollars value. 

Among the most important building 
news items at present are : The new 
six-story store and office building at 
the corner of 6th .Street and Liberty 
Avenue. It is to be built of light sand- 
stone and Roman brick, and cost J130,- 
000 ; James T. Steen, architect. The 
new Kaufmann store on Smithfield 
Street, of stone and gray Roman brick ; 
cost, #[75,000; Charles ISickel, archi- 
tect. 

The new building for C. L. Magee, 
on Fifth Avenue, near Wood Street, is 
being built from plans by F. J. Oster- 
ling. The front is almost entirely of 
light-gray terra-cotta. 

Alden & Harlow have recently let 
the contract for the Wylie Avenue 
branch of the Carnegie Library. It is 
to be built of brick and red sandstone, 
and cost, complete, about #40,000. 

Among residences recently com- 
pleted is that of Mr. A. M. Byers, in 
Allegheny. Although a double house, 
it is built to resemble a single house: 
cost, about #175,000. 

The J. G. Jennings house on Fifth 
Avenue, l^ast End, has also recently 
been finished; built of buff Roman 
brick and light terra-cotta ; cost, #40,000. 
y\l(len & Ilarlow are the architects of 
both. 

Boggs c\: l')uhl arc making a large 
addition to their department store in 
Allegheny. S. F. Heckert is the archi- 
tect. Though constructed with a steel 
frame, wooden joist twelve inches apart £"«""•■'' ''y "'« Northwestern 

. Tcrra-Cotta Company. 

are bemg used to support the floors, 



V 



\^* 



/• 



;t 



5r 



i\ 



••\ 



'(I 



TEKRA-COTTA COLUMN, 
CHAMliER OE COMMERCE, 
CLEVKLANO, OHIO. 



Peabody & .Stearns, Architects. 



I^O 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



rirnit ui ri# 111 «!• irt 



iMIIItlllHili 



TKRRA-tOTTA CAPITAL, OFFICF. BUILDIN(i, HOLYOKi:, MAsh. 
Executed by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 
I'liiugh & Reid, Architects. 

and have caused the writer to wonder whether the difference in in- 
surance between this construction and that of a fire-proof floor would 
not in a few years have paid the difference in cost between the two 
constructions. 

Geo. .S. Orth & Bros, are at work on a brick residence for Col. 
A. J. Logan, on Fifth Avenue, East End. They have also prepared 
plans for a brick residence for W. L. Jones, on Forbes Street ; cost, 
$25,000; a stone residence for W. A. Shaw, to cost #30,000 ; four 
houses for E. 15. Alsop, to be built on Ellsworth Avenue, East End, 





THE CONVERSE BUILDING, BOSTON. 

Tcrra-Cotta furnished by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. Face brick by >be Sayre & 

Fisher Company. 

Winslow & Wetherell, Architects. 

and cost about $75,000 ; al.so for five houses for the Aiken estate, 
each to cost about $6,500. They have also recently let the contract 
for a stone residence for Miss Alice Hogg, to be built in Homewood ; 
cost, $25,000. 

J. C. Westervelt, of New York, has made plans for a brick 
colonial house for \V. S. Kuhn, to be built on Forbes Street; cost, 
about $40,000. 

F. J. Osterling is at work on the new insane asylum for Alle- 
gheny County, to be built at Woodville; cost, $200,000. He is also 
preparing plans for the new building for the Chautauqua Lake Ice 
Company. It is to be a brick, fire-prrof building, 100 by 225 ft. 

A competition has recently been held for a new twelve-room 
school building in the 22d Ward, but is, as yet, not decided. 



CURRENT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

Waluo Brothkrs have been awarded the contract to furni.sh 
Atlas Portland cement tn t'lc town of Concord. Mass. 




WATER tower, CHAPINVILLE, CONN. 
Stone, Carpenter|<S: Willson, .Architects. 



TERRA-COTTA UEIAIL. 
Executed by Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



151 








'" r iii a* ^: i**! sw' =i:' ■ ■ ' -f' • 



TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, MT. VERNON HIGH SCHOOL, MT. VERNON, 

N. Y. 

Executed 1 y tt-e Conklin;;, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 
I'oring K Tilton, Arclrtects. 



NoRCROSS Brothers are using 
Meiers Puzzolan cement in backing 
of light stonework at the Radcliffe 
Gymnasium, Cambridge, Mass. 

The Cummings Cement Com- 
pany, of Akron, N. Y., is furnishing 
their Storm King I'ortland for the 
fire-proof building now being erected 
by John Druecker, of Chicago. 

Waldo Brothers are furnish- 
ing Alsen Portland cement to the 
Roebling Company for use on floors 
for Somerset Hotel, Boston, Mass. 

The American Cement Com- 
pany, who have four works at Egypt, 
Pa., and one at Jordan, N. Y., have 
recently made shipments of cement 
to Siberia, and also to Mexico. 

Savre & FiSHEK Company are 
supplying through their Boston agent, 
Charles FJacon, ivory cream enameled 
bricks for the new swimming tank in 
Craigie Hall, Harvard College; Miss 
Josephine Wright Chapman, archi- 
tect. 

The E.xcelsior Terra-Cotta 
Company, through their Boston 
agent, Charles Bacon, is supplying 
the architectural terracotta for the 




THE NEW CATLIN KLOCK, HARTFORD, CONN. 

Hollow brick used in this building supplied by the C. P. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, 

Conn. Terra-cotta by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, through their Connecticut 

representative, W. I*. Kelt, New Britain, Conn. 

W. C. Brocklesby, Architect. Hopkins & Roberts, Builders. 

new Home for Aged People, Cambridge, Mass.; Stickney & Austin 
and W. I"]. Chamberlain, associate architects. 

H. F. Mavland & Co., New York agents of the Burlington 
Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 
have closed the following new con- 
tracts : (Graphic Building, Fourth 
Avenue, New York City, Wm. J. 
Dilthey, architect ; apartment house, 
34th Street, New York City, George 
H. Van Auken, architect. 

The work of reijuilding the plant 
of the Illinois Supply & Construction 
Company, at .St. Louis, recently de- 
stroyed by fire, is progressing in a 
very rapid and satisfactory manner. 
No inconvenience has been caused in 
the matter of filling contracts that 
they had on hand at the time of the 
fire, as plenty of bricks were left 
them uninjured. 

Tiiic Brick, Tkrra-Cotta and 
Sui'ply Company, M. E. (Gregory, 
proprietor. Corning, N. Y., has l)een 
awarded the contract for furnishing 
the paving brick recjuired for paving 
Main Street, Geneva, N. Y. They 
also have the contract for furnishing 
the architectural terra-cotta required 
for Telephone Building, Wheeling, 
VV. Va., Rutan & Russell, architects. 



cloister (SHOWlNti GUASTAVINO CONSTRUCTION), ST. 

CHRISTOPHER MISSION HOUSE, NEW YORK CITY. 

Barney & Chapman, Architects. 



The BuKLiNtiTON Architec- 
tural Terra-Cotta Company, 
Burlington, N. J., have received the 
following new contracts : residence, 
33d and Diamond Streets, Philadel- 



152 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



phia, H. E. Flower, architect ; Holy Cross Church, Ninth and Lehiyh 
Avenues, I'hiladelphia. Isaac Pursell, architect; new building, Zoo- 
logical Garden, I'hiladelphia, Hewett Brothers, architects. 

'I'HK Celauon Tekra-Cotta Company, Ltd., will furnish their 
roofing tiles on the following new buildings : residence for H. T. 
Chandler, Cleveland, Ohio, A. N. Oviatt, architect : Science Hall, 
Syracuse University, Prof. Edward H. Gaggin, architect ; residence 
for E. W. Swisher, Columbus, Ohio, C. A. Stribling & Co , archi- 
tects; office building for International Hridge Company, Niagara. 
N. Y., R. H. Wallace, architect; residence 15. W. Kauffman, Yost & 
Packard, architects; station for C. R. I. & P. R. Railway, Iowa City, 
Iowa, W. K. McFarlin, architect; station for same company at 
Atlantic, Iowa, W. K. McFarlin, architect; residence for W. H. En- 
singer, St. Paul, Clarence H. Johnson, architect ; Somerset Apart- 
ments, Boston, .Arthur H. Bowditch, architect. 

Amonc; the recent contracts e.xecuted by the Berlin Iron 
Bridge Company is a new boiler house for the People's Light and 
Power Company, Jersey City, N. J. It is of fire-proof construction 
throughout with steel framework, brick side walls and iron roof 
covering ; a new scrubber house at the 25th ward gas works ; a new 
boiler and engine house at the Point Breeze Works; also a con- 
denser and purifier building at the same location, all for the United 
Gas and Improvement Company, of Philadelphia, Pa. These build- 
ings are of steel-frame construction, brick side walls and slate roof 
supported on metal purlins carried by clear span trusses ; new 
buildings for the electric railroad plant of the Syracuse Construc- 
tion Company, at Syracuse, N. Y. These buildings are all of steel 
framework covered with corrugated iron. 

The following new buildings have been furnished with the 
Shawnee brick manufactured by the Ohio Mining and Manufactur- 
ing Companv, through their Pittsburgh agents, Burgy & McNeill: 



residence for W. A. Roberts, Pittsburgh, U. B. Morris, architect; 
Borrows Apartments, Pittsburgh, T. H. Scott, architect ; residence 
for T. W. Bithell, Pittsburgh, A. K. Miller, architect; McGee Build- 
ing, Pittsburgh, F. J. Osterling, architect; store building for (leo. W. 
Driver, Washington, Pa.. John Vester, architect ; residence for T. .S. 
Morgan, Bellevue, Pa., E. M. Butz & Co., architects: residence for 
H. Kobbins, Pittsburgh, Sidney Heckert, architect: two residences 
for J. H. Elder, Pittsburgh, Victor E. Kelley, architect; public 
school, Wilkinsburg, Pa., E. M. Butz & Co., architects ; public 
school, Charleroi, Pa., E. M. Butz & Co., architects ; Katterburg 
r.uilding, Pittsburgh, E. B. Milligan, architect ; Murtland Building, 
l'ilt.sl)urgh, .\lden & Harlow, architects. 

FOR SALE. 
Fine Clay Property and Factory Sites. 

'I'wenty-five hundred acres, within six miles of Baltimore, 
Md. A large part is underlaid with clays of fine quality and 
great variety, suitable for making red, bufT, and other kinds of 
Bricks, Tiles, and Terra-Cotta. A railroad, running through the 
property, connects it with Baltimore and Washington. Water 
connection with iialtimore and Chesapeake Bay by channel 
fifteen feet deep. Good water power on proi)erty. Fine sites 
for Factories. Parts of property are suited for suburban devel- 
opment and parts for truck farming. For sale, as a whole or in 
lots to suit, on reasonable terms. 

Also a small FACTORY, equipped for making roofing tiles 
and bricks. 

Apply to Curtis Creek M. F. &: M. Co., 12 St. Paul Street, 
Baltimore, Md. 






Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 
upwards. 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co», 

15 LIBERTY SQ., BOSTON, MASS. 





i 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXIX 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

ACETYLENE GAS GENERATORS. 

Napheys Acetylene Gas Generators ......... 

J. B. Colt iSi Co., s, 5, & 7 W. 2yth St., New York. 

ADVANCE BUILDING NEWS REPORTS. 

The F. W. Dodge Co 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenbauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Pbiladelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourtb Ave. 

Cbicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. ..... 

Harvard University, Lawrence Scientific School ...... 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and -Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. . 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Cbarles I-iacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 South 7tb St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., .San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ...... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., Jobn Hancock Building. 

Pbiladelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Excbange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 1 1 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. .... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 

Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Coluinbus, Ohio .... 

Dagus Clay Man'f'g Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. ; Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... 

Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourtb Ave. 

Pbiladelplna Office, 24 So. 7tb St. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal 

Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg, Pa. . 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. .......... 

Home Office, Union Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Co., Duquesne Way and loth St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Merwin, C. P. Brick Co., Berlin, Conn 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 44 Pine St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ............. 

Penn Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. . 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Pbiladelphia Agent, O. \V. Ketcbam, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa 

New England Agents, G. R. Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D. Person, 160 Fifth Ave. 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Cbarles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourtb Ave. Pbiladelpbia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. I^ouis, Mo. 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Cbarles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

BRIDGE AND BUILDING, IRON WORKERS. 

Berlin Iron Bridge Co., Berlin, Conn. ........ 

CEMENTS. 

Alpha Cement Company, General Agents, Wm. J. Donaldson & Co., Bourse 
Building, Philadelphia ........... 

New England Agents, James A. Davis & Co., 92 State St., Roston. 
Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City .... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St., Boston 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
French, Samuel H., & Co., York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. l Broadway, New York City . 



XXVI 

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vui 
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ii 

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152 
xl 

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XVI 

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XXX 
XXX 

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XXX 

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xxxi 



ADDRESS. 

CEMENTS.— C<;«/»««,r</. 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. 15th St., Philadelphia ..... 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ..... 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, Van Name & Co., Hartford, Conn. 

James C. Gofif, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

The J. S. Noble Co., 20S Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y. . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ 

CEMENT MACHINERY. 

Sturtevant Mill Co., Boston .......... 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental) 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing:, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., ^3 Erie Co. .Savings Bk. Bldg., lUiffalo, N. Y 

Illinois .Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St., 

N. W., Washington, D. C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave., New York City ...... 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston ..... 

Twichell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire .St., Boston ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ 

Willard, C. E., 192 Devonshire St., Boston ....... 

CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

(iahriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., N. Y 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York 

CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio ..... 

Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. ....... 

Chisholm. Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 41 5 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, III. 

The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio ...... 

ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite .St., Boston 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERIAL MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents. 
Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., Bourse Building, Philadelphia 

New \'ork Agent, F. L. Douglass, St. James Building, 2(itb St. and Broadway. 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

(Cladding, McBean & Co., .San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, i 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., I 51 5 Marquette Building, Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Townsend Building, Broadway and 25tb .Street. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 41 Cortlandt St., New York ..... 

GRANITE. 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y. ...... , 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Ilamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. ...... 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston ........ 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y. . 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

MURESCO. 

Moore, Benjamin & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. ....... 

PRESERVATIVE COATINGS. 

Smith, Kdw., & Co., 45 Broadway, N. Y 

PLUMBING GOODS. 

Randolph & Clowes, Waterbury, Conn. ........ 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers Agents.) 
Harris, Charles T., lessee of The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited. 
Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 
Cbicago Office, Marquette Building. 
New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... 

SNOW GUARDS. 

Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

Ilamblin & Russell Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. ...... 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 
WALL TIES. 

Cleveland Pat. .Steel Wall Ties. Wason, Hamilton, and Dart .Sts., Cleve- 
land, Ohio ............. 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass. ...... 

Morse Patent Wall Ties, J. B. Prescott iV .Son, Mfrs., Webster, Mass. 

WINDOW SASH AND PULLEYS. 

Queen Sash Balance Co., 150 Nassau St., New York 

The Shull Overhead Window Pulley, 178 Devonshire .St., Boston. 

100 Park Place, New York. 
The Bolles Sash Co., 150 Nassau St., New York ...... 



XXXI 

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XXX 
XXX 

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XI 

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xxii 

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XX 

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XXXIV 

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XX5CVI 

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XXX THEBRICKBUILDER, 



DYCKERHOFF ^ 

Portland Cement 



HAM & CARTER, 

560 Albany Street, BOSTON. 



E. THIELE, 

78 William St., NEW YORK. 

SOLE AGENTS. 



" With a true sense of economy we woald huy nothing in Europe 
bat of necessity. The gold reserves of our government and individ- 
uals yrould then increase without even the intervention of tariffs." 

Alpha Portland Cement 

is the most economical. It is the finest ground cement on the market. For that 
reason it will take more sand and broken stone than any other cement in existence. 
To-day our best contractors and engineers consider it superior to any imported 
cement on the market. We guarantee every barrel of the " Alpha " to be uniform 
in quality, and to pass any requirement yet demanded of a Portland Cement. 




WM. J. DONALDSON, 

General Agent, 
Betz Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 



TAMES A. DAVIS & CO., 

Sole N. E. Agents, 
92 State Street, Boston. 



Union Akron Cement Company, 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 
OF THE 



Akron Cement, 



The Strongest Natural Hydraulic Cement Manufactured 

in America. In Successful Use for the 

past Fifty Years- 

CAPACITY OF WORKS 2,000 BARRELS DAILY. 

OFFICE, 141 FRIE ST., - BUFFALO, N. Y. 



The strongest, finest ground, and most uniform Cement 
in the world. Permits the admixture of more sand than 
any other, and is the best for mortar or stuccoing. 
143 LIBERTY STREET NEW YORK. 

WALDO BROS., - - 1 02 Milk St., Boston. 

AGENTS FOR NEW ENGLAND. 



ALSEN'S PORTLAND CEMENT. 





PORTLAND ^ A High Grade 

CEMENT. I American Portland 

Manufactured Qi^ns Falls PoFtland Cement Co., Glens Falls, N. Y. jj([ Cement unsurpassed 

^ for making fine 

SOLE SELLIHG AGEHTS, ^ ^ 

Commercial Wood & Cement Co., 1 56 Fifth Ave, N. Y. * ""^'^'^' ^'°"" 
Commercial Wood & Cement Co., - -' ^ ^^^^^- , 

>j< Commercial Rosendalc. 
Commercial Portland. 



Wholesale... Portland and J^osendale Cements, | 

CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. fj^ 



Iron Clad „ f 



Gem 

156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. SLI^Bi^u.^o. ^^^^°^ 



THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



O. W. Peterson & Co. 



New England Agents 



Office 

JOHN HANCOCK BLDG., 

J 78 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. For..... 

Telephone 484. < m ^ < m m tA 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, Perth Amboy, n. j. 
Mosaic Tile Company, zanesviiie, ohio. 

DagUS Clay Manfg* Co*, Front Brick Manfrs., Ridgway,Pa. 

^5*^^* ^* ^5* 5^* ^^^ ^^ 

A full line of Plastic Mud and Semi-Dry Press Brick in all Sfiades, 
Shapes, and Sizes. 



O. W. KETCHAM, ZLena^Cotta, 

Supplies riv^ 

4rO iSnamcleb 

OFFICE: .^%V 

Builders' Exchange, />^^^ IRrtVh 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. • ^f W Of JWllCK* 

^^^'V^' Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND <St CO., 



MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 



FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






I 



Works : 



Rocky Hill, N.J. 



i 




$ 



New York Office: 



105 E. 2 2d Street. 



(I 



OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE COMMERCIAL CABLE CO. 

(31 STORIES HrOH.) 



HARDING & GOOCH, ARCHfTEOTS. 



Broad Street. New York City. 



W. A. & F. E. CONOVER, Builders. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 



Boston Representative: CHARLES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Conkling, Armstrong Tcrra-Cotta Company. 




m f s 




LAND, TITLE, AND TRUST COMPANY'S BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA., 



D. H. BURNHAM & CO., Architects. 



CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality 






WORKS: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., 

PHILADELPHIA. 



PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. 



OFFICES: 

Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 
and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Perth Amboy, N^ ]♦ 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street. 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 

W. LINCOLN MCPHERSON, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



vn 



The: Atlamtic Terra CorrA Co 



MAwafd^ctuKet^ oT 



ARCMlTElcrURAL TtRRA CoTTA 



Office. 



DIRECTORS . 

DeRu'esi- Gi'*.r>r. W HiNVrta Roante.. 

Willie^m n».»ice Dt»>i_9V9r' W. tkalo/. 

A»fi*«d H. Bond. 



TS.c\^ 



^87 rOURTH AVL , MEW YORK . 



TorrEMVILLEL, S.l. niEWYORK. 



THE NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA=COTTA. 



KARL MATHIASEN, President. 



Office, 108 Fulton Street, 
NEW YORK. 



Works, 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



MATTAWAN, N. J. 



Vlll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Terra-Cott* Executed by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 

156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers of Architcctural Tcrra-Cotta in ah colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Soli6 mabite 
^erra^dotta 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 



A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 



Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 



TELEPHONE CALL, 1984 -1 8TH STREET. 



INDIANAPOLIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IX 



The North western 

Terra- Cotta Co, 



In all Colors and 
according to Special 
Design. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural.. 
Terra- Cotta 



Glazed and Enam- 
eled Work in all 
Varieties. 



^s-^s-^l^ 



Works and Main Office , Corner of 
Clybourn and Wriglitwood J.res.... 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery, Chicago. 







I 






® 








THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE FISKE-HOMES 

Mantel Fireplaces, 

built of molded bricks and terra- 
cotta, are correct in desij^n, soft 
and harnionious in effect, and are 
particularly suitable for libraries, 
dining and living^ rooms, halls, 
dens, etc. 

They are beinjy extensively used 
by people of refinement and taste. 

Send for illustrated catalogue. 



Fiske, Homes & Co., 

1 66 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 



OUR MANTEL No. 4. 

'I'liis IS One o|- Twknty-Four Mantki.s Bijim itv Is in tiik Ram.eicii CiiAMiiiCRs, HosioN. 



Brick, Terra-Cotta & Supply Co. 



M. E, GREGORY, Proprietor, 

CORiVING, N. Y. 



MANUFACTURER OF 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 
PRESSED BRICK, ORNAMENTAL BRICK, 
BUILDING BRICK, STREET PAVING BRICK, 
FIRE BRICK, MORTAR COLORS, 

FIRE CLAY. 



Brush & Schmidt, 

Manufacturers of 

Fine Red and Buff, Plain and 
Ornamental 

...Pressed Brick, 



(SHALE.) 



WORKS, 

"Jewettville^ 



N. Y. 



OFFICE, 

2 Builders Exchange^ 

BUFFALO, N. Y. 



E. P. LIPPINCOTT & CO., 



flrcbitectural Cerra=Cotta, Roofing Cile, 
Bollow and Tire Brick, Tire=Proofin9, mosaics, 



S^ 3^ 



MANUFACTURERS' Carccd iUoofl moldings, Parquetry flooring, 
: AGENTS : : fret and 6rill Ulork, etc. 

24 Builders Exchange 

Building:, Baltimore, Md. 



W 



Front and 



Branch : 808 F Street, N. W., Washingrton, D. C. 



Enameled 



Brick. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XV 



THE HARBISON & WALKER CO. 



Made by Mud Process, Hand Pressed, Fire Flashed. 

" PoMPEiAN " brick made by this Company sur- 
pass all others in keeping bright and clean in Pitts- 
burgh or any other atmosphere, as the following 
extracts from letters received will show: 

Pittsburgh, May 9, 1896. 
. . . Ten years ago I built a residence here, using your 
" POMPEiAN " brick. These brick are to-day as bright and 
clean as when laid. They are impervious to water, and a 
driving rain clears the wall from dust and soot, instead of 
soaking the dirt into them, as it will with porous material. 

Pittsburgh, Jan. 14, 1896. 
It is five years since my house was completed. So far as 
can be seen, the brickwork is as clean as on the day the build- 
ing was finished. 

Cleveland, O. 
Your " PoMPEiAN " brick stands the Cleveland climate 
better than any other brick I have observed, retaining their 
bright, clear appearance. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
The brick to-day look brighter, cleaner, and more attractive 
than they did when the building was first erected, and every 
rain storm seems to freshen them. 

Send for descriptive pamphlet showing photo- 
graphs of buildings and mantels in which our brick 
have been used. 



OLD GOLD and CHOCOLATE-BROWN COLORS. 




CoNESTOQA Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. 
Bricks Furnished by Harbison & Walker Co. 

OFFICE, 22(1 AND RAILROAD STREETS, PITTSRURGH, PA. 



The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co. 

Makers of the Superior 

Shawnee Brick 

in a variety of artistic shapes and colors, for E.xterior and 
Interior Facing, Mantels, Floors, etc. 

Our clays are the most varied and extensive, our plant 
the most modern, our processes the most elaborate, and our 
product the most perfect in structure, form, color, and finish. 

Samples and catalogues delivered free to architects and 
builders. 

AGENCES. 




BOSTON Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St. 

NEW YORK . . Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., J4 East 23d St. 

CHICAGO Engle Brick Co., 142 Washington St. 

PITTSBURGH Burgy & M'Neill, 531 Wood St. 



CLEVELAND, . . Cleveland Builders' Supply Co., 734 Garfield Bldg. 
CINCINNATI .... Mendenhall, Neff & Co., 237 West 4th St. 

TOLEDO ....... Kind & Kuhlman Builders' Supply Co. 

DETROIT F. B. Stevens, Griswold & Atwater Sts. 



Office, 44 Pine St, New York. 



Works, Shawnee, Ohio, 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




Pennsylvania 

Enameled Brick 



nanufacturers of a Superior Quality of 

ENAHELED BRICK, 

PURE WHITE FRONT BRICK, 

CREAM =WHITE FRONT BRICK. 



Company. 



Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 



Works : 

P. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 



Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 



Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 

New York City. 



i VJP i VI^ i VP iVg i VJP iVJf iV JP tVf ^ >V fP t VJ ^ i Vg^ iV g' »\ffy .\ff< P >\ ffP -^^^ ^^^^ 
"Cinsw -cTSw -cnsw -cT^wr -CTwr -CH!* -^^ 

MJi M# M# «M ^*^ M« «M M^ «*^ «*^ %•« V'! ^*'' V'f V'{ ^^^ M' V^ V^ *^'' V'f ^M v.* V'f ^t.; M^ M# «V M« V'^ 9*^ 9M M« V^ M« M« \»i V^ V< ^*'' V'f **' V^ MJi M' ^*' M' ^*' ^'^ «*^ M# M« M# 

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^j^^'^^^g^^^'^^^ - • Architects and Contractors, i 



r 



fcD-ia3LL^ 





GCNCRAL Offices : 

204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING, 
LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE EXPRESS 679. 



38g 



We are now manufacturing an English size brick ENAM- 
ELED on tiie flat, 9 x 4^ in. face, and 3 ins. deep, giving 
FIFTY PER CENT MORE SURFACE than the ordinary Eng- 
lish size brick. 

Also SOAPS 9x3x2 ins., TILE 9x^x1 ins., and 9 x Aji x 1 
ins., besides the regular English, American, and Roman size brick. 

We manufacture the above in all colors. 

Write us for prices. 



EASTERN AGENT FOR TILE. 

ROBERT ROSSMAN, 

84 University Place, 

New York City. 



EASTERN AGENT FOR BRICK. 

ORRIN D. PERSON, 

160 Fifth Avenue, 

New York City. 



3IC 

in 

38g 



^ M^ \*f %ff \*f \'A \»f ^•^ M* ^•^ ^M v^ \»* ^»A *M ^t« M9 Hf sae 5t^ *■*' *♦* M* mM *•.» 5« V' S?-* S^{ **? 5*« S*{ iff S^? V^ 5*i 5** ?*? S*f S^f 5^ ?** 5** J*f ?** V* 5*? ?*' 5*? >** ?*< Vi i*i 

M f ^5 f« iA }ii iA iA Hi Hi iA m m hi hi iti MmMMUmm m m m *« ^a »« iA i*i m i.i i*i y,i **« »♦« in hi j*« m hi hi hi hi hi hi hi ^.5 hi hi^.i ^.^ ^ t*\ 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



xvii 



FRON^JRICK 



Savre Si fishct Co. 




ADAMANTINE 
BRICKWORKS., 

PRICK :^ 

ALL SHAPES &C0L0R5, 

FIRE BR1(?K ? 



WUHKb. bAYKt.VILLL,ON THE RARITAN RIVER. 



AGENCIES IN: 
NEWARK, N J. PHILADELPHIA, 
BALTIMORE, BUFFALO. 
CHICAGO. BOSTON. 



We are the largest manufacturers of BRICK in the 

United States, 



'apesandSfzes. 

Also 

MoUow ^ricl^, 

I^est in the niarl^ct. 

^07 BroaAv^^^ New York. ' 



Our brick are all made after the Clay Tempered or Mud Brick Process and are recognized by our 
best architects, engineers, and contractors to be superior to any brick in the market. Our process 
of manufacture produces a brick very dense and hard, absorbing very little or no moisture, and a 
brick guaranteed to keep its color. They have been used in the most prominent buildings in New- 
York City. 

Boston Agent, CHARLES BACON, Phillips Building, 3 Hamilton Place. 



JULIUS A. STURSBERG, President. 



J. V. V. BOORAEn, Vice-President. 



J. FRANCIS BOORAEM, Sec'y and Treas. 



American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 



14 East 23d Street, NEW YORK. 



flDanufactutets of 



jEnameleb JSrich. 



Hoents. 



Works : 
South River, N. J. 




JOHN HOWARD HERRICK, 

504 Law Building, 

Baltimore, Hd. 



J>. 



TELEPHOHE : 
751 18tli Street, Hew York. 
5A, South River, N.J. 



W. G. WEAVER, 

22 Clinton street, 

Newark, N. J. 



LEWIS LIPPITT & CO., 

Builders' Exchange, 

Washington, D. C. 



LIST OF BUILDINGS SUPPLIED. 



Connecticut Builders' Supply Co., 



Binghamton State Hospital, Binghamton, N. Y. Miles 

Leonard, builder. 
St. Catherine's Hospital, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arch., Wm. 

Schickel & Co., New York. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Bellevue Hospital, New York. Arch., Withers & Dick- 
son. John F. Johnson, builder. 
Brooklyn Distilling Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Mechanics National Bank, Brooklyn, N. Y. Arch., 

Johnson & Co. W. & T. Lamb, builders. 
Trenton Water Works, Trenton. N. J. Arch., Wm. A. 

Poland. John Barlow, builder. 
Mutual Life Building, Philadelphia, Pa. Arch., Philipp 

Roos. E. L. Pennock, builder. 
Wadsworth Building, New York City. Arch., Youngs, 

Bergersen & Cornell. Robinson & Wallace, builders. 
The Bowling Green Building, New York City. Arch., 

W. & G. Audsley. Standard Structural Co., builders. 
SchenecUdy Water Works, Schenectady, N. Y. John 

McEnerge, builder. 



Stamford, Conn., Railroad Depot (N. Y., N. H. & H. 

R. R.),Wm. A. Thomas, builder. 
Hotel Manhattan, 42d St., New York City. Arch., Henry 

Hardenburg. Marc Eidlitz & Son, builders. 
Brooklyn Trolley Power House, Chas. Hart, builder. 
Altman's Dry Goods Establishment, i8th St., New York 

City. Arch., Kimball & 'I'hompson. Chas. .Sooysmith 

& Co., Marc Kidlit?. & Son, builders. 
Waldorf Hotel Extension, New York Cii/. Arch., 

Henry J. Mardenburg. Chas. Downey, builder. 
Private Stable, 120 East 75th .St., New York City. John 

J.Tucker, builder. (These were made to match Karn- 

ley imported Brick, in white and in colors. Made in 

our new one-fire process and were pronounced by the 

owner a great success.) 
Private Stable, Utica, N. Y. R. T. Proctor, owner. 

Arch., J. Constable. John V, Hughes, builder. 
Addition to same Stable. Arch., R. M. Hunt, Jr., and 

Maurice Foomacbon. John ¥. Hughes, builder. 



Old Men's Home, Brooklyn (patent tile). Arch., John- 
son & Co. Thomas Dobbin, builder. 

Large Delicatessen Est.iblishmcnt and Restaurant, Har- 
lem, N. Y. Arch., J. P. Wallhers. Scheidecker & 
Gonder, builders. 

Trolley Power House, Woodside, L. I. John D. Wood- 
ruff, builder. 

Private Stable, Portchestcr, N. Y. Arch., Nathan C. 
Mellcn. Wm. Ryan, builder. 

Fire Engine House, Newark, N. J. James Moran, 
builder. 

In addition to these there are other large contracts and 
an innumemble amount of smaller ones. 

New York Athletic Club House, New York City. 

Columbia College Gymnasium and University Hall, New 
York City. McKim, Mead & White, Architects. 
Norcrosfi Bros., Builders. 



New Britain, 

Conn. 



JOHN W. HAHN, 

166 Devonshire St., 

Boston, Mass, 



Meel(er, Cailer, Booraem & Co., 

14 Ea5t23d Street, 

New York City. 



ESTIMATES 

GIVEN ON 

FIRE-PROOF WORK 

OF ALL DESCRIPTIONS. 



xviii THE BRICKBUILDER. 

FRED W. MEEKER. JAS. W. CARTER. PAUL E. O'BRIEN. J. FRANCIS BOORAEM. 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co. 

J4 East 23d Street, New York -...OFFICES... 373 Fulton Street, Brooklyn. 

Selling Agents for 

ORNAMENTAL FRONT BRICK IN ALL COLORS 
ENAMELED BRICK AND TILE, 
PAVING BRICK, 

ROOFING TILE, 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERIALS, 
FIRE BRICK, ETC. 

Representatives of the followlngf G)mpanies : 

Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Co. 

Manufacturers of FRONT BRICK in all shades. 
Annual Output 7,000,000 Bricks. 

The American Enameled Brick and Tile Co. 

Manufacturers of HIGH GRADE ENAMELED BRICK AND TILE. 
Large Capacity. New Shades. New Designs. Unequaled in Quality. 

Standard Fire-proofing Co. 

Flue Lining, Sewer Pipe, Fire Brick, etc. 

Dagus Clay Manufacturing Co. 

Manufacturers of FRONT BRICKS in all shades 

Ludowici Roofing Tile Co. 

Celebrated Interlocking Roofing Tile. 

Eastem Paving Brick Co. 

High Grade Vitrified Paving Brick. 

Brush & Schmidt, 

Manufacturers of Superior Quality Red Pressed Brick, Buffalo, N. Y. 

The Famley English Glazed Bricks , imported in all colors. 

LAKE SHORE BRICK WORKS. CLEVELAND WIRE SPRING CO. 

PENNSYLVANIA BRICK CO. ^^ *r**^ ^°' bonding Face Brick, Hollow Walls, etc. 

Samples sent on request. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




'"""'""'-' DETAIL OF I5"ARCH. « SECTION OF ARCH. 

Obt PatcBtea Traiisyerse System of Floor Arcli CoDsrnciloD Made in 9, 10. 12 aoH 15 incti flepilis. 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENFIELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J. A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Atnboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



^ 



HOLLOW BLOCKS, 



For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, VfCW VHP IT 
156 FIFTH AVE., ilC W I UIVJV, 

Worlu, LORILLARD (K«yport P. O.), N. J. 



XXll 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-G>tta . . . 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow^ Porous, Front; and Paving Brick, 



WORKS AT 
PITTSBURGH, PA., WASHINGTON, N. J., and at EAST PALESTINE, OHIO. 

General Offices: CARNEGE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office : Townsend Building, corner Broadway and 25th St., New York City. 




The accompanying illustration is of 

The American Express Co/s Building, 

BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
GOOCH & PRAY Builders. 




FIRE-PROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

166 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXlll 



.... Established 1856 .... 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



Floor Arches; 
Partitions, 
Furring, 



Roofing, Etc* 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

J -^ New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Agent. 




r I 



m 






m 



f 



llMl 



.. . - .V. J*)' 



.ilia^^ 



Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings, 



m 



Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks* 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 



Factories,. 



MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



H, J. Hardhnbhrgh, 

A rchitect. 



MANHATTAN HOTEL, 
42d Street'and Madison Avenue. 



Marc Eidlitz & Son, 
Builders, 




riTTTJ 



" Excelsior" End-Cunblructiun Hal Arth (Patented). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method. 



One of the latest additions to New York's magnificent Hotels, and thoroughly fire-proof. 

FLOORS. — '« Excelsior " end-construction Arches. 

PARTITIONS, etc., Hollow Tile throughout. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1898. 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 



Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS. COPLEY SQUARE. BOSTON. 

HENRY E. CREGIER. ARCHITECT. WOODBURY & LEIOHTON, CONTRACTORS. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



THEBRICKBUILDER. 



XXVll 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HENRY S, HARRIS, Vice-President. 



WILL. R. CLARKE, Secretary and Treasurer. 
ALVORD B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARTISTIC ROOFING TILK, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 





Residence of justice h. b. brown, Washington. 



RESIDENCE OF D. J. HUBBARD, CHICAGO. 



Each of the houses shown in the above cuts is covered with our Gothic Combination Tile, described in the last issue of this publica- 
tion. Their appearance has created favorable comment in each city. 

Of late years there has been much complaint on the part of architects because they could not get a red slate of good quality and uni- 
form color for work where they wanted to secure a red roof of durable character, and could not use rooting tiles, owing to their greater 
cost. 

We are now able to offer to the architects of the country a thoroughly 

VITRIFIED RED ROOFING TILE, 

delivered anywhere in the- United States 

FOR THE PRICE OF BEST QUALITY RED SLATE, 

in any one of the following patterns. 



RHINOCEROS 

4 

0r7t64t 
III!. 


4 

GOTHIC 


4 

CONCAVO 

- 1.' 


4 

GRECIAN 


4 

WAVE 


4 

DIAMOND 


4 

PERSIAN 

V 1! 


i 

GABLE TILE 

^ 1.' 


1 

CABLE TILE 


S41ARE I-U 
1 I 11 


4 

flDlM) E!ID 
1 t it 


4 

SFI10CS 
1 I tl 


6 

tut 


4 

(110SS1B 

ml 


4 

EAVE TILE 


i 

i'i,ii\ siiiMiu: 


4 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 

SUITE 1123-4, 156 FIFTH AVENUE, 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING. 



CHICACOIOFFICE, 

SUITE 1001-2, 204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING. 



XXVI 11 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE DELMONICO BUILDING. 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY. 

JAMES BROWN LORD, Architect 



TERRACOTTA AND BRICK BY THE 



NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



PHILADELPHIA. 



38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK CITY. 



BOSTON. 



A I I 1 I— >»^ a OFFICE 



^^ VOLVME'J 

(} AUGUST §J 
J^ J898 
^^ No. 8 



IBRICKBVILDERI 



85 

WATER W 
6TREET ^p! 
B05T0N^1 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... JS2. 50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-5° per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March i?, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The Brickbuilder is published the 20th of each month. 

CONCEDING the proper object of this journal to be the en- 
couragement of the best work in brick and terra-cotta, and 
with a view of presenting in concrete form embodiments of the 
principles which we have urged in these columns, we begin with this 
number of The Brickbuilder the publication of a series of articles 
dealing with the designing and construction of a ten-thousand-dollar 
private residence. The first of the series is contributed by Mr. 
Charles A. Rich, the well-known architect of New York. It will 
be followed by similar articles by some of the leading architectural 
minds of the country, and the series will present the views of the 
profession as to the possibilities of brick and terra-cotta as applied 
to residences of moderate cost and dimensions. Our brick and terra 
cotta manufacturers have of late years given a great deal of atten- 
tion to devising means for bringing their products prominently before 
the people in order to create a large demand of their wares, and to 
accomplish this they have sought the advice of architects and con- 
structors and have adopted all of the well-known methods of prop- 
erly advertising their products, some of the manufacturers having is- 
sued some very excellent monographs illustrating brick and terra-cotta 
architecture and its possibilities. All of these have had their use 
and have been fruitful in results, but we feel a special pride in the 
possibilities within the reach of this journal to call out and present 
the ideas which this .series of articles will embody. It is the kind 
of encouragement of brick architecture, per se, which we believe 
will be most efficacious not only in developing the fact that brick 
can be used most advantageously under certain circumstances, but 
in going beyond this and showing specifically how it can be a factor 
in a thoroughly artistic as well as practical dwelling. The best way 
to encourage an art is to practise it. Ideal solutions are often in a 



general sense of more value than actual illustrations of existing 
work, and this series will correspondingly show how the thoughts of 
some of our best architects can find a fitting expression in the ma- 
terials which are peculiarly ours to foster. 

We cannot forbear offering just a bit of advice to our brick 
manufacturers in this connection. The advice has nothing to do 
with the size of the brick, its particular composition, nor the exact 
shade or coloring, all of which are matters which are capable of 
almost endless discussion and often with little real satisfactory re- 
sult ; but the most artistic dreamer as well as the most sternly prac- 
tical constructor will agree with us that the best recommendation for 
a particular style of brick is to have it used in a thoroughly suc- 
cessful building, successful not as a matter of mere size nor as 
regards prominence of location, but successful in the artistic, beau- 
tiful lines which appeal so strongly to the architect, and which, as 
the years increase our measure of popular appreciation, will appeal 
with increasing force to the great mass of people who live in archi- 
tect-built houses. .So that our advice would be to the salesman who 
is seeking to have his bricks most approved by the public, to take 
pride and advertise the successful buildings from an artistic stand- 
point, to claim excellence of result rather than mere fineness of 
product, and to measure success by the artistic worth of the build- 
ings in which the brick may become so integral a portion. The 
question of price is one which will adjust itself, the question of artis- 
tic result is one which has to be adjusted, and in proportion as good 
brick houses are built, in that proportion will good bricks be appre- 
ciated. 



THE lack of color in our modern architecture is often com- 
mented on, and we frequently hear expressed the hope that a 
more consistent and general use of color might prevail in our street 
architecture. Color is, however, almost a closed book to many archi- 
tects, and the reason for this, we believe, is very largely timidity and 
a fear of spoiling the particular building which engages the atten- 
tion. Timidity, however, never built great monuments nor led the 
way to any advance, and if we are to do color we must stop talking 
about it and get to work and do it. It is not every one who has a 
distinct eye for color, and it is not always possible to reason out in 
advance a scheme of applied color which will be successful. In this 
connection we are reminded of a most excellent designer whose 
chief title to fame was his ability to work out an uncomfortable cor- 
ner or to straighten out an entangled bit of design. Indeed, it used 
to be said that he never could do a thing right until he had done it 
wrong first and got it all snarled up. Now that kind of reasoning 
applied to color is illogical, we admit, and of doubtful success as 
compared with the spontaneous conceptions of the true colorist, but 
for the average practitioner it is far better to plunge in boldly, make 
a mistake in his colors and then by using a little reason try and 
straighten them out, rather than to yield to the timidity which would 
lead him to abandon striking combinations entirely and adhere to 
the commonplace. For instance, let one of these timid designers 
some day try an experiment. Suppose he has a terra-cotta front, let 
him somehow put a great blotch of green right in the center. As 
he has got it there he has got to make it good looking, so the next step 
might be to put right alongside of it a brownish yellow; and if the 
green is a bright emerald-green hue such as we sometimes get in the 



154 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



terra-cottas, let him put just a faint dash of purple between the yel- 
low and the green and he will have a combination which he will 
have to use his wits to get out of. The chances are that it will be 
thoroughly bad ; but by remembering the simple fundamental laws 
of harmony and contrast in color, remembering that in a general 
way red complements the green, and purple the yellow, and blue the 
orange, and by making a few studies in pastels, it would be very 
strange if he couldn't pull himself out of that combination with a 
result which ought to yield some very interesting and, after a few 
trials, valuable color effects. At any rate, after a man has done this 
once or twice his worst enemies would never accuse him of timidity, 
and if he didn't succeed in making a success of the combination he 
can, at least, console himself with the feeling that some other way- 
farer, seeing his failure, might take heart, try again and do it better, 
all of which may not be particularly consoling to the owner who has 
employed the essayist, but it would be a step towards what we are 
all looking for, color in our buildings. If any one should undertake 
to analyze most any of the really successful architectural color 
effects, such, for instance, as the Delia Robbia frieze on the Pistoja 
Hospital, it would be seen that the very colors which we have 
enumerated here are used in juxtaposition and that the unity is 
brought about by what is added after these had been thrown in ; and 
though, as was said before, the best way is to feel the color in the 
beginning, to do it naturally and let it be siti generis, he who has 
not that endowment need not, therefore, content himself with the 
commonplace monotones. A friend of ours taught his son to swim 
by tying a rope around his waist and throwing him into the Missis- 
sippi from the deck of a steamboat. The boy learned to swim very 
promptly. \ similar treatment of self-immolation on the part of 
our timid designers would very .speedily give us, at least, the pros- 
pects of some strong colorists. 



TiiK aggregate tire loss in the United States for 1897 was 
$2,454,592,481, which is $2,382,845 less than in 1896. The insur- 
ance loss for the year was $1,438,902,448, or $7,181,655 lower than 
the loss for the previous year. This showing is smaller than for any 
year since 1890. A noticeable feature is that for the first time the 
yearly loss of New York was exceeded by that of another State, Penn- 
sylvania leading with a fire loss of 513.706,315, and an insurance of 
$8,674,980. 

The number of fires reported during the year was 55,779, of 
which but two caused a loss of over $1,000,000. One was at Knox- 
ville, Tenn., in April, where the figures footed up to $1,019,725, and 
the other was at Pittsburgh, Pa., in May, when the loss was 
$1,905,515. The loss to the State of Pennsylvania on the buildings 
at Harrisburg aggregated $700,000. The greatest monthly loss oc- 
curred in January, when the property loss was $11,594,495, and the 
insurance loss $7,187,515. 

There were burned in 1S97, 33,033 dwellings and tenements, 
11,811 barns, stables, and granaries; 1,753 general merchandise 
stores; 913 retail liquor stores and saloons; and 735 churches. 



Part of the $50,000 asked for by the National Academy of 
Design, in recent appeal to its friends for aid in the erection of the 
school portion of its new home on Morningside Heights, New York 
City, has been subscribed, and it is confidently expected that the 
balance will be raised soon. The architects, Carr6re & Hastings, 
have estimated that the new academy, if built of the finest material 
in the best manner, would cost not less than $800,000, and the 
academy has only about $200,000 to meet this demand. It has been 
decided to erect the school portion of the building first. 



Tni£ Chicago Architects' Business Association has prepared 
and copyrighted a full set of forms of contracts, certificates, waivers 
of lien, and other blanks, in accordance with the provisions of the 
mechanics' lien law of Illinois. These blanks were carefully pre- 
pared by a special cornmittee appointed by the association, and are 



believed to meet every exigency of the lien law and the conditions of 
building in that section. 

Competitive plans for the $350,000 addition to the Ohio State 
House were submitted by Yost & Packard, of Columbus; H. A. 
Linthwaite, of Columbus ; George F. Hammond, of Cleveland ; 
Samuel Hannaford & Sons, of Cincinnati; and H. C. Lindsey, of 
Zanesville. The plans of Samuel Hannaford & Sons, of Cincinnati, 
were accepted. The structure will be completed in eighteen months. 



At a meeting of the Executive Committee of the American In- 
stitute of Architects held in New York, July 21, the following per- 
sons were elected as Fellows of the Institute: Charles I. Berg, Albert 
L. Brockway, New York City; William H. Conway, Springfield, 111.; 
Herbert W. Foltz, Indianapolis, Ind. 



By operation of section 1 1 of the license law, nearly one hun- 
dred architects in Chicago, and thirty more in the State at large, hav- 
ing failed to renew their licenses during the month of July, have had 
the same revoked by orders of the State Board of Examiners of 
Architects on the first day of July, 1898. 



There will be 60,000 sq. ft. of white enameled brick arches on 
the under side of the midway floor of the new Southern Union 
Station, Boston, requiring in their completion 400,000 of the finer 
quality of brick, and 600,000 of the commoner kinds, in all a round 
million. Where the roof has been covered in the work of setting 
the arches has been started. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENT.S. 

IN the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page vi, is illus- 
trated one of a number of mantels which they have just 
finished for the new Ranleigh Chambers, Boston. 

The Conestoga Building, Pittsburgh, Pa., Alden & Harlow 




CARTOUCHE FROM THE I'AVILION BUILDING, BOSTON. 

Executed by the New York .'\rcliitectural Tcrra-Cotta Company. 

FiurrS Sise, .Architects 

architects, is shown in the advertisement of Harbison & Walker 
Company, page xv. Two residences, one of Justice H. B. Brown, 
Washington, the other of D. J. Hubbard, Esq., Chicago, are shown 
in the advertisement of the Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, page 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



155 



The American Schoolhouse. X. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

THE Mechanic Arts High School in Boston was begun in 
1893. It was not at first fully completed, and the addition 
originally contemplated for this building is about to be built. This 
addition, with certain changes in the original structure, will complete 
it with all the features shown in the plans here published. 

The following description of the plan and appointments of the 
building is based upon that given in the last report of the master, 
Dr. Charles W. Parmenter. 

The boiler room, coal room, engine room, and engineer's store 
room are in the basement. Here, also, are the principal toilet rooms 
and dressing rooms containing the clothes lockers, each of which 
is 23 by 18 ins. in plan and 5 ft. high; the floors and tops of these 
lockers are of stout wire netting. The doors have panels of the 
same netting and are fitted with combination locks. In one of 
the dressing rooms is the lunch counter. The forge shop is also in 
the basement. 

On the first floor are the office of the master with lobby for vis- 
itors and library adjoining, chemical laboratory and room for chemi- 
cal stores ; two school 

rooms, each accommoda- , 

ting seventy pupils ; three 
recitation rooms, the ma- 
chine shop, the metal- 
working tool room, storage 
room for metal stock, 
office for the instructors 
in metal work, and a pri- 
vate room for men teach- 
ers. 

On the second floor 
are the physical labora- 
tory, with teachers' labora- 
tory, and store room and 
dark room adjoining, pri- 
vate room for women 
teachers; two school 
rooms, identical with those 
on the first floor, two 
wood-working room.s for 
first-year pupils, the car- 
pentry tool room and room 
for preparation of wood- 
working stock, and the fin- 
ishing room. 

On the third floor are 
three drawing rooms, two 

school rooms, a large recitation room, storage room for drawing ma- 
terials, wood-turning and pattern-making room, a modeling room, 
and a toilet room. The drawing room at each end and the adjacent 
school room are separated by flexible doors so that the two rooms 
may be thrown together to furnish an assembly hall for occasional 
use. 

Each of the drawing rooms has accommodations for six classes of 
thirty-six pupils. Each drawing table is fitted with a locker which 
holds six half-imperial drawing boards. The six drawers on the right 
contain the personal property of each pupil. In drawers above the 
locker are placed the drawing instruments furnished by the school 
board. 

Over the teacher's platform in each drawing room, in addition to 
the slate blackboard on the wall, is a set of three movable black- 
boards placed one directly in front of another, and each hung by 
counterbalanced weights. In the rear of the larger room are the 
sink and racks for wa.shing and drying blue prints. 

Two adjoining rooms on the second floor are assigned to the 




THE MECHANIC ARTS HIGH SCHOOL, BOSTON. 



department for wood-working with hand tools. These rooms are 
equipped for six classes of thirty-six pupils. Each room is furnished 
with eighteen double benches, 57 ins. long, 45 ins. wide, and varying 
in height from 29 to 33 ins. On either side of these benches is 
a tier of three drawers, one of which is assigned to each pupil, for 
the set of cutting tools with which he is supplied. Here, also, is kept 
his apron and unfinished work. Dividing the top of the bench in 
the center is a vertical tool board ()% ins. high. At the ends of the 
bench, upon hooks and shelves, are kept the measuring and miscel- 
laneous tools used in common by members of different classes. 

Each pupil is supplied with a tray for carving tools 26^ ins. 
long, 13%' ins. wide, and i^ ins. deep, divided into compartments. 
These trays are stored in cases at one end of each room. In each 
room is a grindstone with trough. 

The tool room, which contains a variety of minor supplies, to- 
gether with a large collection of miscellaneous tools for occasional 
use, is located between the two wood-working rooms, and is entered 
from either of them. Many of the shelves in this room are divided 
by narrow strips of wood in such a way that each tool has its appro- 
priate compartment. Each pupil is supplied with three brass checks 
bearing his shop number, one of which will be received by the per- 
son in charge of the tool room in exchange for any desired tool. 

The check is placed in 
the compartment from 
which the tool is taken, 
where it remains until 
it is redeemed by the 
return of the tool. 

Opening out of one 
of the wood-working 
rooms is a small room 
for the preparation of 
stock for models and 
for special saw work, 
in which is installed a 
double-arbor bench 
saw, a band saw for the 
use of the instructors 
and especially skilful 
pupils only, and a jig 
saw which all the pupils 
are permitted to use. 
The location of these 
saws in a separate room 
permits their use with- 
out disturbance to class 
exercises. 

There are thirty-six 
benches in the wood- 
turning and pattern- 
making room. On one side of the bench is an 11 in. speed lathe, the 
other end is used for hand tool work. As in the other wood-working 
rooms, these benches are fitted with 9 in. quick-action vises. Beneath 
the lathe is a tier of three drawers, in each of which is kept a set of 
turning tools. On the opposite side, under the work bench, is a tier 
of four drawers. The top drawer in this tier is devoted to the meas- 
uring and miscellaneous tools used in common, while each of the 
three others contains an undivided set of cutting tools. 

The forge shop, when constructed in accordance with the plans 
here shown, will be 40 ft. long, 100 ft. wide. It is to be lighted both 
by windows in the wall and by a large monitor with skylight. The 
restriction of the site necessitates a closer relation of the forge shop 
with other parts of the building than is theoretically desirable, but 
the experience with the room as originally constructed proves that 
the noise incident to the work of this shop will be of but little 
practical disadvantage in spite of the closer connection given by 
the enlarged shop ; at least, this disadvantage is not enough to 
outweigh the advantage of the equipment of this shop for the 






'^IBr^gws 



'-i\\. 



156 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THIRD FLOOR. 

instruction of thirty-six, instead of, as formerly, twenty-four pupils 
in a class. 

The forges, of the Sturtevant single-fire, down-draft pattern of 
the latest make, are to be ranged on each side of the room, and in a 
double row. An 130 lb. anvil is to adjoin each forge, and near by is 
to be a tool bench. Each boy has a drawer in this tool bench 
for the storage of models and for his hammer. 

Eleven blacksmith's vises are attached to benches 21 by 30 
ins., 34 ins. high. The blast for the forges is to be given by 
fans, by which also the foul air and the products of combustion 
are to be carried off through underground ducts to the aspirating 
shafts through which runs the boiler due. The instructor's forge 
and two other forges are to be supplied with hand blowers for 
use when the engine is not running. \ear the instructor's anvil 
is to be a 75 lb. power hammer. At the center of the room is 
to be placed a combination power punch and cutter. Attached 
to the wall near the power hammer is to be a drill press. At the 
opposite side of the room, resting on an iron bracket bolted to 
the wall, is to be a grinding machine, which carries at each end 
of the spindle a i 2 by i '/i in. emery wheel. At the end of the 
shop, opposite the instructors forge, will be two cases for the stor- 
age of supplies and special tools. The equipment of the room is to 
be completed by a bolt-heading machine, an oil tank, a brine tank, 
and a swage block. 

The machine shop is 
equipped for classes of twenty- 
four pupils. The benches, 20 
ins. wide and from 32 to 36 
ins. high, which extend along 
three sides of this room, are 
divided into twenty-four sec- 
tions, each provided with a vise 
and with a tier of four draw- 
ers. One of the three lower 
drawers is assigned to each 
pupil, but the top drawer is 
reserved for the tools used in 
common by members of differ- 
ent classes. In his individual 



set of chisels and lathe tools. At the beginning of a lesson 
each pupil obtains from the tool room a tray adapted to fit 
a compartment either in the upper drawer at his bench or 
on the tool board of his lathe. This shop is equipped with 
the following tools : Twenty-four lathes, nine hand lathes, 
two planers, one pillar shaper, one milling machine, one tool 
and cutter grinder, two upright drills, two grindstones with 
troughs, one wet and dry grinder, one arbor press, one power 
hack saw. 

Each engine lathe is furnished with a tool board of special 
design, adapted to receive the tool tray, and to provide a con- 
venient place for cutting and miscellaneous tools. Upon pegs 
in a vertical board fastened under the bed of each lathe are 
kept the face plates, change gears, back rest, chuck drill rest, 
and a set of dogs. There is no available space for an amphi- 
theater similar to those in the wood-working department. During 
the demonstration lessons pupils occupy tablet armchairs grouped 
about the instructor's bench, which is placed in front of a large 
blackboard in the rear of the room. Near at hand is the tool 




.! LLi Gj E •- 

in [I] mm ^' J i i " ■ ' * •• i 




SECOND FLO(JR. 




drawer the boy stores the work 
upon which he is engaged, together with about a dozen files and a 




BASEMENT. 



room, furnished with shelves and cases for the numerous tools re- 
quired for the various kinds of work. One of these cases which 
stands near the door contains the small tools likely to be needed 

frequently, and the tool trays 
previously mentioned. An 
attendant delivers these trays 
to the pupils at the begin- 
ning of the lesson, and is 
always ready to furnish any 
desired tool in exchange for 
a pupil's check. The uni- 
versal tool and cutter grinder 
and the power hack saw are 
located in this room. 

It is the opinion of Dr. 
Parmenter that it is inadvisa- 
FiRST FLOOR. ble to have more than twenty- 

four pupils in a machine-room 
class, even when the arrangement of the building is all that is de- 
sirable when it is equipped, and with the best appliances, as a 
larger number cannot receive the requisite individual super- 
vision by the chief instructor; and further, that in none of 
the other mechanical departments of such a school should 
there be a greater number than twenty-four in a class 
unless the arrangement of the building is thoroughly con- 
venient and the equipment is of the best pattern and 
quality. 

The experience in this school also shows that the 
large class rooms for seventy pupils are undesirable unless 
supplemented by an ample number of large recitation 
rooms, each to accommodate thirty-six pupils. The Hoston 
school, if space had permitted, would have been provided 
with]^two|such recitation rooms in addition to those which 
are shown on the plans. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



157 




Suburban Residence Built of Brick. 

COST, TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS. 

BY CHARLES A. RICH. 

THE author of the " Story of My House " remarks that " if we 
leave the house to the architect, he builds merely for himself — 
he builds his house, not yours." This is just what we propose to do. 
The client has left the office, and, thank Heaven, has put the ocean 
between us, and has left nothing behind to remind us of his exist- 
ence except a brief 
page of " necessi- 
ties " and a bright, 
crisp check for ten 
thousand dollars. 
We place it on ice 
for preservat i o n 
until the house is 
completed. 

Our client 
does not have to 
earn his daily 
bread ; his father 
was an engraver 
and etcher of note, 
and upon taking 
up his residence 
among the justified, 
left to his son not 
only his own good 
taste in matters of 
art, but also sufifi- 
cient to keep the 
wolf from the door. 
The young man 

meanwhile gave promise of being sufficiently gifted in black and 
white to keep himself and the toby closet well stocked with the 
necessaries of life. Thus our work on his house is cut out for us 
and made the more easy. Now, since every man has what may be 
called his own distinct character, so it seems to us that his home 
should reflect somewhat of this 
character, at least as to his needs, 
so that the man will fit into the 
house, and his desires and modes of 
life find expression in the general 
arrangement of parts. 

To begin with, we find in the 
list of " necessaries " that our own 
hobbies have been met to the letter, 
and we can practically build to suit 
ourselves. This is his first house, 
but it is our one hundredth or more, 
so we ought to know what he ought 
to want. 

To illustrate our hobbies : I 
have known a man who would will- 
ingly go without the almost neces- 
sary apparel of civilized man, and 
perchance be down at the heel or 
lacking in buttons, yet he would 
buy beautiful pictures, or books, or 
bric-a-brac. Now this man is sen- 
sible ; he gets all there is enjoyable 
in life, although some people think 

his discrimination curious. Just so in our house we shall insist upon 
an enormous room which we shall call "the living room," even at 
the expense of all other reception quarters, wainscots, carvings, etc. 



We shall also insist upon a fireplace in this room of rooms that 
shall grow sick at any wee billets of wood, and demand the good 
old-fashioned logwood bonfire. The expense of a few cords of good 
cheer often wards off dollars' worth of gloom and blues. I re- 
member in old-time fireplaces there were nooks and crannies, cup- 
boards and closets. Not to be beaten by our forefathers, therefore, 
in matters so important, we simply call attention to the sketch of 
the fireplace, the facing simply laid up in soft red brick tile, with 
the inviting little toby closets on each side, and the shelves of which 
seem to indicate the insidious cocktail and the fragrant Havana. We 
never see them, they are for our friends, of course. 

S e c o n d ly , 
every man must 
have a place of 
retreat, his den, his 
workshop, his li- 
brary, whatever 
you may choose to 
call it. He must 
have a place of re- 
treat where he may 
lock himself in, or 
be locked in upon 
occasion. In this 
particular case, 
about. the only in- 
struction of our 
client was to have 
his den towards 
the north, so that 
when the inspira- 
tion struck him, he 
might the better 
carry on his work. 
E.XTEKioR. A glimpse of this 

room may be seen 
in the plan through a picturesque little balcony in the living room, 
the floor being raised five steps above the hall level, and the open- 
ing being filled with an old iron gate grille, picked up, we will say, 
in Spain, or some other foreign clime. 

Since our check is not large, we cannot reasonably expect a 
large house, so you will note that 
the den and kitchen quarters are 
but one story high. Hut this gives 
the possibility of running the den 
roof on a pitched slant, whose real 
timbers we have exposed and neatly 
stained green, and whose roof will 
not be hot in summer, being towards 
the north. The sketch will show 
you the general treatment. Here is 
an all brick mantel made of soft 
green-glaze brick, simple in design, 
liut running high up and all ex- 
po.sed. 

We insist that with most peo- 
ple beautiful surroundings induce 
beautiful things. Our client, there- 
fore, as he sits at his work table, 
shall have before him an old rose 
arbor, bright with shadows in the 
morning, and soft and cool in the 
shade of the afternoon, and if per- 
KNTRANCE. chance his mind wanders, as he 

works, to those cooling retreats of 
a Capri or an Amalfi, he will find a little doorway in the corner of 
his room through which he may glide into his arbor and revel in the 
same day dreams of those lovely spots. He, too, if he will, may 




158 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




stances. We insist, therefore, on two of these 
luxuries, and do not forget a third for the 
servants, an absolute necessity in our mind. 
Lastly, we are selfish men ! We admit 
it ; and since we are to spend one third of 
our life in nocturnal repose, we propose to 
have our sleeping apartments the largest 
and most comfortable the house affords. 
We must be awakened in the morning by 
gladsome sunshine, if we will, and not by 
the shades of the past night. And this 
same gladsome sunshine must flood this 
apartment each hour of the day ; for it must 
be remembered that since the house is of 
modest proportions, this room is largely the 
day home of the wife, and her comfort is 
to be equally looked after. What applies 
to the man must the more apply to the 
wife: another reason for its largest size. 
Adjoining, and full of all-day sunshine, 
come the quarters of the children. They, 
also, are equal factors in the home life, and 
as such must have a slice of the best ac- 
commodations possible. And what about 
the guests ? Well, they are transients and 
must be content with what is left. 



LIVING ROOM. 

have his siesta in a grape or rose shadowed arbor, and if he has 
been sensible enough in his purchase of a hillside to overlook a 
water view, his dreams may be sweet indeed. 

Our last point of insistence concerns the mother as well as the 
head of the house. Have you ever lived in a house with a growing 
family and a single bathroom, bluntly speaking? If you have you 
have probably too often stood in abbreviated costume, awaiting your 
opportunity to slide in and enjoy your morning plunge. We trust 
you did not have to take the 8.20, for if you did, you have often 
waited in vain, and after words not fit to be printed have given 
it up. Yes, "godliness with contentment is great gain," but con- 
tentment can never be attained with one bathroom, and as for 
godliness, well, that is out of the question under such trying circum- 



#\V 





DEN. 



•AT-EN0-OF-PIA2ZA- 

While you have been upstairs we have been pre- 
paring the entrance. Here we intend to make a 
departure from the general mode. We came 
across a beautiful, ivory-colored speckled brick 
while we were considering the plan, and at once 
determined to enter the house on a lower level, 
make a sort of lower vestibule with tiled floor and 
side walls, and simply groined ceiling of these 
soft-colored bricks. Why not? Introduce, then, 
a frieze of the old Parthenian casts, recalling thus 
to the mind the beauties of the Acropolis, and 
we surely have an inviting entrance. We also 
have a place to seat the persistent book .agent, the 
aromatic piano polisher, the messenger boy, or 
that constantly appearing personage known to 
every household as the " unknown." Even so, 
let it be all brick and tile, to intimate that he who 
stops there is yet among the outside elements, and 
may not ascend to the hall. 

But one cannot think of his home without 
placing it among its surroundings, which to make 
up a whole are necessary and essential parts. The 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



159 



very trees which overhang their branches, the hedges, gardens, and 
shrubs which lend color and tone to the picture, each one plays its 
part. Think for a moment of the sunny slopes of an Italian land- 
scape, the broad terraces, and the grape-covered arbors. They are 
the cheapest accessories of the home, and yet they are the features 
that give esthetic and artistic character to the whole. They are full 
of sentiment; the very rustle of the leaves, or their ever-varying 
shadows are joys which increase as nature showers on them an ever- 
increasing wealth of foliage. Our ground slopes up gradually from 
the front, and we will build a low brick wall with old gate posts, 
and wide and generous steps. Back of this, across the front, shall 
be a low box hedge garden, such as is dear to every old New 




FIRST FLOOR. 

England recollection. At the end of the piazza we shall mass the 
trees, form the hedge with a sort of recess, and therein place a little 
circular bench, a cool retreat in the morning or after the shadows 
have fallen in the late afternoon. And then at the rear, as I have 
already pointed out, we shall form the arbor, and tennis court, and 
back of this the garden. Do you tell me this seems very beautiful 
in the word picture, but seldom exists in reality in ten-thousand- 
dollar houses ? Then we shall retort upon you that it is the client's 
fault and not the architect's. This client is going to have it at any 
rate, and if you doubt it, you have only to look at the little plan of 
the grounds. 

But what of the outside of our house and its general construc- 
tion? Louis Stevenson portrays his house in poetry: — 

" Here all is si-nny, and when the truant gull 
Skims the green level of the lawn, his wing 
Dispetals roses; here the house is framed 
Of kneaded brick and plumed mountain pine, 
-Such clay as artists fashion, and such wood 
As the tree-climbing urchin breaks. 
My house, I say." 

So let it be ; good red brick, and its enrichments shall be of 
terra-cotta of the same character. We shall .select a hard-burnt 
common brick and shall thank our brickman if he will send us all 
the old black vitreous cast-off odds and ends of his kiln. A curious 
order to a layman, who will not look at them in the pile, but will 
wonder at their beautiful effect when laid up with random headers, 
with white pointing. No feature is so well adapted to our material 



Hi, 'I'll i"i!ilii^iii.'iifTiaRPit.cE,iiiM|iii^(||ii;|i- 






Virf^py VXXX ':• ■ 



as the arch, and we shall 
therefore use it for our 
entrance and the two 
large windows in the liv- 
ing room. The quoins 
shall be simple with 
deeply molded jambs of 
brick. In the gables we 
shall still use brick, but 
dispose of it between the 
heavy open beams in 
diaper patterns. Thus is 
every component part of 
our house formed from 
the clay of which the 
scripture informs us on 
good authority we, also, 
are most wondrously 
made. Thus, also, is our 
client and his house 
bound together by a 
common tie, and singu- 
larly enough, the house 
will outlast the client. 

But after all, why 
describe the exterior 
further ? Candidly, we 
live in the interior, and 
the exterior is but the 
shell, which we have pictured to be of simple form to cover the plan. 
" I like it — I like it not," and herein is contained the whole matter. 




■jpSFi rmmi: 




■ Plan • ofGrounds • 



THE discussion on the extension of the Boston fire limits has 
reached a rather acute stage. It is argued that to build of 
brick is so much more costly than to build of wood that the owners 
of land in the less thickly settled wards could not afford to improve 
their property, but must sell at a loss, and the value of land so re- 
stricted would be greatly reduced. This notion seems to have pro. 
duced a certain effect upon the public, but, like a good many other 
apprehensions which stand in the way of public improvements, it 
would be hard to tell on what real foundation it rests. Certainly, the 
prohibition of wooden buildings in Philadelphia has neither ruined 
the suburban districts nor deprived the poorer citizens of homes. 
On the contrary, in no great city on this continent are people of small 
incomes housed so safely and comfortably as in the little brick 
houses of the outlying parts of Philadelphia. — American Architect. 



Roo( 




SECOND FLOOR. 



i6o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 

BY G. EDMUND STREET. 

CHAPTER IX. {Concluded.) 

AT Aquileja the appropriation of pagan fragments was carried 
so far that we found Classic capitals doing service as holy- 
water stoups. 

The interior of the eastern part of the church is more interest- 
ing than that of the nave. It is all probably of the original founda- 
tion, and retains most of the old arrangements. The floor of the 
choir is rai.sed some ten or twelve steps, with two flights of steps on 
each side of the centre. At the top of these steps, projecting side- 
ways into the transepts, are tribunes with open balustrades which 
seem to have served as ambons. The apse has two rows of seats, 
with the patriarch's seat raised in the centre, and the altar stands in 
front of this on the chord of the apse. It is curious that this, which 
is an apse internally, is a square projection from the transept externally. 

A descent on each side under the tribunes leads to the crypt 
under the raised choir. This is very small, but is divided into three 
aisles in width, and four bays in length. The central space is 
screened round jealously with close grilles reaching from floor to 
vault, so as to protect the shrine of S. llermacora, which occupies 
the centre. But little light steals into this crypt, and that little has 
to find its way between rank weeds which grow up round the win- 
dows; but there is quite enough to reveal vaults covered with 
paintings of subjects, and to show as picturesque and beautiful an 
ensemble as one need wish to see. Kneeling desks were placed round 
the shrine, but the cultus of S. Hermacora seems to be no longer 
popular, and the only pilgrims are curious visitors like ourselves. 




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XxM 






^^^ij^^&^^^impi^i 




DUOMO, UDIXE. 

The paintings on the groining appeared to me to be of not earlier 
date than the fourteenth century, and are very cleverly contrived to 
suit the early vaults. 

The transepts remain to Ije mentioned. Each has a small east- 
ern apse near the extreme end, and a tomb or shrine between this 
apse and the choir tribune. These are of the thirteenth century, and 
are -enormous blocks of stone, panelled and carved in front, and sup- 




AISI.E WINDOWS, DUOMO, UDINE. 



ported on four detached shafts. In the south transept there are 
fragments of a Byzantine screen round the altar in the small apse, 
which are of rare beauty and intricacy. The screen consisted of a 
solid base, breast-high, cov- 
ered with carving, and upon 
which columns stood origi- 
nally at intervals of six feet, 
just as in the screen at Tor- 
cello, of which I have given 
a view. 

There is an early paint- 
ing of Our Lord, seated on 
a throne in the semi dome 
of this apse, and there are 
remains of an early wall- 
l)ainting in the choir-apse, 
partly covered by a fifteenth- 
century picture in a good 
frame. The choir stalls are 
of elaborate intarsiatura 
work, and date from the end 
of the sixteenth century. 

A little way to the north 
of the church stands its 
campanile, a tall plain mass 

of masonry, with the date mdxi.viiii. on the u])per stage, and the 
inscription " Tadcics Luiaiius hoc o. fecit. ^^ It is worth the climb to 
the top to get the view over the flat surrounding country, which 
reveals what one fails to see from the dead level of the road, that 
the Adriatic is not far off — far enough, it is true, to have ruined 
the port of .Aquileja^ but so near as to be a very important element 
in the fine prospect. From here we saw through the haze the island 
of Grado, on which I cast longing eyes in vain. My information as 
to the distance had been all at fault, and I thought that in a long 
day from Gorizia, I might see both Aquileja and Grado. This is, 
however, quite impossible, as the boatmen required, they said, three 
hours for the trajet each way. It was a misfortune to miss the 
church at (irado, which contains much that is worth seeing, and has 
considerable historical interest, as the seat of a patriarch, whose 
jurisdiction included Malamocco, Venice, Torcello, and Chioggia — 
and whose importance is vouched for by its old titles, " Venets orx 
Istria-que Ecclesiarum caput et mater," and " Aquileja nova." 

The patriarch's throne and the ambon or pulpit, which still 
remain in the church at Grado, are evidently extremely fine exam- 
ples of Byzantine furniture. The former corresponds with that of 
Aquileja, but has the rare addition of a flat canopy or tester sup- 
ported in front by two columns, which rest on the side walls of the 
steps leading up to the seat. Probably there was a similar canopy 
at Aquileja. The dignity of the patriarchal throne is not a little in 
creased by the addition, simple as it is in its decorative features. 
The pulpit is even more striking; it is six-sided, all the sides being 
arranged in a series of bold circular projections, with .sculptures of 
the Evang;listic emblems on their face. The pulpit is supported by 
a central shaft, and six smaller columns alternately plain and spiral, 
and above the pulpit a series of octagonal shafts are provided to sup- 
port a canopy or dome over the head of the preacher. These columns 
carry arches which are of the common X'enetian ogee trefoil outline, 
and, there can be little doubt, are later than the pulpit. The com. 
bination is, however, very picturesque, and not the less interesting in 
that it has a most strangely Eastern look.i 

The rest of my party went, whilst I was sketching in the cathe- 
dral at Aquileja. to look at the baptistery. They reported it to be as 
completely modernized inside as it certainly is outside, and so I failed 
to enter it. I believe I lost nothing, though at one time it was well 
worthy of a visit. 

A rapid drive back to Gorizia was made with the advantage of 



* I take these notes of Gra<lo from 
chen Kaiserstaates." Stuttgart, 1858. 



' Mitlelallerlithe Kunstdenkmalc dcs ( )esterreicliii 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i6i 



a view of the mountains liefore us all the way; and we arrived in 
time to avail ourselves of the last train to Udine, which we did not 
reach until after dark. 

I arrived here in entire ignorance of what might be in store for 
me in the way of my art. I had seen no drawings of any of its 
buildings, and I suspect that most of my readers are in the same 
state of ignorance. It was with no little pleasure, therefore, that my 
earliest stroll in the morning brought me to a Palazzo Publico, which 
if not exactly magnificent in scale is at least very important, and has 
the special merit in my eyes of being all Gothic, and almost unaltered 
on the outside since its erection. It stands in a piazza which some 
sixteenth or seventeenth century scenic architect has treated with 
considerable .skill. One or two public buildings and a steep hill 
behind them have been dealt with in such a way as to call to mind 
such a disposition of buildings as one sees, e. g., on the Capitol at 
Rome, and no doubt so as to increase very much the apparent impor- 
tance of this little city. The Palazzo Publico is a building of two 
stages in height, the lower entirely open with pointed arches resting 
on columns, and the upper presenting on its principal front a large 
balconied window, or Ringhiera, in tlie centre, and smaller windows 
on each side of it, and at the ends. The cornice and roof are 
modern, otherwise the whole de- 
sign is intact, and exactly in the 
state in which its architect left it. 
The character of the design is 
clearly Venetian, and the date 
about the beginning of the fifteenth 
century, but still it is not slavishly 
Venetian as the houses of Vicenza 
are, but on the face of it the work 
of a local architect who knew 
enough of what was being done in 
Venice to profit by it without ab- 
solutely copying. 

The lower or ground story is 
open on three sides, and has ten 
arches in front, and five at each 
end. The space inclosed is irreg- 
ularly divided by a longitudinal 
line of columns, carrying semicir- 
cular arches, which support the 
walls of the rooms above, the 
access to which is by a modernized 
staircase in the rear. The mate- 
rials of the walls are generally red 
and white marble. The balustrades 
between the columns and the stair- 
cases leading to them are so good 
and complete as well to deserve 
illustration. The upper part of 
these, including the cusped heads 
to the openings, is of white marble, 
whilst the shafts are alternately of 

the same material and of serpentine. The upper story is modernized 
within ; but one learns to be grateful for small mercies, and it was 
certainly with every feeling of gratitude to later architects that I 
sketched this really beautiful building, which they have been good 
enough to leave so nearly unaltered on the outside. 

The state of the cathedral is less a subject for thankfulness ! 
The whole building has been completely modernized within and with- 
out, with the exception of the west front and the tower. Tlie former 
was the fac^'adc to a nave with two aisles on either side, or perhaps 
with one aisle and chapels beyond. All the roofs are of the same 
flat pitch, and stepped regularly so as to give a broken and bad out- 
line to the mass. The work is mainly of brick, with some good 
detail in the windows of the outer aisles, of which I give an illustra- 
tion. The west doorway is of the fourteenth century, with a very 
steep crocketed gable between pinnacles, and a badly sculptured tym- 




PALAZZO PUIiLICO, UDINE. 



panum with a curious assortment of subjects; in the centre the 
Crucifixion, right and left of this the Resurrection and an Agnus 
Dei, and above it the Nativity. Three circular windows light the 
three centre divisions of the front, and the two lower are connected 
by a broad band of brick arches which crosses the entire front 
just below the central circular window. There is not a word to 
be said in favour of such a design. It is old, and that is its only 
virtue ! 

The tower is more interesting, though it is only an incomplete 
fragment. The lower stage is of stone built in dark and light courses, 
with a large sunk recess on each side. On the west side is a fine 
doorway built of alternate courses of white marble and serpentine, 
and there are small circular windows in the cardinal sides just above 
the lowest stage. Above these the whole is a plain mass of brick- 
work, of which a very small portion only seems to be original. This 
tower is no less than fifty-two feet in outside diameter, and its lowest 
stage is finely groined, with no provision for the passage of bells. It 
might almost as well have been intended for a baptistery as for a 
tower ! It stands close to the north side of the choir, and by its side 
is a rather fine doorway leading into the transept, with a good deal 
of late Cothic sculpture and architectural detail. There are niches 

and figures in the jambs and round 
_ the arch, the Coronation of the 

Virgin under the latter, and figures 
of the Annunciation stuck against 
the wall on either side" in a very 
haphazard fashion. The strange 
contrast in style between these 
two doorways will be seen in the 
illustration which I give. Here 
we have, side by side, examples of 
the most pronounced kind of two 
national styles of Gothic ; the door 
into the tower being as clearly 
Italian in its beautiful colour and 
refined simplicity, as that into the 
church is German in its cleverness, 
want of repose, and hard angular- 
ity of detail. 

The only other old churches 

I could find in Udine were .San 

Giacomo and that of the Ospidale. 

The former is modernized, but 

retains an early square brick belfry, 

arcaded below, and with simple 

pointed windows of two lights 

alcove. The church of the Ospidale 

is also modernized. The facjade 

has a gable with an old brick 

eaves-arcade, and the only too 

common feature of a large circular 

window inclosed within a square 

border. 

A picturesque Renaissance well-canopy (dated ^4^7) over the 

Fonte di San Giovanni was the only other feature I could find worth 

sketching or making a note of ; and having seen everything, 1 took 

the railway on again to Venice. 

The views of the Friulan Alps, under which one travels for 
some distance, are very exquisite. We passed Conegliano, where I 
once left the railway for a journey through the heart of the Dolomite 
country to Cortina d'Ampezzo, and, to my regret, hurried past Porde- 
none, having forgotten that at any rate a tall brick campanile was 
there, which seemed to promise some reward to the visitor. It is of 
plain arcaded brickwork below, and the upper stage is slightly bat- 
tered out with very tall machicoulis, from within the parapet of which 
a smaller octagonal stage rises, covered with a low spire. The whole 
composition as one sees it from the railway is unusual and very good, 
and recalls just a little the campanile of the Palazzo Publico at Siena. 



l62 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Grueby Faience. 



BY C. H. BLACKALL. 




T 



have been able to give to their work the elements of sincerity, of 
perfect fitness, and of thoroughly artistic good taste, quite irrespec- 
tive of mere fashion, which go so far towards forming the fundamen- 
tal^worth of the Japanese product. The Grueby faience and pottery 



HE opening of Japan to 



West less than two generations 
ago brought to what we are 
pleased to call civilized nations 
an art development, which, 
though at that time regarded 
as barbaric, has since been 
accepted as a manifestation of 
the highest appreciative and 
creative perception. Japanese 
pottery and faience have set 
the style for the whole civilized 
world, and for nearly half a 
century the aim of our fore- 
most potters has been to pro- 
duce something which will 
compare with the Japanese 
porcelains. It is not for this 
generation to say how much 
success has attended our at- 
tempts at imitation. We can- 
not fairly judge of our own 
achievements as compared 
with what was produced by a far-off and alien race, but it is certainly 
given to us to appreciate a pretty full measure of progress which has 
been ours, and by comparison we can form an estimate of the direc- 
tion in which the forces of development are tending. As a nation 
we have been too busy to produce 
great art works. At any rate we 
have certainly given more attention 
to the utilitarian arts than to the 
purely esthetic developments of hu- 
man intellect, and until a very recent 
period it is doubtful if there could 
have been found in the whole of 
this country a single manufactory 
capable of turning out pottery or 
faience which was worthy for a mo- 
ment of being compared with the average work ol the Japanese, 
either in design or in the mechanical details of artistic workmanship. 
It has taken us a long while to approximate the fundamental in- 
stincts of the Japanese craftsman, namely, that the art of a piece of 
pottery is not necessarily dependent upon the amount of work ex- 
pended upon it, or upon the fineness of the material, but is a direct 
factor of the thought and appreciative skill possessed by the one 
whose hand is responsible for the result. That we have learned this 
lesson to at least a limited extent has been manifested by a recent 
exhibition in Boston of the work of the Grueby Faience Company. 
It has been a privilege and a pleasure to watch the attempts which 
Mr. Grueby and his earnest colleagues have been making for a num- 
ber of long, weary years to develop the manufacture of artistic 
faience, a manifestation of industrial art which has until recently 
obtained but scant recognition, but which is bound to take an impor- 
tant rank : and it is a pleasure to record the persistent struggles 
which the Grueby Company have maintained to produce something 
which was perhaps a little beyond the average market, but which was 
certainly in a direction which the country is rapidly growing to, and 
which appeals most strongly to the artist. It is this kind of imagina- 
tive work which is deserving of the utmost encouragetnent. It is by 
efforts such as have been made by this concern that our artistic 
manufactures are going to rise, and surely no one who is familiar 
with the best of the Japanese work could have visited this exhibition 
without being impressed with the extent to which these craftsmen 





is not Japanese, except in that the spirit is common to Japanese work. 
The motives in this work are in many cases frankly borrowed. Life 
is too short and the nineteenth century is too well educated to feel 
any necessity for arbitrarily inventing all details, but borrowing, as 
these artists have, from the past, from Italy, Spain, or Japan, is 
merely bringing to us a little measure of the art which has graced 
our more fortunate neighbors, and showing us how problems can be 
solved here quite as successfully as there. 

Some of the purely architectural faience work of this company 
is not unfamiliar to the readers of this publication, having been 
well known for a number of years. The exhibit included some excel- 
lent high relief work in the style of the Delia Robbias, with the same 
treatment of enamels and strong glazes which characterizes the work 
at Pistoja. The value of such work is in its careful modeling and 
judicious coloring. Technically it is quite as satisfactory as the 

older work. There has been as yet 
but little opportunity to see such 
work in place to any great extent, 
but there is surely no mechanical 
or artistic reason why, if the need 
arose, it could not be quite as satis- 
factorily met in this medium. An- 
other application of faience which 
was illustrated in the exhibition was 
in the form of balustrades for ter- 
races, conservatories, etc. The 
work shown by tlie illustration is a dull blue, and was a portion of 
a railing used in a house at Cambridge. There are possibilities in 
openwork filling of this description which are very entertaining, 
carried out either in full glazes or in the dull mat finish, which Mr. 
Grueby has been able to apply very successfully to a number of the 
architectural forms. There was exhibited also a large lion's head. 




very boldly modeled and enameled a dull copper bronze, with a mat 
surface, having all the effect of wrought bronze. 

In tiling there were a number of interesting pieces. The illus- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



163 



tration shows one of the Moorish patterns. The main lines of the 
design are in low relief, the pattern being brought out by the enamel- 




fM" 'M' 'a*!' ^^ 




ing settling into the hollows. The upper border shows a buff key 
pattern on a pale green ground, with an edging of strong blue. The 
palm pattern below it is a deep blue glaze ground, with a mat, dull 
green pattern. The coloring of the tiles themselves can only be ap- 
proximately appreciated from the photograph. The strong squares 
of colors at the corners 
are in a deep indigo blue. 
The center of each pattern 
is a pale blue, the radiat- 
ing figures are green, and 
the groundwork is a cream 
with the intersecting pat- 
terns forming the outer 
row of each tile in yellow. 
The yellow is a bright 
glaze, and all the rest is 
dulled to a mat finish. 

The glaze over the lines of the pattern is very thin, so that the tile 
body, a pale gray, shows throjiigh, with the dull effect of mortar 
joints. This tiling is a very close imitation of the coloring and of 
the effect of the old Moorish tiles. 

There were also shown a number of exceedingly interesting 
hand-painted hexagonal tiles with a mottled blue ground, with figures 
and patterns in slight relief, showing exactly the quality of old 
majolica ware. There were also some nursery tiles, so to speak, blue 
patterns and white ground, the ground, however, not a clear white, 
but a sort of gray crackled effect. These were very interesting and 
extremely effective. And there was exhibited a part of a set of pea- 
cock tiles designed for a fireplace in Cambridge, and a number of 
heraldic and pattern-work tiles in which the outline of the figure was 
formed with slip and the colors put on under the glaze. In all of this 
tiling work there is an entire absence of the machine effect which 
makes a great deal of our modern tile work so monotonous, and there 
is a fresh sketchy treatment of the designs which entirely removes 
them from the commonplace. 

The exhibition included several large panels, which had been 
painted over glaze, by Mrs. Eliza M. Fairchild, for a frieze in the 
Dutch Room in the Hotel Reynolds, Boston. These were in Delft 
blue on a white ground, and in a decorative way were quite interest- 
ing, though, to our mind, not possessing the intrinsic charm of some 
of the nursery tiles. 

The pottery that was exhibited was in many respects unique. 
All of this was hand made, thrown up on the wheel with a keen sense 
of proportion and subtlety of line which can best be described as 
throughly Japanese, while the variety of shapes, the different contours, 



indicated a most fertile, directing mind. They included jardinieres, 
flower-stands, incinerary urns, and other shapes, useful and ornamen- 
tal. The illustrations show only a few of the forms, and utterly fail 
to give the exquisite color effects. There was a lot of ware made 
with a grayish body with dull crackled effect running all through it 
under the glaze, something in the style of the old Satsuma ware, the 
glaze being kept down to a very dull mat surface. These were espe- 
cially artistic both in outline and in effect of color. One jar, which 
is remembered with especial delight, was a tall shape, standing 
eighteen or twenty inches high, with a ground of pale dappled green 
shot through with threads of white, filmy crystals under the glaze, 
giving the effect of a bit of old Genoa damask ; a kind of jar which 
would make the collector's heart warm to the very cockles, and would 
be a thing to put upon the corner of a mantelpiece and worship de- 
votedly every morning — one of those bits of individuality which 
are only possible when an artist is willing to linger lovingly over the 
decorating of a piece of earth, and to experiment, and try and hunt 
out new artistic possible combinations of chance and thought. Then 
there were a number of shapes in a mottled silvery yellow, which were 
peculiarly effective ; and there were several large jars in pale greens 
and warm browns, with mottled wave lines running around the sur- 
face, and quaint handles on each side ; jars that had no purpose but 
their beauty, and fully and completely answered that purpose. In 
fact, the exhibition offered a strong contrast between the purely 
esthetic jugs and pots which had no excuse but their beauty, no aim but 
to give pleasure, no thought but to delight the esthetic appreciation, 
and the very practical tiling, the wall linings of majolica ware, which 
were primarily for use, fundamentally for service, but were at the same 

time not without their full 
share of the artistic sym- 
pathetic treatment. There 
is no need to dwell upon 
the technical difficulties 
which Mr. Grueby met and 
overcame. In an artistic 
sense these do not concern 
us, for art is not measured 
by technicalities, but when 
we look back ten years and 
appreciate how utterly im- 
possible it would have been to collect together any such work as was 
shown in this exhibition, and when we realize how closely this work 
is in touch with the best spirit of the old Japanese ware which lines 
the walls of our Art Museum, we can appreciate that though we may 
not yet have reached the height of the Japanese potter, we at any 




rate have been able, in this busy country, to give the time and 
thought and artistic ability necessary to produce in enameled terra,- 
cottas and in simple potter's clay, works of very high artistic 
value. 



164 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




5RICK COQNlCfb 5ieAJA. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



165 



Tensile Tests of Cement. 

BY IRA O. BAKER, I'ROI-ESSOR OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITV 
OF ILLINOIS. 

[Copyrighted.] 

OF all the structural materials probably hydraulic cement is the 
most varial)le in its qualities; some varieties are strong and 
some weak ; some are slow setting and some quick ; some are dura- 
ble and grow stronger with age, while some are liable to deteriorate 
in strength, and perhaps become an agent of destruction. Partly 
owing to the variability in the product and partly because of the 
greatly increased use of cement in architectural and engineering con- 
struction, rapidly increasing attention is being given to the testing of 
cement. 

Tiiere is no lack of literature on this subject, which contains 
much valuable information, and yet the writer believes that much of 
the astonishing variation in the results obtained by different opera- 
tors is due to a difference in methods. Unfortunately, there is no 
detailed and uniform method of procedure in use in this country ; 
and it is usually impossible to determine from the report of the re- 
sults what method was employed in making the tests. The writer 
will, therefore, attempt to make an unusually full and complete state- 
ment of the method of making the tests, and call attention to such 
variations in practise as are in common use. 

In this article attention will be given to tests of tensile strength, 
partly because of the importance of such tests and partly since a 
description of the method of making these tests is a preliminary 
to the consideration of the other tests necessary to fully determine 
the quality and durability of a cement. 

The tensile strength of cement mortar is usually determined by 
submitting a specimen of i sq. in. cross section to a tensile stress. 
Tiie reason for adopting tensile instead of compressive tests is the 
greater ease of making the former, and the less variation in the 
results. Mortar is eight to ten times as strong in compression as 
in tension. 

The accurate determination of the tensile strength of cement is 
a much less simple process than at first appears. Many things, ap- 
parently of minor importance, exert such a marked influence upon 
the results that it is only by the greatest care that trustworthy tests 
can be made. The variations in the results of different experienced 
operators working by the same method and upon the same matei'ial 
are frequently very large. The variation is chiefly due to the fact 
that there is no detailed and specific description of the method to be 
pursued in preparing and testing the specimens. 

NEAT 7'S. SAND TESTS. 

It is very common to test neat cement mortar. There are two 
serious objections to this practise. First, most neat cements decrease 
in tensile strength after a time. This decrease seems to be due to a 
change in the molecular structure of the cement, the cry.stals growing 
larger with increase of age, thus producing a crowding which results 
in a decrease of the tensile strength. This decrease is most marked 
with high-grade I'ortla-'.ds which attain their strength rapidly, and 
usually occurs between three months and a year. A second objection 
to neat tests is that coarsely ground cements show greater strength 
than finely ground cements, although the latter when mixed with the 
usual proportion of sand will give the greater strength. 

On the other hand, more skill is re([uired to secure uniform 
results with sand than with neat cement. 

THE SAND. 

The quality of the sand employed is of great importance, for 
sands looking alike and sifted through the same sieve give results 
varying 30 to 40 per cent. 

The standard sand employed in the official Cerman tests is a 
natural quartz sand obtained at Freienwalde, on the Oder, passing a 



sieve of 60 meshes per square centimeter (20 per linear inch) and 
caught upon a sieve of 120 meshes per square centimeter (28 per 
linear inch). The diameters of the wires of the sieves are 0.3S and 
0.32 millimeters respectively. The standard sand recommended by 
the Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers is crushed 
quartz used in the manufacture of sandpaper, which passes a No. 
20 sieve (wire No. 2S Stubs's gage), and is caught on a No. 30 sieve 
(wire No. 30 Stubs's gage). 

The crushed quartz consists of sharp, glossy splinters, while the 
standard German sand is composed of nearly spherical grains having 
a rough surface like ground glass. The quartz contains about 50 
per cent, of voids, while the German standard sand contains but 
about 40. Crushed ([uartz gives less strength than standard sand 
and ordinarily common building sand will give a higher strength 
than standard sand, since usually it consists of grains of a greater 
variety of sizes, and consequently there are fewer voids to be filled 
by the cement. 

THE AMOUNr ()!■ WAFER. 

The amount of water necessary to make the strongest cement 
varies with each cement. It is commonly expressed in per cents, by 
weight, although in part, at least, it depends upon volume. The 
variation in the amount of water required depends upon the degree 
of fineness, the specific gravity, the weight per unit of volume, and 
the chemical composition of the cement. If the cement is coarsely 
ground, the voids are less, and conse(|uently the volume of water 
required is less. If the specific gravity of one cement is greater than 
that of another, erjual volumes of cement will require different vol- 
umes of water. The chemical composition has the greatest influence 
upon the amount of water necessary. Part of the water is recpiired 
to combine chemically with the cement, and part acts physically in 
reducing the cement to a plastic mass ; and the proportion required 
for each of these effects differs with different cements. The nature 
and condition of the sand may also appreciably affect the quantity 
of water required. The finer the sand, the greater the amount of 
water required. Again, the more thorough the mixing, the less the 
quantity of water required. 

y\ttempts have been made to establish a standard consistency, 
but there is no constant relation between the consistency and the 
maximum strength. With one cement a particular consistency may 
give maximum strength, while with another cement a different con- 
sistency may be required to develop the greatest strength. The rela- 
tionship between consistency and strength will vary also with the 
details of the experiment. In reporting the results of tests the quantity 
of water employed should be stated. 

There are two distinct standards of consistency for the mortar 
employed in testing cements, — the plastic and the dry. 

Plastic Mortar. This grade of mortar is that commonly em- 
ployed in the United .States and I'^ngland, and is frequently used in 
France. There are two methods of identifying this degree of con- 
sistency, viz.: the Tetmajer method and the Boulogne method. 

The Tetmajer method is much used on the continent of Europe. 
It is as follows : " The plasticity shall be such that a rod 0.4 of an inch 
in diameter, and weighing 0.66 lbs. will penetrate 1.25 ins. into a 
bojc 3 ins. in diameter and 1.57 dee]), filled with the mortar." 

The Boulogne method is much used in P'rance, and gives sub- 
stantially the same results as the Tetmajer method. It is as follows : 
"The quantity of water is ascertained by a preliminary experiment. 
It is recommended to commence with a rather smaller quantity of 
water than may be ultimately recjuired, and then lo make fresh mix- 
ings with a slight additional (juantity of water. The mortar is to be 
vigorously worked for five minutes with a trowel on a marble slab to 
bring it to the reejuired consistency, after which the four following 
tests are to be applied to determine whether the proportion of water 
is correct : — 

''I. The consistency of the mortar should not change if it be 
gaged for an additional jjcriod of three minutes after the initial five 
minutes. 



1 66 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



" 2. A small quantity of the mortar dropped from the trowel 
upon the marble slab from a height of about 0.50 meters (20 ins.) 
should leave the trowel clean, and retain its form approximately 
without cracking. 

"3. A small quantity of the mortar worked gently in the hands 
should be easily molded into a ball, on the surface of which water 
should appear. When this ball is dropped from a height of o.jo 
meters (20 ins.), it should retain a rounded shape without cracking. 

"4. If a slightly smaller quantity of water be used, the mortar 
should be crumbly, and crack when dropped upon the slab. On the 
other hand, the addition of a further quantity of water — i to 2 per 
cent, of the weight of the cement — would soften the mortar, render- 
ing it more sticky, and preventing it from retaining its form when 
allowed to fall upon the slab." 

With any particular cement the exact amount of water to pro- 
duce the above degree of plasticity can be determined only by trial, 
but, as a rule, the quantity required will be about as follows: — 

For neat cement: Portland, 23 to 25 per cent; natural, from 28 
to 36, usually from 30 to 32 per cent. 

VoT I part cement to i part sand: Portland cement, 13 to 
1 5 per cent, of the total weight of cement and sand ; natural, 1 7 to 
20, usually 18 to 19 per cent. 

For 1 part cement to 2 parts sand : Portland, 12 to 13 per cent. 
of the total weight of the sand and cement; natural, 12 to 16, usu- 
ally 13 to 15 per cent. 

For I part cement to 3 parts sand: Portland, 11 to 12 per cent, 
of the total weight of the sand and cement: natural, 12 to 13 per 
cent. 

Dry A/orfar. This grade of mortar is employed in the German 
and French governmental tests of tensile strength. The rules for 
the identification of this degree of consistency are not very specific. 
" Dry mortars " are usually described as being " as damp as moist 
earth." 

The German government does not recognize tensile tests of neat 
cement mortar, but for [ to 3 sand mortars specifies that the weight 
of water used for Portland cement shall be equal to 10 per cent, of 
the total weight of the sand and cement. 

The French Commission gives a rule for i to 2, i to 3, and i 
to 5 mortars, with either Portland or natural cement, which is equiv- 
alent to the formula : — 

w=K WR + 4S, 

in which w = the weight, in[grams, of water required for 1,000 grams 
of the sand and cement ; 
W = the weight, in grams, of water required to reduce 1,000 

grams of neat cement to plastic mortar ; 
R = the ratio of the weight of the cement to the weight of 
the sand and cement. 

For a I to 3 mortar the preceding formula gives 8.5 per cent., 
which seems to show that the French standard requires less water 
than the Cierman. 

The cement laboratory of the city of Philadelphia employs the 
above formula, but uses 60 for the constant instead of 45. For a i 
to 3 mortar, the Philadelphia formula gives 10 per cent., which agrees 
with the German standard. 

MlXINf; THE MORTAR. 

The sand and cement .should be thoroughly mixed dry, and the 
water required to reduce the mass to a proper consistency should be 
added all at once. The mixing should be prompt and thorough. 
The ma.ss should not be simply turned, but the mortar should be 
rubbed against the top of the slate or glass mixing table with a trowel, 
or in a mortar with a pestle. Insufficient working greatly decreases 
the strength of the mortar — frequently one half. The inexperienced 
operator is very liable to use too much water and too little labor. 
With a slow-setting cement, a kilogram of the dry materials should 
be strongly and rapidly rubbed for not less than five minutes, when 



i-n- 



L,J- 



^ — -~- 


1 




\ ^,-'''' 




-'J / 


/ 




1 \ 


f 









AMERICAN FORM OF BRI- 
QUETTE. 



the consistency should be such that it will not be changed by an 
additional mixing for three minutes. 

Usually the mortar is mixed with a trowel on a stone slab ; but 
when many batches are required there is a decided advantage in 
mixing the mortar with a hoe in a short V-shaped trough on the 
floor. Various machines have been devised with which to mix the 
mortar. The jig mixer is an apparatus in which the materials are 
placed in a covered cup, and shaken rapidly up and down. The 
F'aija mixer consists of a cylindrical pan in which a mixer formed of 
four blades revolves. The latter seems to give the better result, 
but neither are used to any considerable extent. 

THE FORM OF BRIQUETTE. 

The briquette recommended by the Committee of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers, 
Fig. I, is the form ordina- 
rily used in this country 
and in England. The 
form generally employed 
in continental Europe is 
somewhat similar to the 
above except that the sec- 
tion is 5 square centime- 
ters (0.8 sq. in.), and the 
reduction to produce the 
minimum section is by 
very much more abrupt 
curves. 

The molds are made 
of brass and are single or multiple, the latter being preferred where 
a great number of briquettes is required. The molds are in two 
parts to facilitate removal from the bricjuette without breaking it. 

.MOLDINr; THE BRIQUETTE. 

In molding the briquette there are two general methods em- 
ployed, corresponding to the two standard consistencies of the 
mortar. 

Plastic Mortar. As a rule, plastic mortar is molded by hand. 

The Committee of the American Society of Civil Engineers' 
recommendations are as follows : " The molds while being charged 
should be laid directly on glass, slate, or some non-absorbing material. 
The mortar should be firmly pressed into the molds with a trowel, 
without ramming, and struck off level. The molding must be com- 
pleted before incipient setting begins. As soon as the briquettes are 
hard enough to bear it, they should be taken from the molds and 
kept covered with a damp cloth until they are immersed." 

The French Commission recommends the following method: 
" The molds are placed upon a plate of marble or polished metal 
which has been well cleaned and rubbed with an oily cloth. Six 
molds are filled from each gaging if the cement be slow setting, and 
four if it be quick setting. Sufficient material is at once placed in 
each mold to more than fill it. The mortar is pressed into the mold 
with the fingers so as to leave no voids, and the side of the mold 
tapped several times with the trowel to assist in disengaging the 
bubbles of air. The excess of mortar is then removed by sliding a 
knife blade over the top of the mold so as to produce no compression 
upon the mortar. The briquettes are removed from the mold when 
sufficiently firm, and are allowed to remain for twenty-four hours 
upon the plate in a moist atmosphere, protected from currents of air 
or the direct rays of the sun, and at a nearly constant temperature of 
15 to 1 8 degs. C. (59 to 64 degs. Fahr )." 

Various machines have been devised for molding briquettes of 
plastic mortar, but none are used to any considerable extent. In 
Canada, and to some extent in England, the briquettes are molded by 
applying a pressure of 20 lbs. per square inch on the surface of the 
briquette. Some advocate a pressure of 1,000 to 1,500 lbs. upon the 
upper face of the briquette. 

( Continued. ) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



167 



Fire-proofing. 



A CONSENSUS OF OPINION AMONG LEADING ARCHI- 
TECTS OF CHICAGO ON THE USE OF BURNED 
CLAY FOR FIRE-FROOF BUILDINGS. 

AS a natural sequence to articles on the use of burned clay as a 
fire-resisting material by two of the architects of ChicagOi 
The Brickbuilder has sought by a series of interviews, to bring 
out a consensus of opinion among some of the other leading archi- 
tects of that city who have had large experience in the erection of 
fire-proof buildings in which the latest and most improved methods 
have been used. These interviews demonstrate mainly the esteem 
in which clay is held as a building material with reference to dimin- 
ishing losses by fire. There is unanimity among tlie interviewed in 
that they prefer burnt clay in some form for all fire resisting work, 
and they have demonstrated this in their practise. There is not 
unanimity, however, in the special kind of clay manufactures pre- 
ferred, while some have omitted to give their opinions on this inter- 
esting question. Hard hollow tile and porous hollow tile still have 
their advocates, while the virtues of semi-porous tile, that have been 
advocated in The Brickbuilder, seem to have hardly attracted 
attention. But there is unanimity in the answers to the question, 
" Have the recent attacks on the burned-clay systems of fire-proof- 
ing, by promoters of other systems, influenced your judgment.'"' 
And the answers give no comfort to these promoters. There is 
more in these than most readers will apprehend, for while these 
attacks have appeared in publications, often over the names of 
civil engineers engaged for the purpose, those of which architects 
are most cognizant are such as they hear in their own offices from 
the advocates of these very devices and materials. While it is ad- 
mitted by several that the only reasons why they had in certain 
cases consented to the use of other materials and methods was the 
saving of money, which their clients had insisted upon, one of the 
firms interviewed, which had never used anything but burned clay, 
made an outside statement that they had in one case tested these 
claims that the concrete systems were cheaper, by letting all who 
had asked the privilege submit proposals, all of which, whenever the 
ceiling and floor construction were both included, proved to be more 
expensive than flat hollow-tile arches forming both ceiling and floor 
construction. 

These interviews have developed the fact, in Chicago at least, 
that there is a variance of opinion as to whether or not the makers 
of and contractors for the construction of burned-clay fire-proofing 
(all the makers in Chicago contract to set up their work complete) 
are endeavoring to improve and perfect their material and its 
method of application. It is fair to assume from this that some, at 
least, are trying to do so, and these must have been in mind with 
those who answered affirmatively. 

As to the lessons to be found in recent fires in buildings of the 
modern sort designed to be fire-resisting, we regret to say that the 
answers do not show such an interest in the subject as some might 
be led to expect. The answers are mostly in general terms. Some 
are satisfied with the result.s, and others say that the work ought to 
be and can be better, but in what respect they say not. 

Architects always want the best of everything if their clients can 
be induced to pay for it. But they do not often get it if the mate- 
rial is to be covered up when the building is finished. The roiis 
Asinorum that they too often have to cross — and frequently fail in 
the attempt — is the demonstration to a client who has the figures 
before him that two bids under the same specification represent two 
different things, and that the lowest is the most expensive. This is 
oftener the case with burned-clay fire-proofing material than any 
other, for there are no two clays alike, and no two makers produce 
the same article. It is no wonder, therefore, that it was difficult to 
get direct answers to the seventh question. 



It was assumed in the eighth question that the price and quality 
of burned-clay fire-proofing had been reduced during the last ten 
years. That the price has been lowered is self-evident, and the reason 
for it generally given is in the one word "competition." It is also 
a matter of fact that the quality has not been reduced, but has re- 
mained stationary. It is a mistaken assumption, however, that im- 
provement in manufacturing processes has reduced the price. To 
competition alone can this be ascribed, a competition which has 
offered every possible temptation to reduce the quality. But it has 
thus far only resulted in reducing weight, and discouraged all at- 
tempts to improve methods of construction. 

Opinions differ as to the employment of special experts. Those 
who do not consider it desirable have large establishments of their 
own and scientific attaches regularly in their employ, while the views 
expressed by Mr. Beman seem to reflect the opinion of the average 
practitioner. 

Tiie following questions were submitted to those whose names 
appear hereafter, which have elicited very prompt and satisfactory 
responses. 

1. Do you employ burned clay in fire-proof buildings, and if 
so to what extent ? 

2. Do you prefer it to other so-called fire-proofing systems, 
and if so for what reasons "i 

3. What kind of burned-clay material do you prefer? or 
would you employ different kinds for different purposes .'' 

4. Have the recent attacks on the burned-clay systems of fire- 
proofing by promoters of other systems influenced your judgment ? 

5. Do you think that the makers of burned-clay hre-proofing 
are trying to improve and perfect their material and its method of 
application ? 

6. What do you think is the lesson to be learned from recent 
fires in buildings fire-proofed with burned clay? 

7. Do you think it right for architects to consent to their 
clients always taking the lowest bid for this kind of work without 
regard to the differences in what the parties intend to furnish ? 

8. What do you think is the reason why the price and quality 
of burned-clay fire-proofing have been reduced during the last ten 
years ? 

9. Do you agree with the opinions given by Mr. Jenney in the 
July Brickbuilder? 

10. Do you think it desirable for architects to employ fire- 
proofing experts to design the details of fire-proof work and super- 
vise its erection, as is now done in the case of steel constructions? 

Holabird & Roche, whose experience in the erection of the 
largest fire-proof buildings, in Chicago at least, has been fully equal 
to that of any other architectural office, submitted their answers in 
writing as follows: — - 

" We beg to submit categorical answers to your inquiries regard- 
ing fire-proofing " (as follows) : — 

Question I. "Yes, for floors, partitions, and protection of all 
metal work. 

(Question 2. " Yes, we think it more fire-proof if properly plas- 
tered. 

(2iiestioH 3. " Porous terra-cotta. 

Question 4. " No. 

Quest ion 5. "Yes. 

Question 6. " We should have perfect covering of each piece 
of metal and more substantial fastening or anchoring and the best 
quality of plaster. No work to be unplastered. 

Question 7. " No. 

Question 8. " Improved methods of manufacture and general 
reduction of prices throughout the country caused by panic and 
competition. 

Question 9. " Do not wish to give an opinion. 



1 68 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Qi/estioit lo. " We have been in the habit of malving our own 
drawings and details." 

Daniel H. IJurnham, speaking for D. H. Uurnham & Co., who 
are too well known to need introduction, said in answer to the first 
(|uestion: "We use burned clay in all fire-proof buildings; for 
walls, both outside and inside, and for partitions. We also use 
large quantities of terra cotta, enameled and unenameled, for ex- 
terior and interior construction and ornamentation. We use hollow- 
tile arches for all floors and hollow-tile protection for columns, 
beams, and girders." 

In answer to the second question he said : " Yes ; because by its 
use we hive a fire proofing of the best quality and get the best re- 
sults both in bracing and tying the structure together." 

To the third question he said : " For exteriors we prefer brick 
walls, or heavy brick covering when metal columns actually carry 
the structure, because they are less likely to be injured by heavy 
cold water streams in case of fire. We prefer hollow-tile arches be- 
tween beams because they brace the structure, protect the metal best, 
and can, with their air chambers, be put in with the greatest rapidity 
and with a minimum use of moisture, and also because they leave 
a strong, firm, llat ceiling, against which partitions can be braced 
effectually. 

To question four he said " No," and to five, " Yes." Me thought 
that the lesson to be learned from recent fires in buildings fire- 
proofed with burned clay is, that the modern methods protect the 
steel structure against fire thoroughly when they are properly ap- 
plied. He declined to give an opinion on question seven. 

To (|uestion eight he said: " I know nothing aljout the reduction 
in quality, because we use the best. I think mechanical processes 
have reduced the price during the last few years." He had not read 
Mr. Jenney's article, and therefore could give no opinion about it, 
but with regard to (juestion ten he said : " Speaking for ourselves, we 
have our own corps of constructive engineers in this oflice, and these 
([uestions are examined and settled by them." 

.S. S. Beman said: "I have used burned clay of different kinds 
in all but one of my fire-proof buildings. I used concrete with 
metallic reinforcement on the tension system only in the last Stude- 
backer Uuilding on Wabash .Vvenue. Chicago. I had great trouble 
through delay on account of using the concrete system in winter in 
this building. ,\ great deal of the work was frozen and had to be 
done over again. It is an undesirable system to use at such a time. 
Clay tile can be well set in any kind of weather. When using til^ I 
think the most important thing is to set it right, with good joints, 
making every joint air tight. I prefer porous terra-cotta, if made of 
the proper kind of clay, wherever it is possible to use it. I have 
never used semi-porous hollow tiles. There is very little porous 
material that is properly made. It requires a plastic fire-clay, which 
is found in very few localities, and manufacturers should improve 
their output by using such clays; but most of it that we get is soft 
and rotten because the makers use local clays to save cost. That 
now made in large quantities at Chicago has been improved consid- 
erably during recent years. Many factories have failed through try- 
ing to make it of unfit material. There was once a factory at St. 
I'aul which I understand made such inferior material that its capital 
was sunk because so much of its output was wasted and rejected. 
It was only when its failure was assured that it commenced to use 
the Chaska clay, which made the finest porous terra-cotta I have 
ever seen. <Jthers took up the manufacture in that city, but I un- 
derstand they continued to use the inferior clays. The first and 
best porous terra-cotta ever made in this country was manufactured 
in Cliicago from the clay that comes out of the coal mines at Brazil, 
Ind., but no one is making porous material from it now. It is only 
used to mix with inferior clays." 

In answer to question four. Mr. Beman said " No." In answer 
to question five he said : " I hardly think they are.' .\s to (juestion 
six, he had not studied in detail the published accounts of the re- 



sults of recent severe fires in fire-proof buildings at Pittsburgh, or 
formed an opinion as to what should be done to improve fire-proof 
building materials of clay otherwise than as above stated. He had 
not tried to get anything better than the market for such things pro- 
vided; in fact, he had only used such manufactures as he found 
them always trying to secure, the best. 

In answer to question seven, he said : " No, 1 always dissuade 
them from it." He thought that competition among manufacturers 
has been the main factor in reducing the price and ([uality of the 
product where the same has been reduced. 

As to why a great many architects have not taken an interest in 
having the fire-proofing systems improved, he said that men who 
were largely interested in the artistic side of their profession were 
inclined to be indifferent to such things, while his observation led 
him to believe that only a few architects who were not so much in- 
terested in fine art matters had made a study of the art of fire-proof- 
ing applied to construction. In such a state of affairs it was not to 
be expected that much improvement would result. These were the 
plain facts. In fact, architects generally who are very busy had 
little time to do missionary work however much they might desire to 
do so. If they did, it would often be at the expense of other matters 
of equal importance. He thought, however, that there should be a 
consensus of opinion among architects who were designing fire-proof 
structures; that they should decide between them what is best, stand 
together and decide to demand it. But he believed this ideal state 
would never be realized. 

Mr. Beman is a believer in having all fire-proof material thor- 
oughly secured in place, though he has no special system to suggest. 
In his own practise, he has insisted upon the use of cojjper wires for 
tying the work together wherever possible to use it, and holding it 
from the inside, so that all holdfasts will be protected. He has 
had fires in several buildings he has designed, and there have 
been no failures in the fire-proof material used. He dislikes the 
weight of hard tile, which, in case some of it is dislodged, might 
disturb others in its fall. In other respects he agrees with the 
opinions expressed by Mr. Jenney. In reply to the tenth question 
he said in conclusion : — 

" I think there ought to be an opening for a specialist in fire- 
proofing. It is quite as important as any other special branch of 
the craft, such as steel work, sanitary conditions, etc., where fire- 
proof buildings are concerned." 

( Coiitiiiin-ii. ) 



THE report of fire losses for 1897 will be of interest to the pro- 
gressive architect who has made a study of fire-proof struc- 
tures. The very material reduction in fire losses can scarcely be 
considered the result of accident. By observing the report (see page 
1 54, The Brick HUii.DER) it will be .seen that the drop in losses is not 
simply a sudden drop in 1S97, but a gradual diminution, 1897 being 
less than 1896, and 1S96 than 1895, and smaller than any year since 
I S90. This result must be highly satisfactory to both architects and 
manufacturers of fire-proof materials. And the progressive character 
of this diminution in losses augurs some influential cause, and this 
certainly must be found in the increase of fire-proof and slow-burning 
structures during the last few years. L'p to within a short time 
underwriters have not been willing to give much credit to fire-proof- 
ing as a fire preventative or saving feature, but some of the late fires 
in this class of buildings, especially the Pittsburgh fire, have com- 
pelled them to acknowledge the sturdy character of these structures, 
and recent insurance rates in New York have shown how fully they 
believed in their safety. — Arckitectin-e and Builiiiiii;. 



Number nine of the series of publications issued in pamphlet 
form by the British Fire Prevention Committee, London, and which 
has just come to hand, contains a paper on " Lessons from Fire 
and Panic," by Thomas Blashill, F. R. 1. B.A., Superintending .Archi- 
tect to the London County Council. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



169 



Masons' Department. 



ESTIMATING BRICKWORK. 

BY F. E. KIDDER. 

THE most general method of estimating common brickwork, and 
one that is very largely followed by brick contractors in all 
localities, is by the thousand bricks, measured by certain fixed rules, 
and figured at a certain price per thousand, wall measure, the price 
per thousand being generally uniform, while the adjustment for 
different kinds of work is made in the manner of measuring. 

The principle underlying this system is explained as follows: — 

" The plain dead wall of brickwork is taken as the standard, and 
the more difficult, complicated, ornamental, or hazardous kinds of 
work are measured up to it so as to make the compensation equal. 

"To illustrate: if, in one day, a man can lay two thousand 
brick in a plain dead wall, and can lay only five hundred in a pier, 
arch, or chimney top in the same time, the cost of labor per thousand 
in such work is four times as much as in the dead wall, and he is 
entitled to extra compensation; hut instead of varyinj^ the price, the 
custom is to vary the iiieasiireiiicnt to compensate for the difference in 
the time, and thus endeavor to secure a uniform price per thousand 
for all descriptions of ordinary brickwork, instead of a different 
price for the execution of the various kinds of work." * 

The application of this system, as actually carried out by the 
brick contractors of Denver, is as follows : — 

All walls are first reduced to thousands of brick by multiplying 
the external superficial area of the walls by 15, for walls 9 ins. thick; 
by 22;^, for walls 13 ins. thick; by 30, for walls 17 ins. thick; and 
in the same proportion for thicker walls. No deduction is made for 
openings containing less than 80 superficial ft., and where deduc- 
tions are made for larger openings, the width is measured 2 ft. less 
than the actual width. Hollow walls are also measured as if solid. 
To the number of bricks thus obtained is added the measurement 
for piers, chimneys, arches, etc. 

Footings are generally measured in with the wall by adding the 
width of the projection to the height of the wall. Thus if the foot- 
ings project 6 ins. on each side of the wall, [ ft. is added to the 
actual height of the wall. 

Chimney breasts and pilasters are measured by multiplying the 
girt of the breast or pilaster from the intersections with the wall by 
the height, and then by the nuinber of bricks corresponding with the 
thickness of the projection. Flues in chimneys are always measured 
solid. 

Detached chimneys and chimney tops are measured as a wall 
having a length equal to the sum of the side and two ends of the 
chimney, and a thickness equal to the width of the chimney. Thus 
a chimney measuring 3 ft. by i ft. 4 ins. would be measured as a 16 
or 17 in. wall, 5 ft. 8 ins. long. 

The rule for independent piers is to multiply the height of the 
pier by the distance around it in feet, and consider the product as 
the superficial area of a wall whose thickness is equal to the width of 
the pier. In practise, many masons measure only one side and one 
end of a pier or chimney. 

Arches of common bricks over openings of less than 80 super- 
ficial ft. are usually disregarded in estimating. If the arch is 
over an opening larger than 80 sq. ft., the height of the wall is meas- 
ured from the springing line of the arch. No deduction is made in 
the wall measurement for stone silks, caps, or belt courses, nor for 
stone ashlar, if the same is set by the brick-mason. If the ashlar 
is set by the stone-mason, the thickness of the ashlar is deducted 
from the thickness of the wall. 

The sum of all of these measurements repre.sents a certain 
number of thousands of bricks, and the whole is then multiplied by a 



common price per thousand, as fCi, ^8, $12, or %\(\ according to what- 
ever the cost of plain brickwork may be. If the building is to be 
faced with pressed brick, the actual cost of the pressed brick, as 
nearly as it can be computed, is added to the estimated price of the 
common pressed-brick work, nothing being added for laying the 
pressed brick, nor anything deducted from the common brick meas- 
urement, the measurement of the common work displaced by the 
pressed brick being assumed to offset the difference in the cost of 
laying the pressed and common brick work. 

In arriving at the cost of the pressed brick, the external super- 
ficial area of the walls faced with such brick is computed, and all 
openings, belt courses, stone caps, etc., deducted. 5 in. stone sills 
are not usually deducted. If a portion of the wall is covered by a 
porch, so that common brick may be used back of it, this space is 
also deducted. The net pressed-brick surface is then multiplied by 
6, 6^, or 7 to obtain the number of bricks required, 6^ giving about 
the number of pressed bricks required to the square foot of the size 
used in Denver. 

The topping out of the chimneys, if of face brick, is measured 
by girting the chimney and multiplying by the height, and adding 
the sum to the wall area. As a simple example of this system of 
estimating we will take a sma'l Ijrick house 2S by 32 ft. without 
cross walls, the basement walls to be 13 ins. thick, with footings 2 
ft. 6 ins. wide: first-story walls, 13 ins. thick; second-story walls, 9 
ins. thick ; height of basement walls from trench to top of first floor 
joists, 8 ft. 6 ins. ; from first-floor joists to top of second-floor joists, 
10 ft. 6 ins.; from second-floor joists to plate, 9 ft. 

Wall Measurement : — • 

Basement walls, equal i 20 ft. (girt of building) x 9 ft. 10 ins. 
(height and projection of footing) x 22^ ; equals 26,550 bricks. 

First-story walls, i 20 ft. X 10 ft. 6 ins. X 22>^ ; equals 28,360 
bricks. 

Second-story walls, 120 ft. X 9 ft. X 15 ; equals 16,200 bricks. 

Topping out two chimneys, each 1 ft. 9 ins. x 1 ft. 5 ins., 14 ft. 
high above roof, equals 2 x 14 ft. X (i ft. 5 ins. 4- i ft. 9 ins. + i ft. 
5 ins.) X 30 ; equals 3,600 bricks. 

Total brickwork equals 74,710 bricks; at ^6.50 per thousand 
(present price in Denver), equals $485.60. 

Pressed Rrick. From grade to the under side of plate the wall 
measures 22 ft. 6 ins.; to be faced with $15 pressed brick of the 
common size. 

The door and window openings measure 384 superficial ft. 

Surface of pressed brick equals 120 X 22_!^, equals 2,700 sq. ft. 
Deduct for openings, 3S4 

2,316 sq. ft. 
Add for two chimneys, 2 X 14 X 6 ft. 4 ins. equals 177 

2,493 sq. ft. 
2,493 X 6^ equals 16,204 pressed bricks, at $15 per thousand, 
equals #243. 

Total amount of bid, #485.60, -|- $243, equals 8^728.60. 

The above figures are supposed to include the necessary lime, 
sand, water, scaffolding, etc., recjuired to make the mortar and jjut 
up the walls, and also a profit for the contractor, but anything in the 
way of ironwork, as ties, thimbles, ash doors, etc., are figured addi- 
tional to the above. 

iCoiilinned.) 



' From Rules of Measurement adopted by the Brick (,diilr.ictors' Exchange of Deliver, 



Col. 



EFFECT OF MISTAK1-: IN S TAlliM I:NT OF AMOUNT. 

Under the provisions of a mechanic's lien law, that claimant 
must make a just and true statement of the demand due him, his lien 
will not be defeated, though he claims too much in his statement, it 
being the result of honest mistake, and not an effort on his part 
to place a lien on the property for a greater amount than he honcstl)- 
believes is due. — Supreme Court, Mich. 



170 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — I'robably no branch of business has suffered 
more than the real-estate and building interests, but as many 
operations have been merely postponed, not abandoned, we do not 
feel any anxiety as to the ultimate result, and for those who have 
safely tided over the few months of dulness there will now be a 
period of activity, according to all indications. 

Among the few items of real interest might be mentioned : ^ 

In the recent competition for the new Free Public Library of 
Jersey City there were about fifty competitors, and the successful 
ones were Hrite & Bacon, of New York. This was in every way 
a model competition and all architects and members of building 
committees would do well to study its history. The only criticism 
we would make as to the conditions is that too many small de- 
tails were called for in them, matters not in any way related to 
the planning of the building, such as the "number of sixteen 
candle-power lights to be used," " provision for electric bells," etc. 
Messrs. James Brite and 
Henry Bacon, Jr., are very 
well known in New York 
and are considered one of 
the most promising of the 
younger firms of archi- 
tects, the former having 
been associated with VVil 
liam Schickel & Co., and 
being the first winner of 
the .Architectural League's 
Gold Medal. Mr. Bacon 
has been for many years 
with McKim, Mead & 
White, having been form- 
erly a Boston man and 
winner of the Kotch 
scholarship. Their work is 
simple and dignified, show- 
ing the result of good schol- 
arly training uncontami- 
nated by French influence. 

Charles C. Haight has planned a two-story brick warehouse to 
be built for the Trinity Corporation at a cost of 130,000. 

Henry Anderson has prepared plans for an eight-story brick 
apartment house to be built on West End Avenue, corner 80th 
Street ; cost, j?300,ooo. 

Ralph S. Townsend has planned a .seven-story brick flat build- 
ing to be erected on West End Avenue ; cost, $1 75,000. 

The same architect has also planned a six story brick apartment 
building to be erected on Soih .Street, near West End Avenue ; 
cost, Jt; 5,000. 

C. P. H. Gilbert has prepared plans for a residence, five stories, 
to be built on Fifth Avenue near 74th Street ; cost, $40,000. 

M. W. Morris, architect, is preparing plans for two four-story 
brick and stone residences to be built in Brooklyn ; cost, #50,000. 




EAGLK O.N UOMK, FUBMC LlIiRARV AND MUSKUM, .MILWAUKKK, WIS. 

l-".xecuted by the Northwestern Terr;i-t_"oita Conip.iny. 

Kerry & Clas, Architect.*;. 



PHILADELPHIA. — The visitor to Philadelphia, architecturally 
as well as historically interested, may now note the result of 
recent changes in State House Row. Architect T. Mellon Rogers 
has had in hand for a year or more the delicate task of restoring not 
only the interior of the old building, but the exterior appearance of 
the entire group, as nearly as possible to the original condition. 
This required the demolishing of the wings connecting the State 



House with the Court Room and Congress Hall, in order to replace 
the low, two-story structures that originally flanked the main building 
to which they are connected by a high and disproportioned, but none 
the less quaint-looking arcade. All that remained to aid in the restora- 
tion were, over and above a very meager description, some quite in- 
adequate cuts, but the result seems to justify the idea that we have 
now a fair representation of the original. The date, i 735, on the con- 
ductor heads seems to conflict somewhat with the new appearance of 
the brickwork, especially in the rear, where new bricks were used. 
Those who remember the old building as it was previous to this res- 
toration may regret somewhat the removal of the Corinthian door- 
way from the front, but it is unmistakable that the entrance with its 
flat arch and heavy frame, as restored, looks older, more primitive, 
and more colonial. The first-story interior has not been changed 
materially, although the change seems great on account of the re- 
moval of the curios that lumbered the place before. The hallway 
now looks magnificent with an arcade opened up on one side, and 
the painting of the staircase in its old color. Altogether the changes 
have been instructive ones to the architect, and a material advantage 
accruing is the much more open side that Independence Square has 
to Chestnut Street. 

The new width of Delaware .\ venue, now being had by the moving 
out of the bulkhead line one hundred feet, is giving much-needed 
improvement to the architecture of the river front. The Pennsyl- 
vania & Reading Railroad 
ferry houses are nearing 
completion, the forrner be- 
ing a two-storied copper 
front, with pilasters at in- 
tervals along the second 
story carrying a horizontal 
cornice, back of which 
stop the various roof 
slopes, while the latter 
takes the opposite tack, 
and uses the gable ends of 
the waiting room and shed 
roofs as the architectural 
features. The Pennsyl- 
vania work was designed 
by the company's architect, 
.Mr. Cookman, the Reading 
work by Cope & Steward- 
son. 

A number of old 
ramshackle buildings have 
been removed at the corner of loth and Walnut Streets to make 
way for an extensive brick and stone addition to the Jefferson Hos- 
pital. Windrim & Son are the architects of the building, which, 
while not ornate, promises to be quiet and dignified. 

The architecture of Philadelphia is perhaps best represented by 
suburban work. Many of the younger architects are rejjresented 
solely in this way — whole districts, such as that known as Over- 
brook, being built up by the younger men. An architectural visitor 
to Philadelphia would find much to study at such i)laces. ,\t Over- 
brook is situated the Blind School, by Cope & Stewardson, which is 
now being finished. Its white plastered walls and dark brown tile 
roofs make it a prominent feature of the suburb. 

Furness & Evans, architects of the Pennsylvania Railroad .Sta- 
tion, are about to put up another skyscraper at the opposite corner of 
Market Street for the West End Trust Company. The designs have 
not yet been made public, l)ut the firm's individual style in architec- 
ture is well known. 

During a recent heavy rain storm in the city, when the unprec- 
edented fall of over five inches took place within three hours, the 
drainage system of the business section was found sadly lacking in 
capacity. Water backed up the soil pipes, and poured out of closets, 
basins, and other erstwhile inlets, in many cases several stories above 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



171 



ground. The City Hall suffered considerable damage in its base- 
ment, while many of the department stores turned their entire male 
force into a bucket brigade to save their stock. 



CHICAGO. — After the failure of young Mr. Leiter's wheat ven- 
ture his father is said to have raised $10,000,000 in cash 
within a very short period. Of this sum $2,000,000 was borrowed 
from an insurance company and secured by the Grand Pacific Hotel 
and other valuable pieces of property. Hut the most important 
transaction was the sale of one piece of business property to Mar- 



Frost & Granger have designed several new depots for the 
Northwestern Railway. 

In the line of commercial work, Armour & Co. are about to 
erect a )it3 50,000 elevator. The Hansell-Elcock Foundry Company, 
who have been awarded contract for part of the $400,000 worth of 
constructional steel for the new post-office building, are to erect an 
addition to their plant 120 by 140 ft. in size. The Chicago .Street 
Railroad is to make an addition to its office buildings. 

The Chicago Portland Cement Company expects soon to erect 
a plant in Illinois capable of producing 500 bbls. per day. The 




FRONT ELEVATION, MUSEUM BUILDING, NEW YORK BOTANICAL GARDEN. 

R. W. Gibson, Arcliitect. 

For detail slieet see Plates 6i and 62. 



shall Field for $2,135,000. This ground had been previously leased 
by a department store concern, which now pays for its ground rental 
and some additional storerooms in the same block, more than 
$150,000 per year. In another year it will begin the erection of a 
building to cost $1,000,000, for which Messrs. Adler & Sullivan are 
associated architects. This same building was referred to in the 
June Hrickisuilder. 

Another $1,000,000 structure, but one not so certain as yet, is a 
coliseum, a fire-proof building, 420 by 625 ft. in extent. It has 
been designed by Mr. Beman, the architect of the former building. 
It is proposed to locate this most elaborate amusement enterprise on 
the lake shore, and include, beside provisions for Wild West shows 



Titan .Steel Company is said to be ready to construct a large steel 
plant at Pullman. 

For building news which is not so agreeable from a business 
point of view, it may be noticed that an office building was lately 
transferred by foreclosure of mortgage. The fine Schiller Building, 
which cost $850,000, has gone into the hands of a receiver. The 
Dubuque Apartment Building, whose construction cost three years 
ago over $100,000, has just been sold for $20,500, to satisfy lien 
holders. There are more of the same sort. Some are due to wild and 
questionable financiering, and others, doubtless, to " hard times." 

Another disastrous fire has occurred in Chicago. This time it 
was an inflammable apartment building. Firemen were commended 




ST. mark's SCHOOL, SOUTIIBORO, MASS. 
Henry Forbes Bigelow, Architect. 



and baseball games, a double-decked pier 1,500 ft. long, with pavilion 
for band concerts. 

Omitting mention of some doubtful building schemes even 
greater than the foregoing, it may be noted that the University of 
Chicago has some new buildings under way, Henry Ives Cobb, 
architect. 



publicly for heroism in saving eighteen lives, but four others perished. 
What the laws fail to do public sentiment may be able to accom- 
plish after many lives are sacrificed to pay for the education of that 
sentiment. Since the Wabash Avenue horrors numbers of tenants 
have been known to move from similar fire traps to the buildings 
constructed of steel and hollow tile. 



172 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



ST. LOUIS. — There is little of interest in the architectural field, 
the universal complaint among architects and builders being 
that they never experienced less activity, but almost every one is 
possessed with a spirit of hopefulness, believing there will be a gen- 




STATE ASYLUM FOR THE CHRONIC INSANE, WERNERS- 

VILLE, PA. 

Rankin & Kellogg. Architects. 

eral awakening of the building interests with the beginning of another 
year. 

A greater part of the work commenced in the early part of the 
year is either completed or nearly so. The Hargadine, McKittrick 
Building has just been occupied. It tills the intervening space between 
the Mallinckrodt Building on 9th Street and the Martin Building on 
10th Street, extending through from Washington Avenue to Lucas 
Avenue. The building is eight stories and a good example of mill 
construction. The architects, Messrs. Eames& Young, have handled 
the Washington .\venue front very interestingly. The entire facjade 
is in white stone. The Falladian motive has been employed in the 
frieze story, and in the spandrels are female figures in bold relief. 
It i.s encouraging to see such an effort made to make our commercial 
buildings good to look upon. The Lucas Avenue front has been 
made much simpler, and gray brick and terra-cotta have been used 
instead of stone. As the building is something like 250 ft. long 
with light only from each street, Luxfer prisms enter largely as a 
feature in the fronts. 

The Benoist Building, on the corner of 9th and Pine Streets, has 
been completed. The building was designed to be ten stories, but 
only six stories have been built. The face is of red brick and terra- 
cotta. The floors have been formed with what might be called con- 
crete joist, that is, concrete beams with iron bars 
have been i)laced close together and terra-cotta blocks 
have l)een fitted between the beams at the bottom, 
forming a level ceiling. C. D. McArdle is the archi- 
tect and James D. McGee the engineer. 

The large nine-story warehouse on the corner of 
1 2th Street and Washington Avenue, being built by 
H. E. Roach & Sons for Mr. A. D. Brown, is also 
nearing completion. The two first stories are of 
white stone, and above the building is faced on 
three sides with cream-enameled brick. 

Work continues at intervals on the new City 
Hall, the contract for the finishing of the chambers 
for the Council and House of Delegates having re- 
cently been awarded to Porter, White & Co., for 
$59,000. 

A movement has again been inaugurated in the 



municipal assembly to widen 12th Street between Choteau Avenue 
and Cass Avenue and is meeting with more support than any pre- 
vious effort, and 12th Street property owners are hopeful that their 
dream of a grand commercial boulevard in the near future may ma- 
terialize. Should the scheme become an accomplished fact there is 
little doubt but it would become the retail center of the city in a 
very short time. 



MINNEAPOLIS. — There has been a gratifying growth in 
public sentiment towards the use of brick as a material for 
street paving. At first asphalt was the only material that our city 
officials would consider, owing, it is suspected, to the fact that the 
" asphalt combine " owned the city council, and were awarded con- 
tracts year after year, at advance of 30 or 40 per cent, over brick, 
and against the remonstrances of the interested property owners to a 
large extent. The result has been just what might have been ex- 
pected. The asphalt ring soon came to believe that they had a life 
" sinch," and they proceeded to run matters to their own satisfaction, 
and ignored public opinion as well as the terms of their contracts, by 
not doing their work properly, and then failing, in numerous in- 
stances, to make their work good as called for. They have been 
turned down to a large extent this year, and we are going to have a 
fair and full trial of vitrified brick on some of our principal streets. 

One interesting phase of this matter is the position the bicycling 
fraternity has taken. At the outset asphalt was the only paving ma- 
terial they would consider. Now that they have had a fair trial of 
botii, they appear to favor brick, and desire a path of that material 
on all asphalt pavements. We have also found that the asphalt will not 
wear in the gutters where there is dampness, and where horses are 
allowed to stand. They are now laying brick in the gutters and cut- 
ting the asphalt out. We also see the advantage of brick where 
there is tearing up of pavement for the laying of pipes. It means a 
pert'^anent disfigurement. In our climate asphalt is certainly not the 
ideal material for pavements. 

The corner stone of our new State Capitol Building wa.s laid at 
St. Paul last week with great ceremony, the venerable Ex-Governor 
Ramsey handling the trowel. It was made the occasion of a two 
days' jubilee by the St. Paulites, who see therein a settlement of the 
capitol removal question for the next century, at least. Work on the 
superstructure is being pushed at present and will be until comple- 
tion. 

A new factor in the brick industry has entered into the local 
market during the past two or three years. It is a local concern with 
ample financial backing, who are making a specialty of producing 
difficult shades of brick to satisfy the demands of exacting architects, 
and they appear to be meeting those demands in a satisfactory man- 
ner. They have filled special orders in the Twin Cities that no other 
concern pretends to be able to produce. Some of the shades they 
turn out are a delight to an artistic eye, and we all hope that they 
will be able to match these varying shades sufficiently well to estab- 
lish confidence in their ability to produce them on short notice, and 



IT EEB 133 -HI '^ 
iEE DDD JiE ffl II; ilVinrii. 



r T- r 



n.H 



I'ATE ASYLUM FOR THE CHRONIC INSANE, WEUNERSVILLE, TA. 
Rankin & Kellugg, Archiiects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



^n 




that they are to prove perma- 
nent, which latter seems assured 
when one looks into their 
methods of manufacture. The 
entrance of a new competitor 
has had a wholesome effect on 
the other people, who had the 
field nearly to themselves. 

In the line of improve- 
ments now under way and to 
be done this season may be 
mentioned the following : — 

Two new school buildings, 
eight rooms each, to cost 
$15,000 each; E. S. Stebbins, 
architect. 

Business building for 
Thorpe Brothers, cost, 3^35,- 
000 ; Fred Kees, architect. 
City Hospital, two main build- 
ings, 40 by 225 ft. with Ad- 
ministration Building, 60 by 80 
ft., three stories, to cost com- 
plete )f25o,ooo ; the east wing 
only to be built this year, at 
cost of J6o,ooo. Architects, 
MacLeod & Lamoreaux. 

The old Grand Opera 
House has been remodeled into 
a six-story business building at 
a cost of $125,000; Fred Kees, 
architect. 

A new residence for S. A. 
Harris, cost, $30,000; Bertrand 
& Chamberlin, architects. Residence for G. H. Partridge on Lowry 
Hill, to cost $30,000 : Fred Kees, architect. 

Passenger Station, C. M. & St. P. Railway Com- 
pany, cost, $150,000; architect, Chas. S. Frost, of 
Chicago. 

ST. PAUL. 

Addition to Union Railway Station, to cost $55,- 
000 ; architect, C. S. Frost, Chicago. 

New passenger station for Northern Pacific 
Railway Company, at Fargo, N. D., to cost $30,000; 
architect, Cass Gilbert. 

Catholic Cathedral at Fargo, N. I)., cost, $25,- 
000; architects, Bassford & Donahue. 

Norwegian Lutheran .Seminary at Hamline, 
Minn.; cost, $50,000; architects, Buechner & Jacob- 
sen. 

All the above buildings are of brick, mostly of 
pressed brick. There is a growing tendency in the 
practise of the best architects to aim at satisfactory 
effects by use of unselerted brick, as to shades, and 
the results thus far attained have amply sustained 
this tendency. There is also a noticeable leaning 
towards brick as the only building material that will 
stand satisfactorily through all emergencies, as 
demonstrated in the recent large fires at Philadelphia 
and elsewhere. 



DETAII,, BUILDING, JOHN ST., 
NEW VOKK CITY. 
Executed in white terra-cotta by the Ex- 
celsior Terra-Cotta Company ; 
Ralph S. Townsend, Architect. 




HRACKET, BAPTIST PUB. SOCIETY BUILr 

ING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta 

Company. 

Krank Miles Day & Bro., Architects. 



The able and consistent manner with which tiie i^urpose of the 
catalogue is maintained throughout is particularly gratifying, every 
page being devoted to pertinent information relative to the subject in 
hand. In the opening pages the character and (|uality of the product 
are conservatively mentioned in a brief introduction. A short descrip- 
tion follows of the various colors, grades, and sizes of their Ijrick. To 
facilitate ordering, there is explained a simple yet comprehensive sys- 
tem of distinguishing by a method of classification any brick desired. 
.Several pages are devoted to scale drawings of arches, with rules for 
specifying brick for same. 

A particularly interesting feature of the catalogue is the half-tone 
illustrations (one half reduction) and full-sized profile drawings of over 
ninety different shapes of molded brick made by the company. 

Lack of space permits us to touch upon only a few of the salient 



M 




I! '. I 



NEW TRADE PUBLICATION. 

THE Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company, 
Sliawnee, Ohio, New York oftice 44 Pine Street, 
has recently issued an exceptionally interesting and 
attractive catalogue especially prepared for the use of 
architects, as a practical guide in drawing up speci- 
fications for the Shawnee Brick. 



ii>rfi rtfeP^ 
:, i i 1 ^1 -r 

ii 3 I I I '[ 

i, 



'■^inigi 



II n 



UNITED STATES APPRAISERS' WAREHOUSE, NEW YORK CITV. 

Seven hundred and sixteen thousand face brick used in this l)nilding, furnished by the Washington Ilydraulic- 

Prcss Brick Company through tlicir agents, Fredenburg Si I.ounsbury, New York City. 

William Martin Aiken, Architect. 



174 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




PANEL, FOURTH STORV liAVARU liUlLlJING, NEW YORK CITY. 
Executed by the Perth Aniboy Terra-Cotta Company. 
Louis H, Sullivan and Lyndon P. Smith, Architects. 

features of the catalogue. A perusal of its pages will develop many other 
points of interest. We are confident that the hook will be highly 
appreciated among the architectural profession as a work of refer- 
ence. Parties desiring copies should communicate with the company 
either at Shawnee, Ohio, or 44 I'ine Street, New York. 



CURRENT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

The Union Akron Cement Company, Buffalo, N. Y., are 
furnishing their cement for a large business block at Akron, Ohio, 
and also for the brick paving being laid at Meadville, Pa. 



building is 60 ft. wide and 500 ft. long. The framework of 
the building is steel. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Company has 
established agencies in a dozen of the larger cities throughout 
the country, from which good returns are expected, as real- 
estate owners and architects learn the efficiency of Mason 
-Safety Tread as a protective device, and one to lengthen the 
wear of stairways. Great interest is being shown, especially 
in the use of this product for stairs in schoolhouses, as it pro- 
vides a convenient and economical solution to a serious 
problem. 

The American Ena.vieled Brk k and Tile Com- 
pany are furnishing the enameled brick for lining the swim- 
ming tank of the new I'niversity Club, New York City. 
McKim, Mead & White, architects; C. T. Wills, builder; and 
about So,ooo semi-glazed brick to be used in the side and rear 
elevation of the Gugenheimer mansion. Fifth Avenue, New 
Y'ork City, Robert Maynicke, architect. These bricks will 
have the same finish as those used in the new Dunn Build- 
ing, New York City. 

The New En(;lani) Sanitary Pkodcct Company are 
erecting at Old Harbor Point, Mass., near Boston, an absolutely 
fire-proof building 120 ft. wide and about 130 ft. long. The build- 
ing is two stories high, and is of skeleton steel framework style, 
consisting of steel columns built in the walls, carrying heavy steel 
floor beams and girders, and clear span roof trusses which support 
the roof. The structural steel work in this plant was designed and 
is being furnished and erected by the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, 
of East Berlin, Conn. 



n. F. Mavland & Co., New Y'ork agents of the Burlington 
Architectural Terra-Cotta Coinpany, are supplying the architectural 
terra-cotta for a large store building being erected at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

S.WRE & Fisher Company are furnishing the limestone gray 
brick being used in the construction of the new Metal Exchange 
Building, corner John and Clift Streets, New York City, Clinton & 
Russell, architects. 

H. E. Fuller & Co., Boston. New England agents for the 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, have contracted to 
supply the architectural terra-cotta for a new business block at 
Holyoke, Mass., (.eorge P. Alderman, architect. 

The Illinois Supply and Construction Company, St. 
Louis, Mo., who represent the Tiffany Enameled Brick Company in 
that district, are supplying 100,000 9 by 4,',< in. enameled blocks, to 
be used in the new Brown Building, 12th Street and Washington 
Avenue, St. Louis. 

Sayre & Fisher Company are furnishing the limestone gray 
brick being used in the construction of the addition to the main 
building of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Central Park, New Y'ork 
City, R. H. Hunt, architect. The brick are of common size, and the 
order calls for more than 200,000. 

The Fall River Bleachery, at Fall River. Mass., have 
placed the contract for their new mill with the Berlin Iron Bridge 
Company, of East Berlin, Conn. The building is 65 ft. wide and 
200 ft. long with side walls of stone, the supporting framework being 
made of steel. 

Thic New Haven Gas Light Company, of New Haven, 
Conn., have placed the contract with the Berlin Iron Bridge Com- 
pany, of East Berlin, Conn., for their new fire-proof coal shed. The 



The White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company has secured 




WELLS & RICHARDSON CO. S MANUFAtlLKI. 
BURLINGTON, VT. 
VV. R. li. Willcox, Architect. 



11, DING, 



contracts to furnish the architectural terracotta for the following 
buildings; Public school at Queens, L. I., architects, Boring & Til- 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



175 



ton ; apartment house, 327 W. 83d Street, New York City, architect, 
H. E. Hartwell; primary school, New Rochelle, N. Y., architect, 
Geo. H. Pierce ; Stores and lofts, 56 Thomas Street, New York 
City, architects, Quinby & Broome ; Cheeseborough Building, corner 
State and Pearl Streets, New York City, architects, Clinton & Russell ; 
Hopkins apartments,2 1 6- 
218 W. 1 6th Street, New 
York City, architects, 
Boring & Tilton ; resi- 
dence and stable at Great 
Neck, L. I., for Mr. James 
E. Martin, architects, 
Little & O'Connor. 

The copartnership 
heretofore existing be- 
tween R. W. Allison, 
S. B. Goucher, W. B. 
Goucher, Samuel Mc- 
Adoo, Frank Bowles, and 
W. H. Garlick, under the 
firm name of Empire 
Fire-Proofing Company, 
has been dissolved by 
mutual consent, and the 
assets and good-will have 
been assigned to a new 
company, organized un- 
der the laws of the State 
of New Jersey, which 
will continue the business 

under the name of Empire Fire-Proofing Company. Mr. R. W. 
Allison is the president and general manager of the new company ; 




MELLON BL(JCK, PLITSISUKGH, PA. 
Alden & Harlow, Architects. Architectural terra-cotta furnished by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co. 

ware Park, Buffalo 
Buffalo, architects. 



and Mr. John A. Hammett, who has had charge of the business at 
the Chicago office, under the former management, will continue same 
as vice-president of the new company. The general offices of the 
company are in the German National Bank Building, Pittsburgh, 
Pa., with branch offices in Monadnock Block, Chicago, 111., 874 

Broadway, New York, 
and Builders' Exchange, 
Philadelphia. 

The C i: l a I) o n 
Terr a-C o t t a Com- 
pany, Ltd., have secured 
through their Buffalo 
agent, John H. Black, the 
contracts to furnish their 
roofing tiles on the three 
following buildings: — 

Office Building, 
American side Niagara 
l*"alls, for Clifton and 
Niagara Falls Suspension 
Bridge Company (6 in. 
Conosera), R. A. Wallace, 
of Buffalo, architect. 

P'rancis Xavier 
Parish House, Black 
Rock, N. Y. (10 in. 
Conosera), Carl Schmidt, 
of Buffalo, architect. 

Band Stand, Dela- 
by 2 in. Conosera), Loverin & Whelan, of 




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Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those we make off 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $12 
upwards. 

Phila. & Boston Face Brick Co,, 

15 LIBERTY SQ., BOSTON, MASS. 




176 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

ACETYLENE GAS GENERATORS. 

Napheys Acetylene Gas Generators ......... 

J. B. Coll & Co., 3, 5, & 7 \V. 29lh St., New York. 

ADVANCE BUILDING NEWS REPORTS. 

The F. W. Dodge Co "... 

ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwooci Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenliauer & Nesbit, Metropolitan Building, New York Citv 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Keicham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 287 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture, Scranton, Pa. 

Harvard University, Lawrence Scientific School 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American lerra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette ISldg., Chicago, 111. 

Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company 

2S7 I'ourth Ave,, New York City. 

Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y 

Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Evens cS: Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston, 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, Charities Building, 289 4th Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 South 7th St. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal 

Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St,, Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 
Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Agents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 

Philadelphia Agent, W, L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 
The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room 11 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. .... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 

Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... 
Dagus Clay Man'f'g Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. : Works, Daguscahonda, Pa 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111 

Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal 

Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg. I'a. 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. 

Hume Office, I'nion Trust Building, St Louis, Mo. 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. 

Kittaniriag Brick and Fire Clay Co., Duquesne Way and loth St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Merwin, C. P. Brick Co., Berlin, Conn 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 44 Pine St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ..,....•■..•• 
Penn Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. . 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City . 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston Face Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Ridgway Press-Brick Co., Ridgway, Pa 

New England Agents, G. R, Twichell & Co., 19 Federal St., Boston. 

New York Agent, O. D, Person, 160 Fifth Ave. „ , »r ,, , 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So, 7ih St. 

Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston 

Illinois Stipply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. .... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 
Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 
Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Peari St., New York 

BRIDGE AND BUILDING, IRON WORKERS. 

Berlin Iron Bridge Co., Berlin, Conn. 

CEMENTS. 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City .... 

Berry & Ferguson, 102 State St.. Boston 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. , « , -kt -.r 

Cummings Cement Co., Ellicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Davis, James A.ix Co. ....•••••• 

office, 92 State St., Boston. , , , ,. r, 

French, Samuel H., & Co.. York Avenue, Philadelphia, Pa. . . . 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York . ... 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. 1 Broadway, New York City . 



zxvi 
xxvi 



Xll 

iv 



viu 
xxviii 



vni 
viii 



XIll 

xiv 



xu 

X 



XV 

xii 



XIII 

zxi 



XVI 

vi 

'7' 
xli 

XX 

xiv 



XVI 

viii 



XXVI 

xii 
xvi 

XX 

xvii 
xvi 



xzz 

xxxii 

XXX 

xxxi 

XXX 

xxzi 
xzzi 
zzzi 



ADDRESS. 

CEMENTS. — Continued. 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. isth St., Philadelphia 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York • . . . . 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City 

New England Agents, Van Name & Co.. Hartford, Conn. 

James C. GoB, 31-49 Point St., Providence, R. I. 

The J. S. Noble Co., 208 Lyman St., Spring6eld, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland, Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 WUliam St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y 

Waldo Brothers. 102 Milk St., Boston 

CEMENT MACHINERY. 

Sturtevant Mill Co., Boston .......... 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-proofing, and Roofing Tiles. 

Black, John H., n Erie Co. Savings Bk. Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia ..... 

Lippincott, E. P., & Co., 24 Builders' Exchange, Baltimore, Md., and 808 F St 
N. W., Washington, 1). C 

Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 E. 23d St., New York City 

Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, Boston 

Twichell, G. R. & Co., 166 Devonshire St., Boston 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

Willard, C. E., 192 Devonshire St., Boston 

CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 I'earl St., N. Y 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Peari St., New York 



PAGt 

XXXI 
XXXI 
XXXi 



XXX' 
XXI 

xix 



XIX 

xix 



XXXI 

xxvi 



CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio 
Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. .... 
Chisholm. Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 
Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. .... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. 
The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio 



ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ....... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERLAL MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents. 
Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ..... 

Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York ...... 

Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago .... 

Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., Bourse Building, Philadelphia 

New York Ageut, F. L. Douglass, St, James Building, 26th St, and Broadway, 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Guastavino, R., 9.East 59tli St, New York 

Boston Office, 444 Albany Street. 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, i 56 F'fth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1515 Marquette Building, Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Townsend Building, Broadway and 25th Street. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 41 Cortlandt St., New York 

GRANITE. 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

HANGERS. 

McCabe Manufacturing Co. 

5^7 \V. 22d St.. New York City. 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

MURESCO. 

Moore, Benjamin & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

PRESERVATIVE COATINGS. 

Smith, Edw., & Co., 45 Broadway, N. Y 

PLUMBING GOODS. 

Randolph & Clowes, Waterbury, Conn 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers Agents.) 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited 

Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 

Chicago Office, Marquette Building, 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... 

SNOW GUARDS. 

Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 116 South St., Boston, Mass. .... 

Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WALL TIES. 

Cleveland Pat. Steel Wall Ties. Wasoii, Hamilton, and Dart Sts., Cleve- 
land, Ohio 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

Morse Patent Wall Ties, J, B. Prescott & Son, Mfrs., Webster, Mass. 
WINDOW SASH AND PULLEYS 



XXXIX 

xxxix 
xxxi.\ 

xl 

xl 

xxxviii 

xl 
xxxviii 



xxn 
zx\ 

XX 

zxiv 



ZZlll 

ZXI 



xli 
xxi 



xzzv 

xxxvii 

xix 

xxxii 
xxxi 



Queen Sash Balance Co,, 150 Na.ssau St.. New York . 

The ShuU Overhead Window Pulley, 116 South St., Boston 

100 Park Place, New York, 
The Bolles Sash Co., 150 Nassau St., New York 



XXXVll 

xzxvii 



XXXVII 

xxxvii 
zxxvi 

xxxvii 
xxxvii 



THEBRICKBUILDER. xxx 



DYGKERHOFF PORTLAND CEMENT 

Is superior to any other Portland cement made. It is very finely ground, always uniform and 
reliable, and of such extraordinary strength that it will permit the addition of 25 per cent, more 
sand, etc., than other well-known Portland cements, and produce the most durable work. It 
is unalterable in volume and not liable to crack. 

The Dyckerhoff Portland Cement has been used in the Metropolitan Sewerage Construc- 
tion, Boston, and is now being employed in the construction ot the Boston Subway, Howard 
A. Carson, Chief Engineer. 

Pnwf>hlet with directions /or its employment ^ testimofiiais, and tesis^ sent on application. 

HAM & CARTER, E. THIELE, 

560 Albany Street, BOSTON. 7S William Stkfet, NEW YORK. 

Sole Agent, Unitefl States. 



JAMES A. DAVIS & CO. 

Distributors of 

AMERICAN PORTLAND CEMENT 

Quality Unexcelled, 
Uniformity Guaranteed. 

c;°rr^spondencrsoiicited. Officc, 92 State StrcBt, BostOH. 



SOLE MANUFACTURERS 
OF THE 



Union Akron Cement Company, 

Akron Cement, 

OFFICE, 141 ERIE ST., - BUFFALO, N. Y. 



The Strongest Natural Hydraulic Cement Manufactured 

in America. In Successful Use for the 

past Fifty Years- 

CAPACITY OF WORKS 2,000 BARRELS DAILY. 



ALSEN'S PORTLAND CEMENT. 





The strongest, Gnest ground, and most uniform Cement 
in the world. Permits the admixture of more sand than 
any other, and is the best for mortar or stuccoing. 

143 LIBERTY STREET NEW YORK. 

WALDO BROS., - - I02 iViilk St., Boston. 

AGENTS FOR NEW ENGLAND. 

PORTLAND Amur a 

CEMENT. I , ^"t"^'^.' 

^ American Portland 
Manuf^actured Q|^j^g p^]]^ Portknd Ccment Co., Glens Falls, N. Y. # Cement unsurpassed 

SOLE sELLiHG AGENTS. ^ for making fine 

Commercial Wood & Cement Co., 156 Fifth Ave, N. Y. ' artificial stone. 
Commercial Wood & Cement Co., >- »»' » ^'^'^^- 

^ Commercial Rosendale. 

Wholesale... Portland and [Rosendale Cements, | 



CORRESPONDENCE SOLICITED. 



t 



156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. SSC 



Philadelphia, VictOF 



Commercial Portland. 

Iron Clad 

Gem 



LDING. 



XXXI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



CEMENT 



Brooklyn Bridge Brand ;;:S 

7 / /ff^^'^S^'^ Warranted Superior to an" Manufactured. 

^ strongest, Darkest, Uniform, Reliable. , 

ASTORIA HOTEL, Largest in the World, j SPECIFIED AND < WASHINGTON LI FE:INS. CO. BUILDING. 
PARK ROW OFFICE BUILDING, 30 Stories. NEW YORK ATHLETIC CLUB. 

COLUMBIA COLLEGE NEW BUILDINGS. > UbtUUN ( ^STOR'S NEW EXCHANGE COURT BLDG. 



OVER 



^ 



100,000 BARRELS 

USED ON 

NewYorkand Brooklyn Bridge. 
50,000 BARRELS 

USED ON 

Washington Bridge. 



PEERLESS 

STRONGEST, red. brown, buff, black, 
BRIGHTEST, moss green, royal purple, 

AND MOST PonPEiAN buff, french gray, 

DURABLE. colonial drab. 

spk:cial shades made to order. 

Write for Samples and Prices. 

SAMUEL H. FRENCH & CO. 



Established 1844. 



PHILADELPHIA. 



^Superior 

FOR 

fWORK_UNDER WATER' 

^NDs Every High 

»TED FOR 



)NRY^ 



--aXA THt 

_ROCK 

\LWA Ys Re liable] 
In Quality 

'Strongest-^ AMERICAN 

CEMENTS 



ESTABLISHED 1864. 



URIAH CUM MINGS, President. 
HOMER S. CUMMINGS, Secretary. 
Stamford, Conn. 



PALMER CUMMINGS, Treas. & Gen'l Mgr. 
RAY P. CUMMINGS, Vice-President. 
Buffalo, N. Y. 



The Cummings Cement Co. 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

Hydraulic Rock Cement and Portland Cement. 




GABRIEL & SCHALL, 

p. o. Box 2654. 205 Pearl St., New York. 

Sole Importers in the United States of the 



Precipitated 




Carbonate 
ofBarytes 



The only preventative for scum and discoloration, neutralizing the Sul- 
phate of Lime in the Clay and Water. 

Also sole importers in United States and Canada of the well-l(nown brands of 

Vorwohler "LION" Portland Cement and "BRUNSWICK" Asphalt Mastic. 

Circulars and Particulars on Application. 



Gen'l Offices : Ellicott Square Bldg., BufFalo, N. Y. 
New England Office: Stamford, Conn. 

Cement Works at Akron, N. Y. The largest in the United States. 



On account of its merit as a superior Portland 
Cement and its good tensile strength. 

Medal of Honor and Diploma Awarded to 

"Giant" Portland Cement 

Bv "World's Columbian Commission." 



LESLEY & TRINKLE, Sales Agents, 
22 and 24 S. 15th Street, Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXI V 




Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, Architects, 



New York Ciiy. 




SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

Furnished by 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co, 



See May issue ol this magazine. 




XXXV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



AGENTS WANTED. 

Contractors and dealers in builders* materials wanted to take agencies for the leasing of the Gilbreth Scaffold to Building 
Contractors. 

Preference given to parties having an opportunity to show this scaffold in actual operation on a building. 

Correspondence solicited. 

See April issue of this magazine. 




U 




Address, 



GILBRETH SCAFFOLD CO., 



85 Water Street, Boston. 



H 
X 
O 

U 



I 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Xlll 



The Columbus,*** 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Co*, 



COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Manufacturers of 



Plain, Molded, 



and Ornamental 



PRESSED BRICK, 



STANDARD AND ROMAN SIZES. 

IN 

Buff, Gray, and Terra-Cotta Colors. 





.Siki^ 


^ 




Works at Union Furnace^ Ohio* 






'^5fc;2^ 




L. G. KILBOURNE, 


A. B. COIT, 


ELLIS LOVETOY, E. M. 


Preiident and General MaDager. 


Secretary aod Treasurer. 


SuperintendeDt. 



Telegraph and 

Telephone 

Connections. 




Capacity, 
180,000 Brick 
Per Day. 



C. p. Merwin Brick Co., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Pallet Face, Building^, Sewer, Paving:, and Molded 




Also a Superior Quality of HOLLOW BUILDING BRICK. 

BERLIN, CONN. 



OFFICB ANO WOKKS 

ONE MINUTE'S WAI,K FROM DEPOT. 



XIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



W. S. RAVENSCROFT, President. 



J. J. HOBLETZELL, Vice-President. 



M. S. KLINE, Secretary and Treasurer. 




DAGUS CLAY MANUFACTURING CO., 

DAGUSCAHONDA, PA. 

TELEGRAPH OFFICE - - RIDGWAY, PA. 



front anb 
©rnamental 

BUFF, 

GRAY, 

RFD. 




Works: DAGUSCAHONDA, PA. 



The Dagus Fire-Flashed Pompeian Brick. 

O. W. PETERSON & CO., 



BOSTON AGENTS: 



178 Devonshire Street. 



W. H. OSTERHOUT, Pres't. 



W. H. HYDE, Vice-Pres't. 



E. n. CAMPBELL, Sec'y and Treat. 



Ridgway Press=Brick Company, 



Ridgway, Pa. 

Manufacturers of 



The Ridgfway gray A and buff BRICK. 



New England Agents : 

G. R. Twichell & Co., 

19 Federal Street, 

BOSTON. 








New York Agent : 

Orrin D. Person, 
160 Fifth Avenue. 



sburgh Agent : 

James R. Pitcairn, 

337 Fifth Avenue. 



^B, 



' -==^--^^ ^^^S/!^^^- ^"^^^ -iHSS 



CHURCH AT NEWTON, MASS., Cram, Wentworth & Goodhue, Architects. 

The Gray Bricks used in this church were furnished by the Ridgway Press- Brick Co. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XV 



THE HARBISON & WALKER CO 



Made by Mud Process, Hand Pressed, Fire Flashed. 

" PoMPEiAN " brick made by this Company sur- 
pass all others in keeping bright and clean in Pitts- 
burgh or any other atmosphere, as the following 
extracts from letters received will show: 

Pittsburgh, May 9, 1896. 
. . . Ten years ago I built a residence here, using your 
" PoMPEiAN " brick. These brick are to-day as bright and 
clean as when laid. They are impervious to water, and a 
driving rain clears the wall from dust and soot, instead of 
soaking the dirt into them, as it will with porous material. 

Pittsburgh, Jan. 14, 1896. 
It is five years since my house was completed. So far as 
can be seen, the brickwork is as clean as on the day the build- 
ing was finished. 

Cleveland, O. 
Your " PoMPEiAN " brick stands the Cleveland climate 
better than any other brick I have observed, retaining their 
bright, clear appearance. 

Buffalo, N. Y. 
The brick to-day look brighter, cleaner, and more attractive 
than they did when the building was first erected, and every 
rain storm seems to freshen them. 

Send for descriptive pamphlet showing photo- 
graphs of buildings and mantels in which our brick 
have been used. 



OLD GOLD and CHOCOLATE-BROWN COLORS. 




RESIDENCE, THEODORE HOOPER, Esq., BALTIMORE, MD. 

C. L. CARSON, ARCHrTECT. 

Bricks Furnished by Harbison & Walker Co. 

OFFICE, 22d AND RAILROAD STREETS, PITTSBURGH, PA. 



The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Go. 

Makers of the Superior 

Shawnee Brick 

in a variety of artistic shapes and colors, for Exterior and 
Interior Facing, Mantels, Floors, etc. 

Our clays are the most varied and extensive, our plant 
the most modern, our processes the most elaborate, and our 
product the most perfect in structure, form, color, and finish. 

Samples and catalogues delivered free to architects and 
builders. 

AGENCIES. 




BOSTON Waldo Brothers, J02 Milk St. 

NEW YORK . . Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co., 14 East 23d St. 

CHICAGO Englc Brick Co., 142 Washington St. 

PITTSBURGH Bur^ & M'Neill, 531 Wood St. 



CLEVELAND, . . Cleveland Builders' Supply Co., 734 Garfield Bldg. 
CINCINNATI .... Mendenhall, Neff & Co., 237 West 4th St. 

TOLEDO Kind & Kuhlman Builders' Supply Co. 

DETROIT F. B. Stevens, Griswold & Atwater Sts. 



Office, 44 Pine St., New York. 



Works, Shawnee, Ohio» 



XVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



3i3fcgy svt/:* ^efcgv ^cfcgv j^facv JCfcgv ^Mfco ASfagy 3Cfcg» 3Cfcgv :>efcc> j»!fcgy 9k^^> jMfci^ m».<cv .'it».<^ 'it»>?v 

3?^ 3m 3!^ 3m 3Pk 3?w 3Sm 3?^ 

Pennsylvania 



Enameled Brick 



rianufacturers of a Superior Quality of 

ENAHELED BRICK, 

PURE WHITE FRONT BRICK, 

CREAM -WHITE FRONT BRICK. 



Company. 



Used in over 300 of the best Buildings in New York and other large cities. 



Works : 

P. O. Address, 

Oaks, Pa. 



Address all Correspondence 
to Main Office. 



Main Office: 

25th Street and Broadway, 

Townsend Building, 

New York City. 



} ^ f ^ M^ iV ^ i W f ^ f ^ **^ > Vf^ ,\<^ iV fP .V ^ M? Arf f ^^ ^^ ^^ ' 

a!/4U -sI/XU -vifCU -vI/XU </4M VlfXU <74M. -*i/Jlk VifJEU a*/4W •s!/4kU -tV^U ^f^PtS -vlfXU' a*/JLU. -vi/JEU -sil^Ev 



ig^^g?^™t . Architects and Contractors. 



^ 



39S 
3$S 

3$S 



^ 






1[! 



^ 



Djlq^t:^ 




E1!E!S 



CnicHnn.i 




General Offices : 

204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING, 
LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE EXPRESS 679. 



^ 
^ 
^ 



We are now manufacturing an English size brick ENAA\- 
ELED on the flat, 9 x 4>^ in. face, and 3 ins. deep, giving 
FIFTY PER CENT MORE SURFACE than the ordinary Eng- 
lish size brick. 

Also SOAPS 9x^x2 ins., TILE 9x^x1 ins., and 9 x 414 x 1 
ins., besides the regular English, American, and Roman size brick. 

We manufacture the above in all colors. 

Write us for prices. 



^4 



^ 



EASTERN AGENT FOR TILE. 


EASTERN AGENT FOR BRICK. 


3IE 


ROBERT ROSSMAN, 


ORRIN D. PERSON, 


84 University Place, 


160 Fifth Avenue, 


New York City. 


New York City. 


^ 



mimi^mimmmmmm^m^^mm^m^^mniwsiiimm^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




OtTAIL OF I5"ARCH « 



Our PateniEii Traisverse Sysiei of Floor Arcli CoDStrocnoo 



SECTION OF ARCH. 

Mailetii9,IO.I2anill5licliileplli8. 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers aud Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUvS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. I. A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Buflding Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO, 






FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



HOLLOW BLOCKS, 



For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous RooSng. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE- 

A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, VTCW VAPl^ 
156 FIFTH AVE., llCVY I UIVIV, 

Werk«, LORILLARD (K*yp*rt p. 00. N. J. 



XXll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and G>ntractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta ... 

FIRE-PROOFINa 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow^ Porous^ Front; and Paving Brick* 



WORKS AT 
PITTSBURGH, PA., WASHINGTON, N. J., and at EAST PALESTINE, OHIO. 

General Offices: CARNEGIE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office : Townsend Building, corner Broadway and 25tli St., New York City. 




The accompanying illustration is of 

The White Building, 

140- 141 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
L. P. SOULE & SONS Builders. 




FIRE-PROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

J 66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXlll 



Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



ii 



EUREKA 



ft 



Floor Arches^ 
Partitions^ 
Furring; 



Roofing; Etc* 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

_New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Agent. 





^¥=|i[ 



The Coming Arch for Light Fire-Proof 
Floor Construction (Patented). 

DURABLE, ECONOMICAL,. AND RAPIDLY CONSTRUCTED. 




Di-i'TM OF Akcm, 6 ins. 

Spacing, Center to Center of Beams, 

30 ins. 



Depth ok Beams, 5 to 6 ins. 

WEItiHT of AkCII, I'EK SQUARE FOOl', 

21 lbs. 



Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all SizeS; 

Flue Linings. 

Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks. 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 

Factories. __ — \ 

MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



'• Excelsior " !■ u.l i .in-ii u. ii.,i, I ■ ,: '■,!.!, I '..!■ ••'.jcl). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method. 



To meet a throwing (k-maiul for a lil^lit, simjilr, yet stroiii^r and iiK'.\pensi\t' fire-prool con.struc- 
tion for iloors, we beif to offer our '' Eureka" arch (.see cut above), for wliich we claim the follow- 
ing advantages : — • 

Absolutely Hre-proof — made (A prc-clay. 
Qiiickly erected — no centering reijuired. 
Strong antl durable — capable of resisting heavy weights. 
Light in weight — no concrclc necessary. 
Light iron construction only recjuired. 
Ironwork thoroughly protected. 
Only three sections forming arch- 
Can be put up during any season of the year. 

It is absolutely necessarv, when using this arch, that the iron beams be sjxiced 30 ins. center, 
to insure a perfi'ct and well-constructed arch. 

This arch is com]:)()sed of three tiles: two abutments, or "skew-backs," which lit the beams 
(thoroughly protecting their lower flanges), and one center or " kev tile," set between 5 in. or 6 in. 
deep beams. "^Fhe tie-rods going belween openings on side of brick and allowing tor same, the 
cutting of tiles becomes unnecessary. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1895. 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 

Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 

Contractors for Structural Steel Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS. COPLEY SQUARE. BOSTON. 

HENRY E. CREGIER. Architect. WOODBURY & LEIGHTON, CONTRACTORS. 

The fireproofing and steel work lurnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



THE BRICK BUILDER 



XXVll 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HKNRV S. HARRtS, Vice-President 



WILL. R. CLARKE, Secretary and 'Ireasur 
ALVORI) li. CLARKK, Superintendenl. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARTISTIC ROOFING TILE, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 



In this issue we sliow four different patterns of" our Combination Tiles, with reference to tlieir adaiitabilit\- for prochicini;- 
diflerent architectural etiects in this combination of special designs thereon. 

The first represents a standard 8x12 in. combination tile, with the figure of tlie Fleur-de-lis on it. Any other repre- 
sentation of same size could be used equally well on it, so that an\- heraldic design or coat of arms could be used, if desired. 
The second shows a design in imitation of a shell; the third, a cross band and rosette imposed on a regular diamond form; 
and the fourth an outline similar to the first, but with a plain surface with band and balls around the lower half. 

The ornamentation pc^ssible in tliis style of tile is limited only In- the wishes of the architect; for b\- our patent combi- 
nation shapes, in which the upper half of the tile remains c^f uniform size and shape, any design desired can be su]X'rimposed 
on the lower or exposed half. Of course these various designs are, for the most part, better fit for siding than roofing tile, 
though they are weather-proof for either. 



J^tf/2 




F-icr Z 






NO 1. 



NO. 2. 



No. 3. 



No 4. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 

SUITE 1123-4, 156 FIFTH AVENl'E, 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 

SUITE 1001-2, 204 DEARBORN STREET, 

MARQUETTE BUILDING. 



XXVIII 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE DELMONICO BUILDING, 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY. 

JAMES BROWN LORD, AncHlTtCT 
TERRA-COTTA AND BRICK BY THE 

NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 

PHILADELPHIA. 38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK CITY. BOSTON. 




gs/^ VOLVME'ft 




1898 
No. 9 






IBRlCKBVlLDERi 



rMgr#^?MT^ 



WATER W! 
STREET Jp! 
B06T0N>jj 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada $2. 50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union 1^3-50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

RESPONSIBILITY OF THE ARCHITECT. 

IT used to be said of a well-known Boston architect, long since 
gone over to the majority, that he had a number of wealthy 
clients who every year would make over to him a considerable. sum 
of money, telling him to invest it in real estate at his discretion, and 
would give the matter no further thought until the completed build- 
ing which the architect saw fit to erect was turned over to its owner. 
This particular architect enjoyed a high reputation, was deserving 
as an investor no less than for his ability as an architect, and to that 
extent was exceptional; and yet though few of us have the oppor- 
tunities which he seemed to be able to utilize to such good advan- 
tage, it is a fact that the responsibilities of the architect are large. 
The obliging owner who will hand his architect ten thousand dollars 
before departing for Europe, as described so felicitously by Mr. Rich 
in his article in our last number, are few and far between; but the 
number who, perhaps without knowing it, entrust their fortunes and 
their future happiness to the architect are many, and we fancy are 
becoming more numerous every year. An educated architect in good 
practise enjoys a degree of responsibility such as falls to the lot of 
few professional men. A client sometimes thinks he knows what 
his house is to be. He has a feeling that he has designed his own 
house and simply told his architect what to do, when, as a matter of 
fact, it is the architect's house that is built and not the owner's, and 
the owner is obliged to depend upon the taste, discretion, and good 
judgment, as well as the honesty of his professional adviser. We 
believe an architect is more inclined to err by avoiding responsii^ility 
of this sort than by accepting it, and that the success of a building 
is in no inconsiderable degree measured by the extent to which the 
architect imprints thereon his own ideas and his own methods. It 



would perhaps be an incomplete statement to say that the architect 
should never consider the client's wishes, for, quite aside from the 
commercial inadvisability of such a course, it very often happens 
that the restrictions under which the architects may most chafe are 
spurs in the side of his good intent, prompting him to do his best 
work; but certainly the architect who is conscientious, who wants to 
do the best possible thing, will have the largest measure of success 
if he always refuses to do or lend himself to anything which his 
trained artistic intelligence tells him is not right. That is to say, an 
architect, considering all the responsibilities which are thrust upon 
him, as well as those which he is glad to assume, must, if he is to 
succeed, be a man not only possessing the courage of his convictions, 
but possessed as well of very tangible convictions. With such a 
man, given the problems which come to the average practitioner, his 
opportunities and his influence in molding public taste, in fostering 
artistic thought, are very large. Indeed, this phase of architectural 
practise is the redeeming element which draws into the profession 
so many bright, capable minds. The pecuniary rewards of archi- 
tecture are certainly not excessive. In most cases they are small, 
but the mental satisfaction of leadership, of guiding the taste of the 
community, is a recompense which atones for much of the lack of 
personal financial possibilities. This power of the architect, of 
course, works both ways; it is a responsibility which must be met. 



WE can imagine no more disagreeable condition for an edu- 
cated, conscientious man than to feel that a building which 
has been entrusted to him is beyond his reach ; that he is out of his 
depth in a sea of artistic troubles, and that he cannot quite keep up 
with his responsibilities. It is bad enough when he has that uneasy 
feeling, which we all share at times, that he isn't quite doing his best, 
but when he tackles a job which he has to admit to himself he isn't 
able to solve, the very responsibilities which lend so much to the pro- 
fession may at times become unbearable. Some one has said, not 
inaptly, that all humanity is divided into two classes, — one the vast 
majority, including those who are led, the other, the extremely small 
minority of those who lead, and that it belongs to every one to say 
in which category he shall be classed. The architect who is not a 
leader, who cannot take a position of influence, is in the wrong pro- 
fession. He is in a calling that absolutely demands ideas, that 
obliges leadership, and if he cannot meet that demand, if the oppor- 
tunities the profession gives him he is unable to respond to, the 
c|uicker he finds it out and turns his energy to something else, the 
less mortification he will have in comparing his work with those 
around him. The successful architect is always a leader, a niolder 
of thought. 

ALTHOUGH it is easy for the architect to arrogate to himself 
a high position in the creative art world, it must not be forgotten 
that a very large share of the success of any architectural work be- 
longs to the silent workers who are able to carry out to at least rela- 
tive perfection the ideas of the artist. Therein is the function of 
the trained mechanic, and the dei)t which architecture owes to some 
of our mechanics is a large one. Take the single department of 
terracotta ; we have at different times illustrated in this journal some 
of the best of the modeled work which has been executed in various 
parts of the country, and the names of the architects have been (|uite 



I7.S 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



rightly associated with tlie buildings and witli the work. The ideas 
were theirs, the design, the arrangement they could wholly claim ; 
and yet we are supposing no lack of ability when we make the state- 
ment that it is doubtful if one architect in a hundred could actually 
model the terra-cotta which goes into his building, or be able to more 
than approximately indicate the style of detail in modeled work. It 
is not necessary that the architect should be a fine modeler, nor even 
a remarkable draughtsman. The drawings which Michael Angelo 
made for the dome of St. Peter's, measured by the work of some of 
our modern accomplished draughtsmen, are mere rude, illiterate 
scrawls, but the ideas are there. To execute the work, however, we 
must have trained mechanics, trained not only in manual dexterity, 
but in the appreciative artistic sentiment which will enable them to 
grasp the suggestion of the architect and carry it out in its full rich- 
ness. 

W''ITHOUT the help of the mechanic, the artisan, and the man- 
ufacturer, the art of the architect would avail him but little 
and his leadership would be barren of results. A large modern build- 
ing represents an extent of cooperation which is almost inconceivable 
to one who has not been through it all ; and while the inception is with 
the architect, and the merit of the work is measured by the correct- 
ne.ss of his ideals, the actual building operation is a result of coor- 
dination of forces which the architect can only start in motion and 
guide in their course. .And just as responsibility is measured in a 
certain sense by its limitations, so the responsibility of the modern 
architect becomes the greater because of the interdependence of the 
arts, sciences, and manufactures which enter into a modern structure; 
nor is the responsibility to the mechanics who put themselves under 
his direction i)y any means the least of the obligation which the archi- 
tect has to assume. 



CORRESPONDENCE. 



Fresno, Cal, Sept. i, iSyS. 

Editors Hrickbuii.der : — In the April number of The Brick- 
builder, Professor IJaker, in his interesting article on the " Strength 
of Brick Masonry," propounds this query: " Why did the pier fail in 
the larger portion under less than half the stress the smaller portion 
bore without any signs of failure.'" 

This peculiarity in the cracking of brick masonry is of frequent 
occurrence in building construction, and I think it can be scientifi- 
cally explained. 

We will assume in this case that the pressure was applied 
uniformly per square inch on the top of the pier by the plate cover- 
ing its entire surface. 

Tiie lines of pressure would then be vertical, and save for the 
weight of the brick, the pressure would l)e uniform per square inch 
for any height of the pier, the section remaining uniform. 

At the enlargement of the pier, the tendency would be for the 
pressure to distribute itself over the entire section. The amount of 
this pressure distributed outside of the vertical lines of the smaller 
top part of the pier would be upon tlie cumulative principle, similar 
to that which obtains in metal construction where stress is trans- 
ferred to reinforcing i)lates through the rivets. 

In the case of this pier, and all similar construction, the mortar 
joints directly under the initial lines of pressure become compressed, 
and the tendency to transmit a portion of this stress to the enlarge- 
ment of the pier brings a tensile stress upon the under surface of 
the bricks due to flexure, which, I think, is the explanation of the 
rupture. 

If Professor Baker will examine the brick buildings in his city, 
he will probably discover instances of this kind of failure. Where 
beams supporting heavy front walls are improperly placed upon the 
supporting piers or side walls cracking of this kind may be found. 
Very respectfully yours, 

A. C. Sw.AKT/. 



The writer's answer to the foregoing ijuestion, /.(•., the e.vplana- 
tion of the cause of the failure, is found in the middle of the first para- 
graph at the top of the second column, on page 78, April number. 
It is as follows: "The failure is due to the compression of that 
portion of the bottom section directly under the top section, thereby 
causing the compressed portion to shear off from the uncompressed 
part of the base section." 

Mr. Swartz's explanation does not differ materially in principle 
from the above, except that he directs attention to the bending that 
always accompanies shear. The writer believes that the phenomenon 
is more an example of shear than of bending. However, the knowl- 
edge of this method of failure of piers and its application in design 
is the important fact to be kept in mind. 

Ika O. Baker. 

Champaign, III., Sept. 15, 189.S. 



PERSONAL. 



Brouse & Areno, architects, of Trenton and Asbury Park, 
N. J., have opened an office at 931 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, 
and would be pleased to receive samples and catalogues. 

Walter I. Gideon, architect, has opened an office in the Shep- 
pard Building, -Springfield, .Mo. Samples and catalogues desired. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

IN their advertisement, page x, Fiske, Homes & Co. show another 
of their series of Brick and Terra-Cotta Fireplace Mantels. 
A residence at Baltimore, Md., of which C. L. Carson is the 
architect, is shown in the advertisement of Harbison & Walker Com- 
pany, page XV. 

The White liuilding. Bovlston Street, Boston, Winslow & 




TVMI'ANl'M IN DOKMEK.S, PUBLIC SCHOOL, IoStII A.M) lOylll 

STREETS AND AMSTERDAM AVENUE, NEW YORK t ITV. 

Executed by the New York .Arcliitectural Terra-Cotla Ci)nipany. 

J. B. .'^nyder, Architect. 

Wetherell, architects, is shown in the advertisement of the Boston 
P'ire-proofing Company, page xxii. 

In the advertisement of Henry Maurer it Son, page xxiii, there 
is illustrated a .section of their new " Eureka " Floor Arch. This 
arch is especially designed for light fire-proof construction. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Limited, illustrate in their 
advertisement, page xxvii, four patterns of decorative roofing and 
siding tiles. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



179 



The American Schoolhouse. XI. 

HY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

IT goes without saying that every plumbing system should have a 
line of soil pipe of extra iieavy cast-iron pipe, which has been 
subjected to the water test when in position, that this pipe should be 



L 



I 




FIG. 4. 



FIG. 



extended above the roof, and that, where the conditions admit, the 
house trap should be placed outside the building in a brick man 
hole of sufficient size to be of ready access. 

In the installation of plumbing in any building, but especially in 
schoolhouses, the three things most essential for the fixtures them- 
selves are, first, metal or submerged joints for all fixtures ; second, 
in view of the usually poor janitor service, fixtures of types readily 
cleansed ; and, most important of all, 
free and constant local ventilation of 
the fixtures. 

No fixture should be used which 
has a putty, wax, or otherwise packed 
or gasketed joint, and in water-closets, 
if the trap is not of iron or brass, the 
joint between the trap and the soil pipe 
should be below the water line of the 
trap, so that if there is the slightest dis- 
connection at the joint, as is liable 
through shrinkage, settlement, or vio- 
lence, the dripping water will make the 
defect immediately noticeable. 

When the janitor service is 
thoroughly efficient the question of pos- 
sible external uncleanliness of soil-dis- 
posal fixtures is eliminated, and separate water-closets with strong 
local ventilation are preferable to latrines or ranges. Water-closets, 
however, involve greater first cost and are subject to danger 
of breakage. Given either a water-closet, brick latrine, or 
range, if arranged with strong and constant local ventila- 
tion, it is on the outside and not the inside of these fixtures 
that the conditions detrimental to health are generally to be 
found. The inner surfaces are constantly wet, and hence 
keep the germs out of the air; and these inner surfaces 
are, besides, subjected to cleansing currents of air con- 
stantly moving away from the inclosure. (Juter surfaces 
become coated with dirt, which, as it dries, flakes off, and, 
becoming dust, is breathed in with the air. in the brick 
latrine the external surface is minimized, and if properly 
constructed can readily be cleaned both inside and out ; in I- 

the intervals be- 
tween the flushing the f<Lcal 
matter is submerged in 
water, and at a lower point 
than in the water-closet 
ranges. These latrines can 
be perfectly ventilated at a 
relatively slight cost. Figs. 
I and 2 show a readily 
cleansed form of brick lat- 
rine which has proved in 
use to be effective and un- 
objectionable. 




FIG. 3 





Brick latrines must, 
however, be constructed with 
great care, so that there shall 
be no possibility of the pollu- 
tion, through leakage, of the 
ground below the basement 
floor ; these latrines must be 
also connected with an 
ample vent shaft, which 
must be kept constantly 
heated summer and winter; 
and if given strong and con- 
stant ventilation, they may 
even suffer considerable neg- 
lect by the janitor without 

danger to health of the occupants of the building. In the construc- 
tion of brick latrines, Portland cement only should be used; 
thoroughly plastered outside and in with Portland cement, with a 
final coat of neat cement smoothly hand floated, and covered from 
the air until it has set perfectly hard. The latrine seats are prefer- 
ably made of iron, and where wood is used the under side of the 
woodwork should be lined with sheet lead. The seats should be 
self-closing. Latrines should have automatic flushing attachments 
arranged to flush every two or three 
minutes, and should be provided with a 
3 or 4 in. stand-pipe, whidh should be 
removed just before recess, by the jan- 
itor, to give a thorough flushing and 
change of water. 

The water-closet ranges are ar- 
ranged so that but little water stands 
in each section, and when flushed the 
trough is thoroughly cleansed. The 
outer surface is more easily kept clean 
than is that of an equal number of 
water-closets. Previous to 1 895 such 
fixtures as were then on the market 
had no provision for local ventilation. 
Fig. 3 shows a water-closet range with 
an attachment suggested by Mr. Fred- 
eric Tudor which obviates thoroughly this advantage. 

The so-called " dry systems " of soil disposal should not be 
used where there is a sewer system, and even where there 
is no sewer the use of such systems is not advisable. The 
soil, reduced as it is to powder by heat, is in a condition 
most menacing to health, and if the draught of the vent 
stack is at any time defective, as it may often be through 
the neglect of the janitor to maintain the heat in the stack, 
there is a reverse current. This powdered matter may 
pervade the building and spread contagion. 

The privy vault is an expedient which is not to be con- 
sidered. For a building without sewer connection, earth 
closets are niost advisable. They should have thorough 
local ventilation and should be in a seijaratc building, wliich 
;. should be heated. 

Any system of 
soil disposal which has 
sewer connection may be 
placed in the basement of a 
building with perfect safety, 
I)roviding a strong and con- 
stant ventilation is main- 
tained through the fixtures 
themselves to a vent shaft 
carried above the roof. 
.Such vent shafts should 
have at least 5 .sq. ins. of 
cross-section area for ta'.h fig. 6. 



-|y^ 




i8o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





MAv^^"^^ 



seat, and to insure a powerful aspiration at the least expense the 
boiler or furnace chimney may best be utilized. In this chimney 
the smoke flue of boiler iron will furnish all the necessary heat when 
the heating apparatus is running : and to provide for the periods 
when heating of the building is not required, a small stove or open 
hard coal grate should be placed at the base of the shaft. It should 
be made absolutely incumbent on the janitor to maintain this small 
fire when the heating apparatus is not being run. 

In the opinion of Mr. Tudor, these stoves or grates should have 
a capacity of 20 sq. ins. for each schoolroom. There should be one 
water-closet for every fifteen girls and one for every twenty-five 
boys. 

Urinal bowls require even more care in cleansing than do water- 
closets; indeed they require care that is not given by the average 
janitor, and must, therefore, for practical reasons be rejected in 
schoolhouse work, except in special cases : as, for instance, in some 
high schools, where usually a better class of janitors is employed 
than in the lower grades. 
A sloping slate slab pro- 
vided with ample means 
of ventilation at the 
bottom, as shown in Fig. 
4, and with an automatic 
flushing apparatus, as 
shown in Figs. 5 and 6, 
has proved to be suitable 
and cleanly. If it were 
certain that the whole of 
the fixture would be 
washed daily with hot 
water, the " dry system " 
of urinals is satisfactory, 
for there is not absolute 
need for water flushing 
of the slate while in use, 
providing the ventilation 
of the fixtures is strong 
and constant. The back 
slabs of slate urinal con- 
structions should have a slope of 
incline inwards i in 20. 
proof. 

To avoid the spread of skin diseases, set bowls should not be 
used in schoolrooms ; sinks fitted with faucets or with a row of small 
nozzles should be provided. 

For the same reason, where bathing facilities are given, set tubs 
or swimming tanks should not be used unless they are subjected to 
careful supervision by the master. Shower and needle baths are 
entirely unobjectionable. 

If the best results are to be obtained in the heating and ventilat- 
ing of schoolhouses, as indeed in any buildings where ventilation is 
an important consideration, it is requisite that the heat and air ducts 
should be planned when the building is first designed. It is not to 
be expected that an architect can be intimately conversant with a 
subject to which accomplished men are forced to devote all their 
energies if they are to master its difficulties. Few architects can 
therefore do their full duty if, without consultation with a heating 
engineer, they undertake to design a heating and ventilating system, 
unless it is such a one as has been almost exactly paralleled in a former 
building constructed by him with expert help, and even then the 
assistance of an expert is very requisite if the proper adjustment of 
the work and its best construction is to be assured. Except in rare 
cases, if the architect seeks without expert professional advice to 
select a system presented by a contractor in competition, it is almost 
certain that the result will be disappointing. If a client is unwilling 
to compensate the expert, the choice of a system by commercial 
competition is all he can fairly expect his architect to furnish. The 
architect should not certainly pay for such service, as it is rendered 




PROPOSED HIGH -SCHOOL BUILDING, .MARLBORO, MASS 
Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



I in 10 and the foot slab should 
All joints of the slate work must be water- 



primarily for the client's benefit; and if the expert is competent, the 
expense of such service will be offset, if not by the first cost, certainly 
by the greater efficiency and practical economy of the plant above 
that usually furnished by the lowest commercial bidder upon plans 
and specifications prepared by that bidder. 

The following notes in regard to the subject of heating and 
ventilation may prove of service in the preparation of plans : 

1 . When a plenum fan is used s-boiler horse power should be 
reckoned for each schoolroom or other room of equal size ; an 
assembly hall to be reckoned as two schoolrooms. 

For an indirect system of heating and ventilating a boiler ca- 
pacity of 7 horse power per schoolroom is required. 

2. The fan should not be relied upon to supply heat as well as 
fresh heated air; the building should be heated by direct radiation, 
and for ventilation fresh air heated to 70 degs. should be supplied 
by a plenum fan. This method is advisable in any school except 
the very smallest, and indeed in the schools of four or six rooms a 

gas engine may be ad- 

_ vantageously used as a 

source of power, so that 
a definitely directed air 
supply may be had with- 
out requiring the services 
of a skilled engineer as 
janitor. In such cases, 
however, the janitor must 
have sufficient capacity 
and conscience to appre- 
ciate that the engine 
should be kept clean. 

3. Another advan- 
tage of the use of direct 
radiation for heating is 
that the rooms may be 
quickly warmed. It is 
desirable, also, that the 
fan should be used in 
the early morning hours, 
but that the air should be 
drawn not from outdoors, but from the building itself. Hut when 
the building is occupied the air should be invariably taken from 
outside the building. 

Where space for direct radiation is limited, as is usually the 
case in laboratories, the temperature of fresh-air supply may be in- 
creased to compensate for lack of direct heating by passing the air 
for the room through a supplementary heater at the base of the air 
duct for the room. 

"Indirect heating," dependent as it is upon the direction and 
velocity of the wind, is less certain than the method of heating and 
ventilating advocated above, and it involves a greater combustion of 
fuel to procure the same results. This extra cost is largely due to 
the necessity of inducing the flow of air through the vents by means 
of steam coils. The percentage of the additional consumption of 
fuel required by heating by " indirect radiation " with heated vents 
above the cost of heating by direct radiation and with fresh heated 
air supplied by the fan is reckoned to be twenty-five to thirty-five 
per cent. 

4. To thoroughly heat by direct radiation a room with a south- 
erly or easterly exposure, 1 sq. ft. of radiating surface should be 
allowed for every 100 cu. ft. of the enclosure. For rooms with 
westerly and northerly exposures the heating surface should be 
1 sq. ft. for every 70 cu. ft. of the enclosure. 

5. In a schoolroom 28 by 32 ft. the air inlets and outlets 
for " indirect radiation " should be 4}4 sq. ft. for the lower rooms, 
ranging up to 6 sq. ft. in the third story. Where plenum fan is used 
the air outlets remain as above, but the air inlets are reduced 25 
to 30 per cent. Under ordinary conditions the architect may 
safely give the maximum areas to the flues, for the volume of air 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i«i 



which passes through can be regulated by dampers ; and if on 
account of some constructional necessity he wishes to reduce their 
sizes in any particuhir case, he can get the advice of an expert. 
It should be borne in mind that the minimum advisable air capac- 
ity per pupil is 30 cu. ft. In assembly halls and other large rooms, 
or in rooms with but one outer wall, there should be two air outlets. 

The best results are attained where air outlets are placed on 
inner walls only. Air inlets may be placed where most convenient. 
To avoid draughts, air inlets for schoolrooms and assembly halls 
should be placed with bottom of register face 7 ft. above the floor. 
In small rooms the air inlet may be near the floor. If properly pro- 
tected from the lodgment of dirt, the most effective position of an air 
inlet is the floor. 

Inlet and outlet ducts should be fitted with dampers, the former 
to be mixing dampers, so that the external air admitted to the room 
may have its temperature regulated at will. The air inlets should be 



air passes through the clothing, and the possibility of air from the 
wardrobe finding its way to the schoolrooms is avoided. 

As noted in regard to plumbing, the soil-disposal fixtures and 
urinals should have strong local ventilation which should be adequate 
to insure a constant current of air through the toilet room to the 
aspirating shaft, so strong that by no peradventure the air of the 
toilet room shall pass into other portions of the building. In corri- 
dors the movement of air should be so arranged that it passes thence 
to the schoolrooms, and not vice "versa. 

It should be better recognized than it is by school committees, 
that upon the faithfulness and knowledge of the janitor depends to a 
great degree the health and comfort of the inmates of the school. 
Janitors are too often found to be either faithless or ignorant, or both, 
and consequently not only does unnecessary discomfort result, but 
waste of fuel, injury of apparatus and fixtures, and serious sickness 
and deaths. The writer knows of no city where an effective system 





SECOND FLOOU. 



TIIIRU FLOOR. 





BASEMENT. 



FIRST FLOOR. 



PROPOSEr) HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, MARLHORO, MASS. 
Wlieelwright & Haven, Architects. 



fitted with deflectors, so that the air will be thrown towards the ceil- 
ing and be given proper diffusion. Air outlets should have openings 
for winter ventilation as close to the floor as possible, and for summer 
ventilation close to the ceiling. The summer opening for ventilation 
should be fitted with a register; that for winter ventilation requires 
a face only. 

Unless a school is certainly to be blessed by the services of a 
thoroughly efficient and faithful janitor the heating system should be 
regulated by automatic control. No excuse should be afforded the 
teachers of cooling off the rooms by the opening of windows ; in 
doing this the advantages of double windows are nullified, the heat 
is wasted, the flow of air through the designed channels is disturbed, 
and dangerous draughts are caused. 

The ventilation of a schoolroom may be through its wardrobe. 
Heat is in this way given to the smaller room, a cleansing current of 



of janitor control has been adopted, the only organization of the 
janitors being that made by themselves, which have not the object of 
self-improvement, but that of any like " political " organization. 
Twenty-five years ago Mr. Fhilbrick, Superintendent of Boston 
Public Schools, recommended that the janitor service of the schools 
of that city should be placed under the control of a chief who should 
have full power of appointment and removal. No steps have as yet 
Ijeen taken to this end. 

There should be certainly such direct executive control of 
janitors. At stated times, together with other duties, the janitors 
should be reciuired to make record of the outside temperature as 
well as in all portions of the building, and they also should keep a 
record of the amount of coal consumed each day. They should be 
at any time subject to visits from their chief, and subject to his dis- 
cipline without resource to the scliool committee. 



l82 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



Suburban Residence Built of Brick. 

COST, TKN THOUSAND DOLLARS. 

BV KDWARD H. (;REEN. 

IN preparing these sketches, the requirements of the program 
have been kept in mind, — the use of clay products ; a home 
for a family of moderate means, of quiet and refined tastes, prefer- 
ring a suburban to a city home: a lot 75 ft. wide, facing the south. 

The reejuirements seem to limit the style of the exterior to the 
Italian or English Domestic, the latter style being adopted in these 
drawings. 

The house facing south, two and a half stories in height, and the 
lot on which it is placed being lower by 10 ft. on the west side (the 
left-hand side facing the house) than on the east, the more effective 
approach is on the west or low side. This will give, as one enters 
the gate, a view of the lot unbroken and rising to the building, and 
a better effect can be gained of the lay-out and planting of shrub- 



the windows, leaving sufficient amount of space to sit, to be paved. 
With a double awning of dark colors, to let down, the reflection will 
not be strong, and a most cozy place can be arranged. 

The family, for general use, will find the side entrance more 
convenient ; it is easily approached from the carriage road (a 
suburban home means a horse and depot wagon). On entering, one 
finds a side hall running width wise of the house, between the 
kitchen wing and the main building, and ending in a large coat 
room under the landing of the stairs, also provided with a lavatory. 
This will be found most convenient for the rubbers and storm coats 
of the family. It will also prove a convenience for guests on rainy 
nights, and even on more formal occasions, as the side staircase can 
be used as the guests arrive and depart. It will be noticed that the 
door of this side entrance enters at the level of the ground, on the 
low side, so from the landing of the stairs it is but a few steps to de- 
scend to the level of the cellar floor, or but a few steps to the level 
of the main floor; it will, therefore, be convenient to put your 
"wheel" in the room provided for it under the dining room. This 
being well lighted, and 14 by 14 ft., can also be used as a shop for 



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H'lllii I- uii vVU' 



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bery and trees. No effort has been made to lay out the grounds in 
a formal manner. The taste of most of us who wish to live in a 
suburljan home is to " throw off our coats," so to speak, and be 
unconventional. An unbroken expanse of grass leading to hardy 
shrubbery and trees surrounding the house and lot lines, and 
the house itself well covered with vines — no unnecessary walks or 
roads, and these without curves — will make the most charming home 
scene to be imagined — no " fuss or feathers." A pool of water 
near the entrance — not a fountain — will, if rightly placed, add to 
the effect and quiet by reflecting the home and surroundings as one 
enters. 

Tiie main entrance of the house is approached by a series of 
wide and broad steps, built of hard, rough (paving) bricks, balus- 
trade, a brick wall, and all more or less covered with vines and 
shrubs, leading onto the terrace, which may be paved with brick or 
gravel, but preferably covered with grass. The reflection of a pave- 
ment or floor would be disagreeable, and at times hot. At least 
some part of it should be of grass, — that ])art wliich shows from 



tho.se members of the family — always to be found — who delight 
in tinkering and mechanical devices. 

To the rear across the side hall is the kitchen portion. It is 
designed that this part of the house and the portion directly above 
it shall be devoted to the servants and their work, and both floors 
are carefully separated from the rest of the house, — the butler's 
pantry on the first floor, as well as the kitchen, is separated from 
the dining room by the width of this cross hall, — not sufficient 
space to cause any inconvenience in serving, yet so separating the 
" business end " of the house that odors or noise are not percep- 
tiiile. 

The kitchen, by .some, might be considered small (10 by 14 ft.), 
but with large pantries, — the range placed in the corner out of the 
way, and provided with a large ventilating flue, — and with a ser- 
vants' dining room (a necessity in suburban life), store room, and 
refrigerator room in such position as to be most convenient. It 
saves labor to have these things as small as practicable. 

The .servants" (|uarters, on the second Moor of the kitchen por- 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



i«3 



tion, include two servants' rooms, bath, house-maid's closet, and 
linen room. 

It will be seen that advantage has been taken of the south- 
ern exposure. From the street this gives the house a broad ap- 
pearance, but it is done with a view of getting the sun in every 
room, not to make the house look big. 

The main entrance and enclosed porch of glass (which can 
be taken down in hot weather) leads into the hall ; the south 
end, being cut off by pilasters and beams on the ceiling, — rather 
than doors, — forms a small reception room. The social life of 
the suburbanite being more informal than that in the city, a large 
reception room seems unnecessary. The most space and great- 
est effort should be devoted to the library, or living room — it 
should be the room of the house. 

Next in importance to the living room is the dining room. 
Off from the library is a little "study" or " den," — ^a most useful 
room for a student, — or it is a room where the man of the 
house can retire to do thoughtful work, or smoke or grumble to 
his heart's content, or see a friend. 

The inglenook fireplace at one end of the library is cozy 
and warm on a cold day. As people who love a wood fire want 
the least excuse to have one, it is therefore convenient to have it 
somewhat retired, so that it will not overheat the room in warm 
weather. 

It will be noticed that the arrangement of the house has 
the advantage, on entering, of making the house appear large, 
the full length of the house being lengthwise of the living room 
and dining room, stairs at one end and reception room at the other 
end of the hall — the lines of the longest dimensions are shown. 

The porch on the north side of the library is covered, and over- 
looks the court or private garden ; this could be made large enough 




,i«- 






\*> 




for the tennis court. It is suggested that this court i^e surrounded 
by a pergola or a hedge 6 or 8 ft. high, shutting out the kitchen 
yard, to make an entirely private or enclosed space. It also makes 
a shady walk. 

The dining room is designed to be a square room, in order to 
accommodate a round table. In a small house this is desirable, be- 
cause it will always accommodate more guests than the same number 



of square feet in a narrow, long room, and yet not appear to be as 
crowded The round table need not be changed in its dimensions, 
except for extraordinary occasions. An ordinary round table 4>^ 
to 5 ft. in diameter does not seem too large for only two, and will 

conveniently seat six or even 
eight, if two or three are 
children. The dining room 
has a corner fireplace, and a 
sidel)oard built in, balancing 
the mantel. 

The idea is to linish the 
library and hall in dark quar- 
tered oak ; the dining room 
white, with mahogany furniture, 
tapestry walls, the library sur- 
rounded by low bookcases to 
form a wainscot, and, if a great 
number of books are to be ac- 
commodated, the cases should 
run to the ceiling ; use the 
books as the feature. 

The stairs, first and second 
floor, run up at the rear of the 
hall, with a large landing on 
the second floor. The guest 
room opens directly from this 
hall, and has its separate bath, 
corner fireplace in correspond- 
ing position to the fireplace in 
the dining room below. 

The family rooms (three) 
are in a row, facing the south, 
and all opening onto a corridor, 
which corridor, in turn, by a 
sliding door, opens into the main hall. By this arrangement the 
family rooms are made a suite, which is cut oil from the rest of the 
house. This separation of the family apartments gives additional 
privacy, and prevents the children from being disturbed by music or 
unusual noise from below ; and, on the other hand, the children do 
not disturb those below. Each of these family rooms has a fireplace 
and one or more closets. From the family room on the southeast a 



184 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



balcony opens to the nortli, which is most useful for airing clothing, 
and will be a cool retreat in hot weather. 

Rooms could be finished as a trunk room, store rooms, and, 
perhaps, one or two small bedrooms in the attic. 

In the cellar the usual things are provided for, — space for heat- 
ing apparatus, store rooms, wine cellar, laundry, bicycle room, etc., 
etc. 

Malfiials : Tlie house is designed to be l)uilt of rough com- 
mon sand brick, hard burned, brown in color, preferably not of an 
even color, being darker at the bottom and growing lighter toward 
the top, the idea being to reproduce somewhat the e-xquisite colors 
of a meerschaum pipe, — rich browns, the brick to be selected 
from those that are nearest to the fire and being " fire marked." 
They are to be carefully laid up, with wide joint, joints "struck." 
The bricklayer can show a great deal of ingenuity and artistic 
feeling in bricking out the design, in the use of his colors. The 
mortar is to match as nearly as possible the color of the brick. All 
the moldings, string-courses, copings, sills, and mullions are to be 
of molded brick and terra-cotta, as the case may be, as indicated 
on the plans. 

The house, if placed in among a number of large trees, to have 
a dark red tile roof; if standing pretty well in the open, a shade of 
green slightly glazed. 

The e.xterior walls to be laid with a hollow space 2 ins. wide, 
the exterior course being tied to the interior wall with any of the 
patterns of metallic ties. This will give a thoroughly dry wall, and 
also do away with wood furring on the interior ; or, a solid wall can 




be built and furred on the interior with terra-cotta, or the ordinary 
brick furring, but a clear air space must be given between the fur- 
ring and the wall, if it is desired to have a dry wall. The additional 
cost of making fire-proof floor partitions is little, probably in this 
scheme not over five or si.x hundred dollars. There are a great 
many methods that could be followed out, and which might give 
even more satisfactory results than the ones mentioned above. 
When the general public find that fire-proof work can be built for a 
very little additional price over the present work, and that the more 
it is used and the more accustomed the masons get to it the cheaper 
it can be done, its use will be greatly e.xtendefl. The hall could be 
floored and the stairs built of brick or slabs partially glazed, the 



treads being of slabs of marble, balustrade of terra-cotta glazed ; all 
the mantels and fireplaces to be of brick and terra-cotta, shelves 
or seats being glazed (this does not mean a high glaze). Cellar 



\ } 

i 



vQ3^^^;;|^nt^ 




walls to be built without the use of stone, over-burnt brick being 
used to the grade line. At this point a glazed course of terra-cotta 
or brick. 



PROFESSIONAL ETHICS. 

IF good professional ethics in relation to one another were the rule 
among architects, while the conditions of practise would be 
more conducive to doing good work, the total result in the distribu- 
tion of employment would be much the same as if the "get there" 
idea were to prevail. Professional habits, as followed by those of 
the profession who have, as the French say, "arrived" are rather an 
index of how they achieved their position than, as is sometimes sup- 
posed by the irregulars, a creation to help them to keep it. The 
only way to permanent success is expertness, and this is to lie 
attained not by working for work but by working at it. — Canadian 
AnhiUcL 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i«S 



Balcony and Parapet Balustrading. 

By THOMAS CUSACK. 

WHAT has been said in depreciation of sheet-metal cornices 
applies with equal force to the misuse of that material in 
balustrading. Many a creditable and, otherwise, well-executed design 
has been marred beyond redemption by a hollow pretense of 
make-believe balusters ranged along the parapet. It is, of course, 
customary to paint tin and galvanized iron affairs of this kind in 
simulation of the stone or terra-cotta used elsewhere on the building. 
Indeed, some of the most 



'^•"-8'*'•CH^MrtEL 



experienced artificers in this 
line go the length of sand- 
ing the receptive pigment, 
hoping to complete the de- 
ception. Viewed from afar, 
the counterfeit may pass as 
currency, but on closer ac- 
quaintance the hollowness 
and insincerity of the whole 
thing become painfully ap- 
parent. Not only is the 
building thus placed at a 
discount; the disillusion 
has a far-reaching sugges- 
tiveness in its bearing on 
things of real merit, detract- 
ing from their value in a, 
perhaps, disproportionate 
degree. 

In situations where it 
may be expedient to obtain 
a desired effect on walls 
not calculated to carry 
much additional weight, 
copper becomes permissible 
— providing it be used 
frankly, and left to tell its 
own tale. At this point, 
however, a discriminating 
architect usually draws the 
line — unless overruled by 
a client in whom the penny- 
wise commercial instinct is 
paramount. In the latter 
case, all that may be said 
about consistency, homo- 
geneity, or architectural 
continuity falls upon ears 
that hear not. To such a 
one an appeal, to be suc- 
cessful, must be made to 
his pocket, and in language 
with which he is familiar — 

the relative cost, for in- '■'f'- ^'~- 

stance, is a turning point 

to which he will give due attention. The relative durability, and cost 
of maintenance, etc., are items that cannot be disregarded ; for, 
even on his own ground, it is not the initial but the ultimate outlay 
that must be taken as a basis of comparison. 

The cost of terra-cotta balustrading will depend largely upon the 
design, and the extent to which it is possible to render its execution 
simple and direct. A baluster of the shape shown at Fig. 62 should 
be jointed into three pieces. Not that it is by any means impossible 
to make such a baluster in a single piece, but, all things considered, 
it is not worth while to attempt it. To do so, two half balusters are 
pressed simultaneously, and the soft clay counterparts being brought 



<-- 5/8 4^ WO 
BACK View ■ 




COnSTRUCTlOh 
FOR K 

TERRA COTIA 
CORMICE. AMD 

BALUSTRADE. 



into contact are united under pressure. When taken from the mold 
the seams are cleaned off, the imperfections filled in, and, to all ap- 
pearance, the two are made one. Many of the unions so made are 
lasting, the two halves cleaving together under the most exacting 
conditions; but they are not all equally reliable. Some will show 
signs of dissolution after burning ; others, that have passed through 
that ordeal apparently unscathed, may split from the effects of frost. 
Then, having to stand on end in the kiln, they are very liable to twist 
because of the extreme variation in sectional area. When this 
occurs the only remedy — one that may be resorted to in case of an 
emergency — is to cut the baluster horizontally, at suitable places, 

cementing the pieces to- 
gether again on an iron 
core. It may as well be 
conceded that balusters 
made in one piece are sub- 
ject to tliese defects, be- 
sides being more expensive 
in the first instance, with no 
compensating advantages. 

A much better plan is 
to accept these adverse 
conditions, providing 
against the contingencies 
that arise from them by 
making the baluster in 
three pieces at the outset. 
This will allow each of 
them to be pressed into the 
mold from its widest end 
at one operation, therefore 
free from the vertical fis- 
sures incident to the method 
previously described. Our 
present illustration shows a 
y?, in. bolt passing up 
through the balusters, with 
head below and nut on top 
to hold the channel in posi- 
tion ; also }i in. staybolts 
to roof at intervals of 10 
ft. Allowing for piers at 
angles, with intermediate 
dies in brick or terra-cotta 
placed at convenient inter- 
vals, the channel-bar would 
in itself afford sufficient 
lateral stiffness. The diag- 
onal stays to roof being no 
longer necessary, would 
then be omitted altogether. 
We are, therefore, inclined 
to the opinion that some of 
the expedients introduced 
in this example err on the 
side of superfluous strength. 
A yi in. rod as a core for 



>^V *' 



the baluster, one end passing through a bar (or light channel), the 
other extending down into base in the form of a dowel, is usually 
sufficient without either head or nut. On this Ijar the coping is 
bedded down, and if the rebate in the ends l)e filled with cement, 
each piece locks itself and the adjoining pieces so securely that 
nothing further is required to hold them permanently. 

A view of this particular cornice and parapet is given at Fig. 
63, which is a residence at Madison Avenue and 39th Street, New 
York. The first story of the building is limestone, all above that 
point being terra-cotta and brick. In color the terra-cotta is an 
exact match for the stone, with brick wallins: of a somewhat darker 



1 86 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




shade. This is a combination that has given much satisfaction here, 
and maybe repeated elsewhere with equally happy results; which 
js more than can be said for some of the experimental " color 
schemes " with which we 
have been made ac- 
quainted. Instances of 
parapet halustrading con- 
structed on the same gen- 
eral lines might be multi- 
plied indefinitely. The 
present one, however, has 
been selected merely as a 
type of the class to which 
it belongs. Subject to the 
modifications suggested in 
the preceding paragraph, 
the construction does not 
differ greatly from current 
practise. Similar methods 
were adopted in nearly all 
of the halustrading witli 
which we have been deal- 
ing of recent date, and 
from them there has not, 
as yet, been any reason to 
depart. It is likewise en- 
couraging to note, in this 
connection, that the archi- 
tectural idea has not suc- 
cumbed to sordid commer- 
cialism, full justice being 
done to it in design, mate- 
rial, and workmanship. In 
these respects this building 

stands out in marked contrast with another corner residence not 
many blocks distant, in which a much more pretentious frontage is 
topped out with a painted imitation in sheet metal. 

VV^ith a tier of balusters, a portion of which is shown at Fig. 64, 
the conditions differ materially from tho.se of last e.xample. They 
are less than a full circle on plan, with an ashlar engagement which, 
though usually made separate, may as well be attached. This ad- 
mits of the two members being pressed at one operation, without 
horizontal joints, each block representing one baluster and one space. 
The vertical joint follows the con- 
tour of the baluster, and is there- 
fore invisible when the work ifi 
assembled. In this method we 
have two distinct advantages ; 
one contrilniting to better con- 
struction, the other, to a decided 
saving in the cost of production, 
and against which there is no off- 
set whatever. 

Pierced, double-faced halus- 
trading such as shown at Fig. 
40 (HRicKBinLDER, October, '97, 
p. 21.S), and again at Fig. 60 
(Brickbuiluer, July, '98, p. 143), 
though not free from inherent 
difficulty, can be made very suc- 
cessfully, provided the right 
methods are adopted. In the 
first place, it should not be cut 

up into small pieces, but made in sections, and they as large as are 
at all practicable. The number and location of the joints must de- 
pend .somewhat on the ratio of voids, and also on the character of 
the design. In no case, however, should there be more joints than 
are absolutely necessary, and they should be placed so as to he- 



come inconspicuous when pointed. In pressing a piece of this de- 
scription, a wood (or iron) core is embedded in each of the arms, 
and the clay built over on all sides of it. The hollow spaces remain- 
ing after these cores have 
been withdrawn allow the 
moisture to escape during 
drying, likewise the heat 
to pass clear through in 
burning. This makes it 
possible for the whole 
block to shrink uniformly, 
a precaution which goes 
far to prevent its cracking, 
o r the undue twisting 
otherwise likely to ensue 
in the final stages of man- 
ufacture. 

Some of the pieces in 
the parapet just referred 
to were as much as 3 ft. 
wide, all of them being 3 
ft. 7 ins. high, and 8 ins. 
thick. At Fig. 60 they 
were 2 ft. 6 ins. each way, 
and only 5 ins. thick, yet 
in both instances the full 
complement was obtained, 
free from defects of any 
kind. Reasonable skill in 
the pressing, coupled with 
a little extra care in the 
succeeding stages, was 
FIG. 63. enough to disprove the 

adverse dictum of certain 
wiseacres who, having failed themselves, were wont to decry less 
difficult undertakings as being wholly impracticable. 

At Fig. 65 we have a section of halustrading recently made for 
the parapet of an important public building in which gray terra-cotta, 
in combination with brick of the same color, is used exclusively 
above grade level. This perforated panel is rather less than 4 ins. 
in thickness, a circumstance which adds considerably to the ordinary 
difficulties of manipulation. Yet more than .seventy of these panels 
were produced without a single failure. The size is 2 ft. 6 ins. by 

4 ft. 6 ins. with but one joint, 
which, passing through the hub 
vertically, becomes hardly notice- 
able when pointed. 

The cross section of the 
arms was too small to admit of 
a core being inserted, as in pre- 
vious examples ; but a i in. hole 
should he bored through the 
diagonal members liefore the 
clay has lost too much of its 
plasticity. If pressed solid, and 
allowed to remain so, there will 
he a disposition to crack which 
can only he overcome by the 
exercise of extreme care in the 
drying. This is due to the dif- 
ference in shrinkage between a 
FIG. 64. relatively quick drying surface 

and a slow drying interior. To 
obviate this we must equalize the evaporation of moisture, and in 
that way render the shrinkage as nearly uniform as may be. The 
first expedient that suggests itself here is to ventilate the interior, 
and so accelerate the escape of moisture ; the second, to cover 
up the exposed surface with damp cloths, or paper, to retard evap- 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



187 



oration; In this way the natural tendency to crack, which if left 
to itself would prove fatal, has been controlled with gratifying 
success. 

We have spoken of the drying as though it were a more delicate 
operation than that of the burning. In work of this kind, with refer- 



Tensile Tests of Cement. 




FIG. 65. 

ence to freedom from cracking and warping, it certainly is so. As- 
suming that the chemical constituents of the clay are such as will 
give the requisite degree of tenacity, also that the clay has been sufifi- 
ciently ground and pugged, thence delivered to the presser at a uni- 
form consistency, the result then depends chiefly upon the condition 
in which the unburned pieces reach the kiln. If cracked or warped 
on going in, they will assuredly be in the same, or a worse, condition 
when coming out of the kiln; but if the foregoing conditions are 
favorable, and the pieces free from defects when placed on the bear- 
ings, the elements of uncertainty are largely eliminated. It was not 
always so, as we have good reason to know; but of late years suc- 
cessful firing has come to be looked upon as a matter of course in all 
well-regulated factories. 

Most of the preceding remarks will apply to the panel shown at 
Fig. 66, the maximum size of which piece would depend somewhat 



?i 4S 



Fu;. 66. 

on its third dimension. With a thickness of, say, 6 ins., it would i)e 
quite practicable up to an approximate size of 3 ft. by 3 ft. 6 ins. In 
the hands of an architectural designer of average resource, single 
pieces of balustrading of these dimensions will, we think, be found 
equal to any possible requirement. 



(Concluded.) 

BY IKA (). BAKEK, PKOFESSOR OF CIVH, ENGINEKRING, UNIVEILSITY 

OF ILI^INOI.S. 

rCopyrighted,] 

Dry Mortar. As a rule, dry mortar is put into tlic mold by a 
macnine, although it may be pounded in by hand. 

The German standard rules are : " On a metal or thick glass 
plate five sheets of blotting-paper soaked in water are laid, and on 
these are' placed five molds wetted with water. 250 grams (8. 75 ozs.) 
of cement and 750 grams (26.25 f>'^s.) of standard sand are weighed, 
and thoroughly mixed dry in a vessel, then 106 cubic centimeters 
(100 grams or 35 ozs ) of fresh water are added, and the whole mass 
thoroughly mixed for five minutes. With the mortar so obtained the 
molds are at once filled with one filling, so high as to be rounded on 
top, the mortar being well pressed in. By means of an iron trowel 5 
to 8 centimeters (1.96 to 3.14 ins.) wide, 35 centimeters (13.79 ins.) 
long, and weighing about 250 grams (8. 75 ozs.), the projecting mortar is 
pounded, first gently and from the side, then harder into the molds, 
until the mortar grows elastic and water Hushes to the surface. y\ 
pounding of at least one minute is absolutely essential. An addi- 
tional filling and pounding in of the mortar is not admissible, since 
the test pieces of the same cement should have the same densities 
at the different testing stations. The mass projecting over the mold 
is now cut off with a knife, and the surface smoothed. The mold is 
carefully taken off and the test piece placed in a box lined with zinc, 
which is to be provided with a cover, to prevent a non-uniform dry- 
ing of the test pieces at different temperatures. Twenty-four hours 
after being made, the test pieces are placed under water, and care 
must be taken that they remain under water during the whole period 
of hardening." 

The French Commission recommend the following for sand 
mortars: " Sufficient mortar is gaged at once to make six briquettes, 
requiring 250 grams of cement and 750 grams of normal sand. The 
mold is then placed upon a metal plate, and upon top of it is fitted a 
guide having the same section as the mold, and a height of 125 milli- 
meters (5 ins.). 180 grams of the mortar are introduced and roughly 
distributed in the mold and guide with a rod. By means of a metal- 
lic pestle weighing i kilogram, and having a base of the form of the 
briquette, but of slightly less dimensions, the mortar is pounded, 
softly at first, then stronger and stronger until a little water escapes 
under the bottom of the mold. The pestle and guide are then 
removed and the mortar cut off level with the top of the mold." 

The Biihrnc hammer apparatus is much used, particularly in 
Germany. It consists of an arrangement by which the mortar is 
compacted in the mold by a succession of blows from a hammer 
weighing 2 kilograms (2.2 lbs.) upon a plunger sliding in a guide 
placed upon top of the mold. The machine is arranged to lock after 
striking [50 blows. A high degree of density is thus produced, and 
more regular results are oljtained than I)y hand. The apparatus is 
slow. 

The Tetmajer apparatus is similar in character to the Bohmc ham- 
mer. " It consists of an iron rod carrying a weight upon its lower 
end, which is raised through a given height and dropped upon the 
mortar in the mold. The ram weighs 3 kilograms. This machine is 
used in the Zurich laboratory, and I'rofessor Tetmajer regulates the 
number of blows by requiring a certain amount of work to be done 
upon a unit volume of mortar, — 0.3 kilogrammeter of work per gram 
of dry material of which the mortar is composed. This apparatus 
is subject to the same limitations in practise as the Bohinc hammer, 
in being very slow in use, and somewhat expensive in first cost." 

STOKINfi Till': I'.KI(.)UI':TTE.S. 

It is usual to store the briquettes under a damp cloth or in a 
moist chamber for twenty-four hours, and then immerse in water at 
a temperature of 60 to 65 degs. Fahr. For one-day tests, the 
briquettes are removed from the molds and immersed as soon as they 



1 88 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



have begun to set. The volume of water should be at least four 
times the volume of the immersed briquettes, and the water should 
be renewed every seven days. 

The briquettes should be labeled or numbered to preserve their 
identity. Neat cement briquettes may be stamped with steel dies, as 
may also sand briquettes, provided a thin layer of neat cement is 
spread over one end, in which to stamp the number. 

AGE WHEN TESTED. 

Since in many cases it is impracticable to extend the tests over 
a longer time, it has become customary to break the briquettes at 
one and seven days. This practise, together with a demand for high 
tensile strength, has led manufacturers to increase the proportion of 
lime in their cements to the highest possible limit, which brings them 
near the danger line of unsoundness. A high strength at one or seven 
days is usually followed by a decrease in strength at twenty-eight days. 
Steadily increasing strength at long periods is better proof of good 
quality than high results during the first few days. The German 
standard tests recognize only breaks at twenty-eight days. The French 
standard permits, for slow-setting cements, tests at seven and twenty- 
eight days, and three and six months, and one, two, etc., years : and for 
rapid-setting cements, from three to twenty-four hours for neat mortar, 
and twenty-four hours for sand mortars. In all cases the time is 
counted from the instant of adding the water when mixing the 
briquette. The l)riquettes should be tested as soon as taken from 
the water. 

THI-; TESTING MACHINE. 

There are two types in common use. In one, the weight is 
applied by a stream of shot which runs from a reservoir into a pail 
suspended at the end of the steelyard arm : when the briquette 
breaks the arm falls, automatically cutting off the flow of shot. In 
the other type, a heavy weight is slowly drawn along a graduated 
beam by a cord wound on a wheel turned by the operator. The first 
is made by Fairbanks Scale Company, and the second, by Riehle 
Bros., and also by Tinius Olsen, both of Philadelphia. 

Fig. 2 represents a cement-testing machine which can be made 
by an ordinary mechanic at an expense of only a few dollars. 




FKi. 2. HO.ME-MADE CEMENT TESTING MACHINE. 
~ fixed weight. W rr roUin^ weight. W" := counterpoise. 

: block for shearing. H' = block for crushing. C = tension cHps. 



Although it does not have the conveniences and is not as accurate 
as the more elaborate machines, it is valuable where the quantity of 
work will not warrant a more expensive one, and in many cases is 
amply sufficient. It was devised by V. W. Bruce for use on United 
vStates government work at Fort Marion, St. Augustine, Fla. 

The machine consists essentially of a counterpoised wooden 
lever lo ft. long, working on a horizontal pin between two broad up- 
rights 2o ins. from one end. Along the top of the long arm runs a 
grooved wheel carrying a weight. The distances from the fulcrum 
in feet and inches are marked on the surface of the lever. The 
clamp for holding the briquette for tensile tests is suspended from the 
short arm, i8 ins. from the fulcrum. Pressure for shearing and com- 
pressive stresses is communicated through a loose upright, set under 
the long arm at any desired distance (generally 6 or 1 2 ins.) from the 
fulcrum. The lower clip for tensile strains is fastened to the bed- 
plate. On this plate the cube to be crushed rests between blocks of 
wood, and to it is fastened an upright with a square mortise at the 
proper height for blocks to be sheared. The rail on which the wheel 
runs is a piece of light T-iron fastened on top of the lever. The pin 
is iron, and the pinholes are reinforced by iron washers. The 




1 







FIG. 3. AMERICAN TEN- 
SION CLIPS. 



clamps are wood, and are fastened by clevis joints to the lever arm 
and bed-plate respectively. When great stresses are desired, extra 
weights are hung on the end of the long arm. Pressures of 3,000 lbs. 
have been developed with this machine. 

For detail drawings of a more elaborate home-made cement- 
testing machine, see Proceedings Ci-oil Engineers'' Club of Philadel- 
phia, Vol. v., p. 194, or Engineering Xews, Vol. XV'., p. 310. 

The Clips. The most important part of the testing machine is 
the clips by means of which the stress 
is applied to the briquette, (i) The 
form must be such as to grasp the 
briquette on four symmetrical sur- 
faces. (2) The surface of contact 
must be large enough to prevent the 
briquette from being crushed between 
the points of contact. (3) The clip 
must turn without appreciable fric- 
tion when under stress. (4) The clip 
must not spread appreciably while 
subject to the maximum load. 

The form of clip recommended 
by the Committee of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers is shown 
in P"ig. 3. This form is not entirely 
satisfactory, since it does not offer 
sufficient bearing surface, and the 
briquette is frequently crushed at the 
point of contact. The difficulty is 
remedied somewhat by the use of 
rubber-tipped clips. 

The clips and the molds to fit 
should be purchased of the regular 
manufacturers, as home-made ones 
will not give at all satisfactory results. 

Whatever the fortn of the machine or clips, great care should 
be taken to center the briquette in the machine. 

The Speed. The rate at which the stress is applied makes a 
material difference in the strength. The following data are given 
by H. Faija, an English authority, as showing the effect of a varia- 
tion in the speed of applying the stress : — 

Rate. Tensile Strength. 

100 pounds in 120 seconds 400 pounds. 

100 „ „ 60 „ 4'S .. 

100 „ ,,30 „ 430 .. 

100 „ ,,15 „ 45° .. 

100 „ „ I second 493 „ 

Other experimenters do not get as great differences as above, 
but all agree that the apparent strength is greater the more rapidly 
the load is applied. 

The French Commission recommends 660 lbs. per minute. The 
.American Society of Civil Engineers recommends 400 lbs. per min- 
ute for strong mixtures, and half this speed for weak mi.xtures. The 
Canadian Society of Civil Engineers recommends 200 lbs. per min- 
ute. The German standard requires "13 lbs. per minute," which 
refers to the load applied at the end of the steel yard arm and not to 
the stress on the briquette. Apparently the multiplication of the 
Cierman machine is thirty, and consequently the rate of stress is 13 
X 30 = 390 lbs. per minute. 

DATA ON TENSILE STRENGTH. 

Owing to the great variation in the manner of making the tests, 
it is not possible to give any very valuable data on the strength that 
good cement should show. In 1885 a Committee of the American 
Society of Civil Engineers recommended the values given in Table 1. 
At least the minimum values there given are required in ordinary speci- 
fications, and the maximum values are sometimes employed. Many of 
the better cements commonly give results above the maximum values 
in Table I. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



1 89 



TABLE I. 

TENSILE STRENGTH OF CEMENT MORTARS. 



Fire-proofing. 



Age of Mortar When Tested. 


Average Tensile Strength in Pounds 
per Square Inch. 


Portland. 


Natural. 


Clear Cemf.nt. 
1 day — I hour, or until set, in air, the remainder of 


Min. Max. 
100 140 
250 550 
350 700 
450 800 

80 125 
100 200 
200 350 


Min, Max. 
40 80 


I week — I day in air, tlie remainder of the time in 


4 weeks — i day in air, tlie remainder of tlie time in 


100 150 
300 400 

50 80 
200 300 


I year — i day in air, the remainder of the time in 
water . . . . 


I Part Cement to i Part Sanu. 
I week— 1 day in air, the remainder of the time in 


4 weeks— I day in air, the remainder of the time in 


I year— I day in air, the remainder of the time in 


I Part Cement to 3 Parts Sand. 
1 week — I day in air, the remainder of the time in 


4 weeks— 1 day in air, the remainder of the time in 




I year— I day in air, the remainder of the time in 
water 





Natural cement, neat plastic mortar, will generally show 50 to 75 
lbs. per square inch in seven days, and 100 to 200 lbs. in twenty- 
eight days. Good Portland cement, neat plastic mortar, will show 
100 to 200 lbs. per square inch in one day, 400 to 600 in seven 
days, and 600 to 800 in twenty-eight days. With 3 parts sand, 
Portland cement, plastic mortar, will give at least 100 lbs. per square 
inch in seven days, and 200 in twenty-eight days. Of course the 
strength varies greatly with the method of testing. In consulting 
authorities on this subject, it should be borne in mind that the 
strength of cement, particularly Portland, has greatly increased in 
the past ten years. The specifications should be drawn to corre- 
spond with the personal equation of the one who is to test the 
cement. 

The German standard requirement for dry mortar pounded into 
the molds is 227 lbs. per square inch at twenty-eight days. 

EQUATING THE RESULTS. 

It not infrequently occurs that several samples of cement are 
submitted, and it is required to determine which is the most economi- 
cal. If the cement is tested with the proportion of sand usually em- 
ployed in practise, then only strength and cost need to be considered ; 
but if the cement is tested neat, then cost, strength, and fineness 
must be taken into account. Table II. shows the method of deduc- 
ing the relative economy when the cement is tested with sand. The 
data are from actual practise. In a similar manner, results could be 
deduced for the relative economy at any other age. The circum- 
stances under which the cement is to be used should determine the 
age for which the comparison should be made. 

TABLE II. 

RELATIVE ECONOMY OF CEMENTS TESTED WITH SAND AT 7 DAYS. 





Tensile Strength, 
1 C. to 3 S. 


Cheapness. 


Relative Economy. 


1 


Pounds per 
Square 
Inch. 


Relative. 


Cost per 
Barrel. 


Relative. 


Product of 

Relative 

Strength and 

Relative Cost. 


Rank. 


A 

H 
C 
D 
E 


168 
.76 
i6f) 
•35 
'35 


95 4 
100 

y4-3 

76.7 
76.7 


>2.30 
2-34 
2 40 
2 45 
2.47 


1 00.0 
98-3 
95.8 
93.8 
93-' 


95.40 
98.30 
9"-33 
71-94 
71.40 


2 
1 
3 
4 
5 



However, this principle should be employed with caution, par- 
ticularly with short-time tests, since the method gives the advantage 
to a cement which gains its strength rapidly and which may there- 
fore be unsound. If this method is employed, care should be taken 
that the minimum strength specified is not unduly low. 



A CONSENSUS OF OPINION AMONG LEADING ARCHI- 
TECTS OF CHICAGO ON THE USE OF BURNED 
CLAY FOR FIRE-PROOF BUILDINGS. 

(Concluded.) 

IN the last issue of The Brickhuilder we published the results 
of interviews with some of the leading Chicago architects in re- 
gard to the use of burnt clay for fire-proofing purposes. Reports of 
further interviews are published herewith. In order to bring again 
before our readers the distinct lines upon which the inquiries were 
based, we reprint the questions to which reference is made in the 
interviews. These questions cover the whole field of our proposed 
inquiry, and a comparison of the replies suggested thereby shows how 
firm is the belief in burnt clay as a medium for fire-proof construc- 
tion and how thoroughly this material has been able to accomplish 
the desired results. These interviews, as compared with the opinions 
we published some time since of some of our leading Eastern archi- 
tects, show that the use and appreciation of terra-cotta does not 
materially differ in the West from what is recognized as the best 
practise in the East. — -Ed. 

The following questions were submitted to those whose names 
appear hereafter : — 

1 . Do you employ burned clay in fire-proof buildings, and if so 
to what extent ? 

2. Do you prefer it to other so-called fire-proofing systems, and 
if so for what reasons? 

3. What kind of burned-clay material do you prefer.? or would 
you employ different kinds for different purposes.? 

4. Have the recent attacks on the burned-clay systems of fire- 
proofing by promoters of other systems influenced your judgment? 

5. Do you think that the makers of burned-clay fire-proofing 
are trying to improve and perfect their material and its method of 
application? 

6. What do you think is the lesson to be learned from recent 
fires in buildings fire-proofed with burned clay ? 

7. Do you think it right for architects to consent to their clients 
always taking the lowest bid for this kind of work without regard to 
the differences in what the parties intend to furnish ? 

8. What do you think is the reason why the price and quality of 
burned-clay fire-proofing have been reduced during the last ten years ? 

9. Do you agree with the opinions given by Mr. Jenney in tlie 
July Brickbuilder? 

10. Do you think it desirable for architects to employ fire- 
proofing experts to design the details of fire-proof work and super- 
vise its erection, as is now done in the case of steel constructions? 

Louis H. Sullivan, formerly of the firm of Adler & Sullivan, has 
had a large experience in the erection of fire-proof buildings, not 
only in Chicago, but in St. Louis, Buffalo, New York, and other 
cities. He said : " Yes, 1 have used burned clay largely, and in 
nearly all of the fire-proof buildings that I have designed. I prefer 
it to other so-called fire-proof materials, because it is, on the whole, 
better adapted to the contingencies of building construction. It is 
best adapted to winter building and rapid work ; in fact it is unwise 
to employ plastic methods for large buildings, even though it is pro- 
prosed to do this part of the work in summer, for contingencies might 
arise to compel part of it to be done in freezing weather, when no 
dependence could be placed upon the results. The use of plasters 
and concretes in solid bodies demands practically laboratory condi- 
tions and constant inspection, and further, it is for these reasons also 
that I agree with Mr. Jenney that it is best for filling over fiat arclies 
to use as little concrete and as much tile as possible, and, when con- 
crete is necessary, to make it as he suggests. I prefer porous to hard 
tile, l)ut 1 would prefer a semi-porous tile to either, if I could get it, 
because it has great strength and is less liable than hard tile to 



190 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



crack when suddenly cooled by water. I wish some manufacturer 
would put such a material on the market in this city. I have heard 
of its having being used elsewhere." 

In answer to the fourth question, Mr. Sullivan said emphatically 
" No," which requires no enlargement or explanation of his views on 
that subject. In answer to question five he said : " In the West, that is 
including Buffalo and Pittsburgh and points west of those, yes ; east of 
those points, no. The Eastern tile seems to be the same that it was 
years ago, very rough and uneven, both in form and quality. I very 
much dislike the Eastern system of making a soffit tile out of an 
e.vtension of the skew-back carried under the beam on both sides. 
In recent work done under my direction in New York, many of these 
extensions were broken off in setting. They did not fully cover the 
space under the beams, and I required the contractors to use mortar 
combined with a reinforcement of metal buried within it, to supply 
the deficiency. Hut I do not like this as well as the independent 
soffit tile with an air space." Referring to Mr. Jenney's girder sys- 
tem as used in the extension to the New York Life Building at Chi- 
cago, and illustrated in the July BRicKKUit.DER, he said: "I like it. 
It is a very simple and strong system of construction so far as the 
steel is concerned, and capable of thorough fire-proofing, so as to 
make flat ceilings throughout without disclosing the girders." In 
answer to the question, '• What do you think is the lesson to be learned 
from recent fires in Pittsburgh, where the steel structure was saved 
though the fire-proofing was considerably damaged .'' " he said that 
the work was imperfect, but could, with slight improvement, have 
been made thoroughly reliable. " The lesson is that all fire-proofing 
is worthless unless thoroughly done." 

In answer to question seven he said : " That is a good question 
that applies to everything, no matter what it is. I cannot control 
the commercial instincts of my clients, but try to do it." 

In answer to question eight, he thought that the price and quality 
of burned-clay fire-proofing had been reduced during the last few 
years, because of the stringency of the money market and severe 
competition for contracts. As to whether or not he agreed with the 
opinions given by Mr. Jenney in the July Brickbuildek, he said: 
" In the main I do, yes." Mr. Sullivan is preparing to finish all the 
columns in a large store he is now designing for Chicago, to a round 
section, and to avoid sharp angles wherever possible. 

During the absence of Henry Ives Cobb, in Washington, Chris- 
tian A. Eckstorm, the manager of his offices, consented to give his 
own views, which he thought would reflect those of Mr. Cobb. In 
answer to the first (|uestion he said: " Entirely; except in one build- 
ing now being erected (one of the Chicago University buildings), 
where we are using Makolite lintels between the floor beams in 
place of flat arches, but this has been done entirely for economic 
reasons, and not because we preferred them. 

To question two he said, evidently referring to interior work : 
" Yes ; and for one reason, that less depends upon the character of 
workmanship in putting up. That is not to say that we admit in- 
ferior work, if we can help it, but with setting hollow-tile fire-proof- 
ing the chances of getting inferior workmanship are less than with 
other materials and methods. For instance, in winter work and 
rapid construction the advantages are all with hollow tile. 

In answer to question three he said: "We have used the hard- 
burned tile in all but two buildings. We used porous tile in the 
Chicago Athletic Club, which you know was severely tested by fire 
during construction, and when the jjrotecting material was not in 
sufficiently complete condition to do its work as effectively as if the 
building had been finished, and also in the Chemical Building in St. 
Louis. That used in the latter was made at St. Louis. It was of 
about the same consistency as the Chicago porous tile, but the pieces 
had thicker webs than the Chicago make. I tried the heat and 
water test on it with satisfactory results." 

To question four his answer was " No." To question five he 
said : " Not within the last three or four years. The Pioneer Fire- 
proof Construction Company, of Chicago, are now proposing to fur- 
nish hollow-tile lintels for floor construction to reach from beam to 



beam, in place of end-pressure arches, which will do away with the 
expense of centering, and I think it may reduce the cost of setting, 
though perhaps the tile may cost more." 

In answer to question six he said: " I can speak only from our 
own experience. After the fire which attacked the Chicago Athletic 
Club, before completion, which was the only actual test ever given 
to any of our buildings, we removed some pieces of steel which 
seemed to have been most e.xposed to fire and had them tested 
exactly the same as new steel, and found that they had not been 
depreciated in any respect." 

To question seven he said: "No. It is against the practise of 
this office to let work to the lowest bidder regardless of difference of 
material offered." He thought that competition and the stringency 
in the money market were the rea.sons why the price and quality of 
burned-clay fire-proofing had been reduced during the last ten years, 
and added, "It must be admitted that too many people are unwilling 
to pay for a good article when they can get a cheaper one which 
seems to answer the purpose." He had not sufficiently examined 
Mr. Jenney's article to give a definite answer, but in answer to ques- 
tion ten said : " Yes, it would be desirable for architects to employ 
fire-proofing experts, as is now done in the case of steel constructions." 
N. Clifford Kicker, head professor of the Department of Archi- 
tecture in the University of Illinois, and Dean of the Engineering 
Faculty, while not a Chicago architect, has always been in practise, 
and has not only had experience in the use of fire-proof materials, 
but has been a keen observer of the works of others, so that their 
experience has had an influence in shaping the course of instruction 
in practical construction at the University. The Brickbuildek is 
glad to be able to add the expression of his analytical judgment to 
the opinions of more active practitioners. Taking the questions 
seriatim for his text, he said: — 

" I. Since nearly all my buildings have not been required to be 
fire-proof, I have seldom had occasion to employ burned clay for 
fire-proofing. 

•' 2. I certainly consider hollow burned-clay tiles for floors, par- 
titions, and external walls to be more durable than any other fire- 
proofing materials for these purposes. With proper supervision and 
careful construction, the safe strength of floors may be computed 
with greater certainty ; burned clay resists water, fire, and dampness 
more efficiently than any other system with which I am acquainted. 
The expanded-metal-concrete system was employed in the Library 
Building of the University because somewhat cheaper, thus obviat- 
ing the necessity of reducing the size of the building. 

" 3. I should prefer to use fire-clay products for fire-proofing, 
though porous terra-cotta might be as efficient, though weaker. 

"4. Not at all. 

" 5. This is doubtless the case, and would be the natural result 
of experience and competition. 

" 6. That this is the most efficient fire-proofing material used, if 
buildings are properly designed, so long as it is impossible to con- 
struct them entirely of brick masonry. 

" 7. No more than for any other kind of work. The advice of 
the architect to his client should be based on the greatest permanent 
or ultimate benefit to him. 

" 8. Results of experience, discoveries of new deposits of mate- 
rials and new processes of manufacture, increased product, economies 
in management, competition in manufacturing and application, inven- 
tion of new forms of finished products. 

" 9. Generally, although it is probable that failure of burned-clay 
fire-proofing to resist fire and water is due more to defective fixing and 
attachment, than to quality of material. It will not always be true 
economy to drop ceiling to bottom of girder, except perhaps in large 
rooms. Cinder concrete is lighter and cheaper, but is inferior to 
concrete of cement, sand, and gravel. No doubt plastering may still 
be greatly improved and made to resist fire and water without mate- 
rial injury. 

" 10. This will doubtless become necessary in case of a very 
important structure." 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IQI 



Masons' Department. 



ESTIMATING BRICKWORK. 
{Concluded.) 

BY F. E. KIUDER. 

IN any system or method of estimating there is necessarily a cer- 
tain amount of guess-work involved as to the labor that will be 
required, and to some extent in regard to the materials, and the ideal 
system is that which most nearly eliminates this feature. In figuring 
by the method explained in the previous article, the contractor must, 
to a greater or less degree, guess at the price per thousand wall 
measure to use as a basis in making up his bid. True, if he has 
built similar buildings in the same locality and kept an accurate 
account of the cost, he can come very close in his guessing, but 
when the building has an unusual amount of openings, or has towers, 
or an elaborate brick cornice, or other special features, this method 
of estimating involves a good deal of guess-work. Again, a rise in 
price of one or more of the materials required, or in wages, will 
affect the rate per thousand, but not in the proportion that it bears 
to the article affected. To figure a job close, therefore, the writer is 
of the opinion that the quantities of all of the materials required 
should be estimated, and then the cost of the different items, includ- 
ing labor. 

If part of the work is more difficult than another part, the labor 
on the two parts may be figured separately. The actual cost of the 
materials can be pretty closely estimated, the labor being the most 
variable item. 

To separate the different items takes a little more time, it is 
true, than the method of figuring by the thousand, and requires more 
data, but one cannot expect to make a success of any business with- 
out putting a good deal of intelligence into it. The writer believes 
that one reason why the average contractor does not succeed better 
is that he is so careless in keeping accounts of the cost of the work 
that he does and the quantities of materials used. 

Ask half a dozen brick contractors how much lime and sand it 
takes to lay i,ooo common bricks, and nearly as many different 
answers will be received, and few contractors can tell just what it 
cost per thousand to lay the bricks in any particular building. All 
of these points should be carefully determined at the end of every 
job, and the results itemized and recorded for future use. This will 
not only enable the contractor to figure more closely, but may 
enable him to discover leaks in his business. 

The following data relating to a building built about a year ago, 
in Denver, was obtained from the contractor and is given to illus- 
trate the way in which some of the items may be determined, 
although the relative amount of labor, lime, and sand for the pressed 
bricks was not kept separately on this job. The building was an 
ordinary two-story brick residence, 29 by 48 ft., with stone founda- 
tion walls and faced with pressed brick on all four sides; the walls 
were 12 ins. thick from foundation to wall plate. 

Several contractors figured on the job, and their estimates 
varied but little from 93,000 brick, solid wall measure. There were 
2,900 superficial feet of pressed brickwork, after deducting openings. 

The writer figures that there are 2,426 cu. ft. of common brick- 
work, after deducting for all openings, and allowing nothing for the 
chimneys above the roof, as they were built of pressed bricks. 
There was no fancy brickwork. 

The materials actually used in this building, and their cost, are 
as follows : — 

18,300 pressed bricks, at $14.25, delivered #260.75 

42,000 common bricks, at 4.00, ,, 168.00 

75 bushels of lime, at 46 cts. 34-5° 

21 loads of sand (about 1 yi yards to load), at 60 cts. . 12.60 

2 bbls. mineral red (for red mortar) 10.00 

Labor 202.50 

#688.35 



This job. therefore, ran at the rate of (i)A, pressed bricks to the 
square foot, after deducting openings, and the total number of 
bricks was a little less than two thirds of the wall measure. 

It also took 17.3 common bricks to the cubic foot of actual 
brickwork. 

Estimating as closely as possible the cost of the pressed bricks 
and the materials and labor required for laying them, and deducting 
from the total cost, we find that the 42,000 common bricks cost 
#315.18 laid in the wall, or $7.50 per thousand; the lime, sand, and 
labor costing #3.50 per thousand. Or, deducting the actual cost of 
the pressed bricks, without laying, and dividing by 93,000, we find 
that the work was done for #4.60 per thousand, wall measure. The 
wages paid on this job were #2.50 per day of eight hours, for brick- 
layers, and #2 per day for laborers. The masons lay the pressed 
bricks from the inside, and each man always backs up his pressed 
brick. The cost of laying the pressed brick, including lime and 
sand, was $6.15 per thousand. 

The prices quoted above are extremely low, and probably can- 
not be duplicated elsewhere, but the quantities should run about the 
same in all localities. 

For estimating brickwork in Denver, the writer finds that the 
following data is quite close for the average job : — 

Pressed brick per net square foot, 6>^. 

Actual bricks required (pressed and common) two thirds wall 
measure. 

Actual number of bricks to the cubic foot of common brick- 
work, after deducting openings, and calling a 13 in. wall 12 ins. 
thick, 17%. 

A brick mason will lay 800 pressed bricks, or from 1,500 to 
1,600 common bricks, on an average in a day of twelve hours. 

To lay 1,000 common bricks (kiln count) requires \yi bushels 
of white lime (80 lbs. to the bushel, or 2}4 bushels to the barrel), and 
^ yard of sand. 

To lay 1,000 pressed bricks will require }( bushel of lime and 
X yard of sand ; and if colored mortar is used, about 50 cts. per 
thousand should be allowed for the coloring matter. 

With wages at #3 per day for masons, and $2 per day for 
labor, the cost of labor per thousand bricks will be about #6.25 for 
pressed bricks and $3.3314 for common bricks. 

Taking these figures as a basis, then, the writer would figure a 
job of brickwork as follows : — 

2,493 sq. ft. (net) pressed brick at G'/j = i 5,789 pressed bricks. 

1,945 cu. ft. of common brickwork at r7j/j bricks per ft. == 
34,360. 

15,800 pressed bricks at $15 per thousand, delivered = #237.00 
34,400 common bricks at #4.50 per thousand, delivered = 154.80 
Lime for i 5,800 pressed bricks, 1 2 bushels. 
"„ 34,400 common bricks, 51)^ ., 

631^ bushels at 46 cts. = 29.21 
Sand for 15,800 pressed bricks, 4 yards. 
„ 34,400 common bricks, 21^ „ 

2S/4 yards at 55 cts. = 14.02 

Mortar color, 15,800 bricks, at 50 cts. per thousand . . 7.90 

Labor, 15,800 pressed bricks, at #6.25 98.75 

,, 34,400 common bricks, at #3.33 '( 114.66 

Extra for laying 2,000 bricks in cornice 8.00 

200 molded bricks, at 4 cts 8.00 

3 iron ash doors, at #1.75 5.25 

Thimbles i.oo 

Flue lining, 32 ft. at 25 cts 8.00 

Cleaning down and pointing 25.00 

'I'otal #71 '-59 

Add for profit and contingencies 70.00 

Amount of bid #781.59 



ig: 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



As prices and methods of working vary in different localities, 
the contractor must, of course, determine the various prices for the 
different items, for himself, and when each job is completed, he 
should sum up from his bills and time-book the actual materials 
used and the cost of labor, and compare with his bid, and in a short 
time he can estimate very closely indeed. 

Many Denver contractors now estimate in this way, except that 
they determine the number of common bricks by first computing 
the solid wall measure, and taking a certain proportion of this for 
the actual number of both common and pressed bricks. Thus, if the 
jol) figured, say, 72,000 brick wall measure, they would allow about 
one third, or 24,000 bricks for openings, and difference between 22}4 
and 17%, which would leave 48,000 bricks, kiln count. Subtracting 
from this the pressed bricks gives the number of common bricks. 
Having determined the number of bricks, the bid is made up in the 
foregoing manner. There is an advantage in this method, that the 
contractor knows just about what he has got to pay for materials 
where he is doing part of the work himself. 

The writer would suggest that contractors might help each 
other by furnishing for publication in this column data along the 
lines above indicated, taken from their accounts. Such data would 
certainly be interesting to all and of great value. 



.MIXING CONCRETE BY GRAVITATION. 

CONCRETE has generally been mi.xed in two ways, either by 
hand with a shovel or by steam machine mixers. The ad- 
vantages of the different ways of mixing concrete are too well known 
to be spoken of here but briefly. The three principal advantages of 
mixing concrete with steam machines are economy of cost, thorough 
mixing, and reducing the time of mixing to a point where the full ad- 
vantage of the initial set of the cement is obtained. Concrete can 
be mixed with shovels by hand thoroughly if the proper amount of 
care and time is taken, but it takes so long to mix a batch of concrete 
by hand that many of the quick-setting cements began their initial 
set before the concrete is deposited in place. 

Until recently there has not been, to our knowledge, a machine 
on the market costing less than several hundred dollars that could 
mix all the concrete that four men could shovel into it, and without 
taking up considerable room for the mixer and the boiler for furnishing 
steam, and without the expense of a skilled workman to handle the 
boiler and the engine of the mixer. 

We have recently seen in Boston a concrete mixer consisting 
of a trough about 10 ft. long with a hopper at the top into which 
the stone, sand, and cement are thrown and with an arrangement 
of pins from one end to the other, and with a stream of water 
entering the mixer approximately half way down its length, which 
will give exactly the same pf'ocess and result as mixing by hand, 
/. (?., the broken stone or gravel, sand, and cement are thoroughly 
mixed dry by striking a large number of pins in the upper half 
of the mixer and then coming in contact with the jet of water are 
thoroughly mixed wet through the rest of the mixer, coming out 
at the lower end into a wheelbarrow, bucket, or other suitable 
apparatus for conveying it to the desired place. The advantages of 
this mixer are .self-evident. The concrete is mixed precisely as it is 
by hand or with the steam machine by being mixed thoroughly dry 
and then mixed again thoroughly after it is wet ; and as the only 
power required is gravitation, there is no cost for power, fuel, or a 
skilled man to operate it. This machine is made so light that three 
or four men could lift it up and set it in place without the use of 
rollers, skids, or derricks. The cost of transportation and setting up 
the mixer is nominal. 

This mixer can be used not only on large jobs where a 
thoroughly first-class concrete is desired in large quantities, but it 
can also be set up on small jobs where the cost of teaming a mixer, 
engine, and setting up would cost nearly as much as the labor to mix 
the concrete by hand. 



E.XTERIOR SCAFFOLDING. 

THE custom in regard to scaffolding for the erection of the 
exterior of buildings differs in various parts of the coun- 
try. In New England it is usual to erect an outside staging 
constructed usuaUy of 4 by 4 uprights spaced 6 or 8 ft. apart, in 
double rows, and connected and braced by 6 in. boards, the scaffold- 
ing being carried to the top of the building. In New York more 
commonly the scaffolding is projected on putlogs, from story to 
story or the work of laying the face brick, etc., is done from each 
floor. 

The question of which is the best is largely a matter of usage, 
but there is one way of looking at it which we think is worthy of 
consideration. If the building is anything more than the plainest 
kind of commercial structure, the architect likes to study it as it goes 
along. If the outside of the building is covered with staging from 
top to bottom, it is like working a typewriter which letters upside 
down. You cannot see what is being done until perhaps it is too 
late to make any change. On the other hand, if the staging 
covers only one story at a time, any imperfection, irregularity, or 
undesirable combination can he seen at once from the outside in its 
true proportions and full effect and can then be altered or remedied 
before the building is carried any higher. 

It is the fond belief of New England contractors that they get 
better bricklaying in and around Boston than anywhere else in the 
country. We doubt if our New York brethren would quite agree to 
that ; at any rate, we hardly believe that the alleged superiority is due 
entirely to the fact that outside stagings are used here. Certainly 
the opportunity of watching the building as it goes along is something 
that would be welcomed by every architect, and we all know how anx- 
iously at times we have waited for the final removal of the staging, 
often in serious doubt as to whether this pet scheme of color or that 
detail would have its true effect, and we certainly should advise in- 
side staging in every case where it is possible, in order to study the 
building as it goes along. 



ELECTRIC CONDITION OF MODERN BUILDINGS. 

THERE have been several paragraphs in some of the technical 
journals, which have been frequently repeated in the dailies, 
calling attention to the possibilities of destructive action by electroly- 
sis, or by some possible but even more obscure process due to what 
is vaguely termed free electricity, which is supposed in some way to 
escape into the frame of a structure and work havoc with all its 
knuckles and joints. 

No less an authority than General Sooy Smith has stated a be- 
lief that this is a tangible source of danger to the steel frames of 
the huge Chicago buildings. 

If this is a danger, which is truly imminent, it certainly ought 
to be carefully considered and guarded against, and yet we can 
hardly believe that the amount of electricity which gets into the 
frame of a modern building is ever sufficient in amount to be even 
appreciable. 

If electricity were in the habit of wandering around in the 
eccentric manner which sometimes characterizes the lightning flash, 
there might be more reason to fear for its action on the frame 
of a building ; but no such eccentricity is habitually observed in any 
structure with which we have ever been familiar. In our Boston 
Subway, which is constructed with steel columns at the sides, and 
overhead steel beams, the possibility of electricity leaking from the 
overhead conductor to the overhead beams, thence to the columns 
and through the earth to the return conductor, is perfectly plausible, 
and, indeed, we are inclined to believe will in time present a real 
source of danger to the structure ; but no such arrangement of con- 
ductors is ever met with in a commercial building, and we cannot 
believe that there is the slightest danger of electricity playing any 
such pranks with our steel frames as to endanger to any appreciable 
extent the security of its parts. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



19.3 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — This is a period of transition and preparation 
in the real-estate and building world. Once fairly started 
on its course in September, business in ordinary years is likely to 
travel along prosperously and without serious interruption until the 
Christmas holidays, only the possibility of an unsound election being 
sufficient to make 
it pause in the late 
autumn. This year, 
fortunately, there is 
no issue in sight 
that is calculated to 
destroy confidence 
or upset the finan- 
cial world, the only 
danger in that line 
at present being the 
remote possibility of 
a free silver victory 
in the Congressional 
elections — a possi- 
bility so remote that 
it may be dismissed 
without a thought. 

It would seem, 
therefore, that we 
are to enter upon a 
season of steady 
business. It is true 
that the business of 
the past month has 
not even given a 
hint of coming ac- 
tivity, nevertheless 
the conditions are 
now right and we 
hear expressions of 

confidence on all sides. A feature that should not be lost sight of, 
and which is sure to be an improving factor, is the radical change 
that is coming to the transit facilities of the city within the next few 
months. I refer particularly to the near completion of the under 
trolleys on Sixth and Eighth Avenues. This will greatly help the 
outlying districts and the suburban towns, for in the long run it is 
accessibility that tells. Old New Yorkers may have their prefer- 
ences and their 
prejudices, but to 
the newcomer the 
advantage of a 
single fare from 
his house to the 
City Hall is almost 
decisive when he 
selects his home. 

We are no 
nearer to the possi- 
bility of having our 
great Public Li- 
brary than when we last referred to the matter, owing to the econ- 
omy of the present administration and the necessity for placing 
street lamps 10 ft. apart throughout all the adjacent corn fields, 
which act we of course do not criticize, as it is probably a charitable 
act to assist some starving contractor. 



Among the few items of new work reported last month are ; — 
Charles C. Haight, architect, has prepared plans for a two-story 
brick warehouse to be built for the Trinity Church Corporation at 
a cost of $30,000. 

George F. Felham, architect, has planned a six-story brick store 
and loft building to be built at numbers 203, 205 Wooster Street; 
cost, $30,000. 

Franklin Bayliss, architect, has planned a six-story brick mer- 
cantile building to be built on Prince Street, corner West Broadway; 
cost, $40,000. 

Alexander M. Welch, architect, is preparing plans for three 
five-story brick flats to be erected on Riverside Drive near <S7th 

Street ; cost, $100,- 
000. 

I. G. Perry, 
State y\rchitect, 
Albany, N. Y., has 
prepared plans for a 
three-story brick 
hospital l)uilding to 
be erected on Ward's 
Island; cost, $150,- 
000. 




¥ 



JAMES HALL, PHILADELPHIA, PA 
Rankin & Kellogg, Architects. 




TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, PRESS BUILDING, JTH AND SANSOM STREETS 
Executed by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 
T. P. Chandler, Architect. 



JlTT.S.IiURGH. 
The expecta- 
tion among archi- 
tects during the 
spring and summer 
has been that when 
the war was over 
building operations 
would improve 
rapidly ; but peace, 
which now seems 
assured, has come so 
late in the season 
that little improve- 
ment is looked for 
before the first of 
the year. While 
work of any impor- 
tance is practically 
at a standstill, a great deal of small work is being done. . This is 
principally small dwellings costing from $3,000 to $10,000; many 
are doubtless taking advantage of low prices and building homes for 
themselves, but the large number of them, and especially the fact 
that s,o many are going up in groups of from three to six or more, 
would seem to show that the high rents obtained here have attracted 
investors, and particularly those who have only a small ready capital, 

who see here an op- 
portunity for ob- 
taining a good 
return from their 
investments. When 
we remember that 
a house costing 
about $5,000 will 
rent for $50 a 
month, it seems 
that they are receiv- 
ing at least a fair 
percentage. 
A noticeable fact here lias always been the almost complete 
absence of apartment buildings and of flats, but this has also lately 
been receiving more attention. The new Schenley Apartments 
on Fifth Avenue, East End, will supply, for a time at least, the 
demand for a high-priced building, and a number of moderate 



PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



194 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



priced ones are now being put up or will be commenced soon, while 
several are being contemplated but are not far enough along to give 
particulars. 

Rutan & Russell have recently let the contract for the new 
Edgeworth Club House to be built at Edgeworth, Pa. 

Work has been commenced on the new building for the United 
Presbyterian Seminary Building in Allegheny. It is to be of brick 
and terra-cotta, and to cost $90,000. Struthers & Hannah are the 
architects. This firm is also preparing plans for an addition to the 
residence of Charles Lockhard, Highland Avenue, to cost about 
$45,000. 

,'\lden & Harlow have prepared plans for a summer home for 




CHEMICAL ItUILDlNTi, ST. LOUIS, MO. 
The front brick used in this building was manufactured by tbc Illinois Supply and Con- 
struction Company. 

Mr. Sol Smith Russell; it is to be built at Edgartown, Mass., and 
to cost $10,000. 

Geo. S. Orth & Bros, are at work on a new house for Dr. Hal- 
leck, to cost about $12,000. 

A new six-story apartment house to be built at P'riendship Park 
has been planned by Architect De Arment. 

Miss Mercur has planned the St. Francis de Sales Roman 
Catholic Church at McKee's Rocks; it is to be built of brick, and 
cost $40,000. She has also prepared plans for a new building for 
the Young Women's 'Seminary at Washington, Pa; cost, $25,000. 

The Diamond National Bank has opened a competition for a 
new office and bank building, which they will erect next spring. 
T. D. Scott is the only local architect at work on this. 

J. D. McShane will erect an apartment house on Highland 
Avenue. It is to be built of Roman brick and terra-cotta, and cost 
$100,000. Topp & Craig are the architects. 





^;)^yy^-: 



TKRRA-COTTA CAP FOR St HOOL NO. 7, liAVONNE, X. J. 

Executed by the New Jersey Tcrra-Cotta Company. 

Hugh'Roberts, .Architect. 

Great preparations are being made for decorating the city dur- 
ing the triennial conclave of the Knights Templars, which will be 
held here next month. Many large arches are being jjlanned, to be 
built of staff. It is to be hoped that, with a material which lends 
itself so readily to work of such a character, th-ey will surpass in 
design and artistic merit the arches ordinarily built on such occasions. 



NEW TRADE PUBLICATION. 

The Coxkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Compaxv has pub- 
lished an attractive portfolio containing photographic reproductions 
of work executed by them, including general views of buildings, and 
carefully selected details. We have heard of an astute individual 
who undertook to collect an epitome of modern American archi- 
tecture in the shape of the annual trade catalogues of the art indus- 
tries. These really constitute a by no means bad measure of 
progress, and certainly in such a collection the representation of this 
conipany could be given a high place. Few of the art industries can 
show so entertaining a lot of really excellent work both in design and 
execution, and the terra-cotta which is shown by this portfolio of some 
seventy-eight plates is of a character which marks the publication as 
more than a mere trade catalogue. It has been a pleasure to illus- 
trate some of the work of this conipany from time to time in these 




terra-cotta detail, DOVLESTOWN bank, UOVLESTOWN, I"A. 

Executed by the Conkling. Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

Baker & Dallett.^Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



195 




^Cs 



1^ 0= 







'^■1 



i .r=if i,"^ 







<i I , .. . 

.l!';.- -. .. .■•-H-l' 




S '^-^ 



SECOND FLOOR. 




FIRST FLOOR. 




liA.SICMICNT. 



CITY HOSPITAL, BOSTON. THIi; ANN WHITE VOSE nUILDING. IJWELLINt; FOR NURSIiS. 

Wheelwright & Haven, Architects. 



196 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



columns, and the company has been fortunate in having opportuni- 
ties of executing some of the best work which has been put on the 
market. The company is also fortunate in the possession of the 




FINIAL OVKU MAIN EXIKAXCE, IIAVAKD llLIl.DING, NEW VOKK 

CITY. 

Executed by the I*ertli >\mboy Tcrra-Cotta Company. 

I^uis H. Sullivan, Lyndon 1*. Smith, Architects. 

artistic mechanics who are able to turn out work of this high charac- 
ter: and now it is the architectural public which is fortunate in hav- 
ing these various fragments collected in permanent shape where they 
can be, perhaps, more fully appreciated in detail than even in the 
building itself. We suppose that in common with every large manu- 
facturer of terra-cotta the Conkling, Armstrong Company is not 
always allowed to do its best, that some of its terra-cotta is 
necessarily of the nature of pot-boilers which it would not 
care to illustrate, but the selection manifested in this cata- 
logue shows the possession of a degree of good taste which 
argues well for the cooperation the architect may expect who 
looks to them for the artistic execution of his ideas. 



CURRKNT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

Powhatan cream-white bricks have been specified for 
fronts of three flats and store buildings, East Broadway, 
Clinton, and Division Streets, New York City. 

The Dacus Ceav Manufacturing Comi'Anv is sup- 
plying buff and fire-flashed brick for a new block at Phila- 
delphia for which" John Anderson is architect. 

Gai!Kiel & ScHALL report increasing sales of their 
Precipitated Carbonate of Barytes among the leading clay- 
workers of the country. 

The Illinois Supply and Construction Company 
have rebuilt entirely of brick their plant recently destroyed 
by fire, and began on tha fifteenth of the month the execution 
of several new orders. 

The Chesebrough Building, an eleven-story structure now 



being erected at Pearl and State .Streets, fronting Battery Park, New 
York City, will be of Powhatan cream-white brick. 

Sanderson & Porter, contractors for the Meriden & 
Compounce Electric F^ailroad Company, have let the contract for 
furnishing several Ijridges and buildings on the line of this road to 
the Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin. Conn. 

The Kittanning Brick and Fire-Clay Company are fur- 
nishing interior linings for the Toombs, New York City, and Col- 
lins Farm Hosi)ital, Collins, N. Y., also exterior brick for school 
buildings at Brookville, Pa., and Corry, Pa. 

The Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company is supplying 
through their Buffalo agent, John H. Black, the fire-flashed Roman 
brick being used in the new Park Theater, Niagara Falls, .\. Y., 
Orchard & Joralemon. architects. 

John H. Black, representing the Kittanning Brick and Fire- 
Clay Comi)any, at Buffalo, is supplying the buff bricks being used 
in the addition to the Collins P'arm Hospital, Collins, N. Y., Aug. 
C. Essenwein, architect. 

Three hundred thousand buff Xorman face bricks, manufac- 
tured by the Kittanning Brick and Fire-Clay Company, will be used 
in the new Third Ward Public School Building, Allegheny, Pa. 
This is said to be the largest building of its kind in the State of 
Pennsylvania. 

The Brick, Tekra-Cotta, and Supply Company, Corning, 
N. Y., have recently closed contracts for furnishing the terra-cotta for 
the following new buildings: Public School, Utica, N. Y.; German 
Evangelical Church, Elmira, N. Y. : St. Joseph's Church, Hoboken, 
N. J.; Diven Block, Elmira, N. Y. ; R. C. Church, Auburn, N. Y. ; 
House of Friendless, Willianisport, Pa. 

The Tiffany Enameled Bukk Company, of Chicago, has 
been awarded the contract to furnish their white English size dull 
finish enameled brick for the front (six stories) of the MithofF 




design over windows of central park pimping station, 
chicago, ill. 

Executed in terra-cotu by the Northwestern Terra-Colta Company. 
Bruce Watson, City Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



197 



Building, at Columbus, Ohio. The trimming will be of white enam- 
eled terra-cotta furnished by the American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic 



new building of the Electric Railway and Light Company, at Mil- 
waukee. 




The PiTTSiiURCH Tkkka-Coita Lumi!i:k Company has added 
to its works one at East Palestine, Ohio, where they intend making 
only fire-clay tile. This, with the works now at Port Murray, N. J., 



HOWE DEPARTMENTAL STORE, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Arcliitectural terra-cotta furnished by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, St. I.ouis. 

Brick by the New York Hydraulic-Press Brick Company. 

Alden & Harlow, Architects. 

Company, also of Chicago. Messrs. Stribling & Fo.x, of Columbus, 
are the architects. 

The Ev.vNS & Howard Fire-Brick Company are supplying 
75,000 buff Roman brick for a building at Spokane, Wash., Cutler 
& Malmgren, architects ; an order for buff standards at Green Bay, 
Wis. : buff standards for a new building at Platteville, Wis., of 
which Henry Ives Cobb is the architect ; also the terra-cotta for the 





MAIN ENTRANCE, ROWE DEPART.MENTAL SIORE, PITTSliURCJH, I'A. 

.Alden X: Harlow, Architects. 



STORE AND OFFICE FRONT, TORONTO, CAN. 

Arlliur K. Wells, Architect. 

and Pittsburgh, Pa., gives the largest production of any company in 
the hollow-tile or porous terra-cotta fire-proofing business and enables 
them to reach north, south, east, and west with the lowest freight 
rates oJjtainable. 



nr 



198 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Thk estate of C. M. Robertson. Montville, Conn., recently lost 
by fire their boiler house. In order to obviate, if possible, a like 
experience in the future, they have decided to put up a thoroughly 
fire-proof construction in its place. The building will have steel 
framework, brick side walls, and an absolutely fire-proof roof, con- 
sisting of corrugated iron covering laid on the Berlin Iron Bridge 
Company's Patent Anti-condensation Roof Lining. 

.Mr. Ros.s C. PiRnv. of Buffalo, was the successful contestant 
for the scholarship in the Department of Ceramics of the Ohio State 
University, established by the National Brick Manufacturers' Asso- 
ciation, and will accordingly have charge of the experimental work 
under Professor Orton's direction for the next school term, which 
began September 14. 

The following contracts are reported by the Celadon Terra- 
Cotta Company: Sherman School Building, -St. Louis (flat shingle;: 
Eliot School Building, St. Louis (flat shingle) ; residence for W. D. 
Orthwein, St. Louis (flat shingle); a row of residences for Union 
Mutual Life Insurance Company, Chicago, S. S. Beman, architect ; 
building for Cook County Normal School, Chicago (closed shingle), 
N. S. Patton, architect: station for Union Railway Company, Des 
Moines, la. (10 in. Conosera). 

The New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company will furnish the 
architectural terracotta for the following buildings: Apartments, 
corner 139th Street and St. Ann's Avenue, New York City, John C. 
Burne, architect; Manhattan Improvement Company, owners and 
builders; apartments. West End Avenue and io6th Street, New York 
City, Neville & Bagge, architects ; Daily & Carlson, owners and 
builders: School No. 7, Bayonne. N. J., Mugli Roberts, architect; 



T. Burke, builder; factory, Bridgeport, Conn., Dowling & Bottom- 
ley, builders for The L^nion Metallic Cartridge Company. 

The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company, office, 287 Fourth 
Avenue, New York City; factory, Tottenville, Staten Island, N. Y., 
wish to announce that they are now prepared to furnish architectural 
terra-cotta for all styles of work and would be pleased to render es- 
timates on same. 

The plant at Tottenville which the company has recently 
erected is thoroughly equipped with the most approved machinerv 
for the manufacture of terra-cotta, and is in charge of men of skill 
and experience in this line of work. The location of the factory is 
such that material can be shipped either by rail or water to any part 
of the country. 

The company guarantee the prompt and satisfactory fulfilment 
of all contracts undertaken by them. 

Holmes, Booth & Havdens, Waterbury, Conn., are making 
extensive repairs and additions in their plant. The Berlin Iron 
Bridge Company, East Berlin, Conn., have secured the contract for 
the steel roof work for the boiler room, 40 by 80 ft. ; the new muffle 
room, 35 by So ft.; and the new brass mill, iiS by 90 ft. These 
new additions are to be fire-proof throughout. The side walls are of 
brick, the roof supports are of steel, and the covering corrugated 
iron. The roofs are arranged with skylights for lighting the interior 
of the building, and monitors for ventilation. 

The works of the Cummings Cement Company, of Akron, N. Y., 
are running night and day in order to supply a number of large con- 
tracts, among which may be mentioned that of supplying fifty thou- 
sand barrels of Obelisk brand of rock cement in the construction of 
the Ohio Steel Company's new plant at Youngstown, O. 







Fireplace Mantels. 

The best ones to buy are those "we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every 'way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $J2 
up'wards. 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co., 

J 5 LIBERTY SQ., BOSTON, MASS. 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXIV 




Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, Architects, 

New York City. 




SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

Furnished by 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co* 

See May issue of this magazine. 






IliiSiilimr^lll. 



ill I Ik 



i|,„i llll^l \u 

.lllllilMll^'>l'i'i'li 




xxw 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



AGENTS WANTED, 

Contractors and dealers in builders' materials wanted to take agencies for the leasing of the Gilbreth Scafiold to Building 
Contractors. 

Preference given to parties having an opportunity to show this scaffold in actual operation on a building. 

Correspondence solicited. 

See April issue of this magazine. 





Address, 



GILBRETH SCAFFOLD CO., 



85 Water Street, Boston. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ill 



O. W. Peterson & Co. 



New England Agents 



Office. 

JOHN HANCOCX BLDG., 

178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. For.. 

Telephone 484. < < ^ sA fA < * 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company^ Perth Amboy, n. j. 
Mosaic Tile Company^ zanesviiie, ohio. 

DagUS Clay Manfg* Co», Front Brick Manfrs., Ridgway,Pa. 

A full line of Plastic Mud and Semi-Dry Press Brick in all Shades, 
Shapes, and Sizes. 



O. W. KETCHAM, XLcrra-Cotta, 

Supplies r\V 



OFFICE: 



Builders' Exchange, />^ > IRrtVl? 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. • ^f W O* JOllCK* 

-^^^^^ Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



fc^j^s^^^^^^^^j^^^^^^^^^^^^. 



Works : 



Rocky Hill, N.J. 



|l 




i 






'ft 



i 



OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE COMMERCIAL CABLE CO. 

(31 STORIES HIGH.) 



New York Office; 



105 E. 2 id Street. 



HARDING & GOOCH, Ahchiteots. 



Broad Street, New York City. 



W. A. & F. E. CONOVER, Builoebs. 



I** 



Architectural Terra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 



Boston Representative: CHARGES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



iL 



THE BRICKBUJILDER. 



Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 




LAND. TITLE, AND TRUST COMPANY'S BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 



D. H. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS. 



CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Quality . . 

WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

NEW YORK TELEPHONE CALL 10-95 EIGHTEENTH ST. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co^ 



Perth Amboy, N. J* 



....Manufacturers... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

J 60 Fifth Avenue. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta. 



PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, Builders Exchange, 

O. W. PETERSON & CO., Agents. WM. C LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: \ 

Builders Exchange, 

W. LINCOLN MCPHERSON, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



VII 



Tme: Atlamtic Teirra CorrA Co. 



MAnafdlctu/et^ of' 



ARCHlTElCrURAL TtRRA CoTTA 



Office. 



DIRECTORS. 

DcR)i'es4' GrtKor. W H<nM6 Roame., 

WilliB..m n».nice Doji^Wf W. Tkglo/. 

Ric.h6.fd T W^xnto^i^hYZ Me>clisoi7 Crft^ntT 

A»fi?^a H. Bood. 



esr FOURTH AYE. . liEW YORK . 

rekjjhowe, 1T6Y - IS^^-b Sr^eer. 



TorrENVILLL, S.l. HEW YORK. 
fele|3boi7&, 19 Ibttewville.. 



THE NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA=COTTA. 



KARL MATHIASEN, President. 



Office, 108 Fulton Street, 
NEW YORK. 



"Works, 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

and 

MATAWAN, N. J. 



vin 



THE BRICK BUILDER 




THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 
Terra-Cott* Executed bv THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 

\56 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers of Architcctural Tcrra-Cotta in ah colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 



A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 

Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 



TELEPHONE CALL, 1984 -18TH STREET. 



INDIANAPOLIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IX 



.The Northwestern 

Terra- Cotta Co 



In all Colors and 
according to Special 
Design. 



MANUFACTURHRS OF 



Architectural. . 
Terra- Cotta 



Glazed and Enam- 
eled Work in all 
Varieties. 



J!fi^^ Ji^^ ^^^ 



Works and Main Office, Corner of 
Cly bourn and Wrightwood Aves.,.. 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery, Chicago. 











TIML^T 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 




OUR MANTEL No. 18. 

Shown Erected in a Living Room. 



THE FISKE-HOMES 

Mantel Fireplaces, 

built of molded bricks and terra- 
cotta, are correct in design, soft 
and harmonious in effect, and are 
particularly suitable for libraries, 
dining and living rooms, halls, 
dens, etc. 

They are being extensively used 
by people of refinement and taste. 

Send for illustrated catalogue. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 

i66 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 



Brick, Terra-Cotta & Supply Co. 



M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor, 

CORNING, N. Y. 



MANUFACTURER OF 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 
PRESSED BRICK, ORNAMENTAL BRICK, 
BUILDING BRICK, STREET PAVING BRICK, 
FIRE BRICK, MORTAR COLORS, 

FIRE CLAY. 



Brush & Schmidt, 

Manufacturers oj 

Fine Red and Buff, Plain and 
Ornamental 

...Pressed Brick, 



(SHALE.) 



WORKS, 



yewettville^ 



N. y. 



OFFICE, 

2 Builders Exchange, 

BUFFALO, N. V. 











EVENS & HOWARD 



BRICK 



CO. 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 



BUFF, CRAY, GRANITE, MAHOGANY, AND MOTTLED, 

STANDARD AND ROMAN SHAPES. 

920 MARKET STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



d'0<ycyc><MvcyvVcv:vcycy 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




'"^""""-' DE.TAIL OF I5"ARCH. « SECTION OF ARCH. 

■ Paleiien Traiisyerse System of Floor ircli CoostnctloD Made li 9, 10. 12 anil 15 Hcli leptlis. 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENFIELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr, J. A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company* 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



^ 



HOLLOW BLOCKS, 



For Flat, Elliptical, and Segmen- 
tal Arches of every Description. 



Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, VTCW VAPl^ 
156 FIFTH AVE., il C W I UA.JV. 

Worlu, LORILLARD (Kcyport P.O.). N. J. 



xxn 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Ointractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Cotta . . . 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hoflow^ Porous^ Fronts and Paving Brick* 



WORKS AT 
PITTSBURGH, PA., WASHINGTON, N. J., and at EAST PALESTINE, OHIO. 

General Offices: CARNEGIE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office: Townsend Buildings, corner Broadway and 25th St., New York Qty. 




The accompanying illustration is of 

The White Building, 

J 40-1 4 1 BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
L. P. SOULE & SONS Builders. 




nREPROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

166 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



xxni 



.... Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



u 



EUREKA 



ft 



Floor Arches, 
Partitions, 
Furring, 



Roofing, Etc, 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

_New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Agent. 




Mwn id- 

" Excelsior" End-Construction Hat Arch (Patented). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method. 



The Coming Arch for Light Fire-Proof 
Floor Construction (Patented). 

DURABLE, ECONOMICAL, AND RAPIDLY CONSTRUCTED. 




Dei'TH of Akch, 6 ins. 

Spacing, Center to Center of Beams, 

30 ins. 



Depth of Beams, 5 to 6 ins. 

Weight of Arch, per square foot, 

21 lbs. 



Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings. 

Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks* 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 

Factories. ^^ — — v 

MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



To meet a growing demand for a light, simple, yet strong and inexpensive tire-proof construc- 
tion for floors, we b&g to offer our " Eureka" arch (see cut above), for which we claim the follow- 
ing advantages : — 

Absolutely fire-proof — made oijirc-clay. 

Qiiickly erected — no centering required. 

Strong and durable — capable of resisting heavy weights. 

Light in weiglit — no concrete necessary. 

Light iron construction only required. 

L-onwork thoroughly protected. 

Only three sections forming arch. 

Can be put up during any season of the year. 
It is absolutely necessary, when using this arch, that the iron beams be spaced 30 ins. center, 
to insure a perfect and well-constructed arch. 

This arch is composed of three tiles: two abutments, or "skew-backs," which fit the beams 
(thoroughly protecting their lower flanges), and one center or " key tile," set between 5 in. or 6 in. 
deep beams. The tie-rods going i^etween openings on side of brick and allowing for same, the 
cutting of tiles becomes unnecessary. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1895. 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 



Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS. COPLEY SQUARE, BOSTON. 
HENRY E. CREQIER, ARCHITECT. WOODBURY & LEIQHTON, Contractors. 

The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXV 11 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HENRY S. HARRIS, Vice-President. 



WILL. R. CLARKE, Secretary and Treasurer. 
ALVORD B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARTISTIC ROOFING TILK, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 





TOWN.SENI) MEMORIAL HALL, OHIO STATE UNIVERSLFY, COLUMBUS, O., COVERED WITH CONOSERA ROOFING TILES. 

Peters, Burns & Pretzinger, Dayton, O., Architects, 



OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. 

ALEXIS COPE, Secretary. 

Columbus, O., April i8, 1898. 
Mr. Chakli-.s T. Hakkls, Alfred, N. Y. 

Dear Sir : — We have just completed two College Building.s, Townsend Hall, length 260 
ft., average breadth 70 ft., three stories, and the Biological Building, length iio ft., average 
breadth 75 ft., two stories, and for roofing have used Conosera Tile. 

So far we have only praise to speak of it. It adds much to the dignity and artistic beauty 
of the buildings, and we are glad we were able to use it. 

We recommend it without reservation. After seeing it on the Law and Dairy Buildings 
at Cornell, we were not satisfied with anything else. 

Very truly yours, 

ALEXIS COPE, Secretary. 



We have also covered the following named College Buildings^ 
beside those named above, with Conosera Tile : — 

ORRINGTON LUNT LIBRARY, Northwestern Univer.sity, Evan.ston, 111. 
LIBRARY AT UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, Urbana, 111. 
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
SCIENCE HALL at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 
SUITE 1123-4, PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, 156 FIFTH AVENUE. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 
SUITE 1001-2, MARQUETTE BUILDING, 204 DEARBORN STREET. 



XXVUl 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 




THE 



DELMONICO BUILDING. 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE.. NEW YORK CITY. 

JAMES BROWN LORD, ARCHITECT. 



TERRACOTTA AND BRICK BY THE 

NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 

38 PARK ROW. NEW YORK CITY. 



PHILADELPHIA. 



BOSTON. 




iC-H)t- 



THE 



I OFFICE 
85 



.._ BRICKBVILDER 



WATER Kl 
6TREET Jgi 
B05T0Nx|j. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 
Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada ..... $2.50 per year 

Single numbers ........ 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union ..... $3-5° per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 

No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

HARD TIMES AND HIGH IDEALS. 

WE remember a very interesting friend of an extremely re- 
ligious turn of mind who used to assert that one could not 
be in a truly pious frame of mind unless he was a little bit hungry. 
Applying the same reasoning to hard times and art, architecture 
and building ought to show some pretty high ideals just at present, 
for, notwithstanding the repeated asseverations of the daily press that 
good times are upon us, we know by sad experience to the contrary. 
The volume of business may be large, but the margin is extremely 
small. The hope that springs perennially leads us to anticipate all 
sorts of delightful possibilities for 1899; but while we are passing 
through the hard times, it is, perhaps, not amiss for us to prepare for 
the fat years by brushing up our morals and adjusting our ideals. 
In the scramble for work, the keen, relentless competition which 
always accompanies the dull season, it is very easy to drop some of 
our restraints and to feel that we must get work, honestly and fairly 
if we can, but we must get it, and the temptation to ignore ethical 
ideas is one which assails the mechanic and tradesman no less than 
the architect and constructor. The lean years which are upon us 
are surely not warmly desired, and yet, like many of our earthly dis- 
comforts, they may be turned to a good purpose. We know of one 
large manufacturer whose output has been largely reduced, profits 
cut almost to nothing, and expenses increased beyond expectation, 
who deliberately sets himself to take advantage of the dull season 
by improving the quality of his product, experimenting with new 



methods, and, by developing his present methods, striving to be 
ready for the boom when it shall come. We have in mind a promi- 
nent dealer in building material who takes advantage of the slack 
times to cultivate the acquaintance of his business friends, making 
new connections and incidentally gathering many ideas which in the 
rush of business would be beyond his reach. We hear of several 
architects who are now able, for the first time in several years, to 
have long, serious talks with some of their contractors, with mutual 
benefit, and who are utilizing the enforced period of leisure by kinds 
of study which have been denied them when their otiices were more 
crowded. We regret the hard times, we all want the income ; but 
if we can build up our ideals, thereby making our occupation a part 
of ourselves, making it less a drudgery, the experience may not lack 
in positive value for the future. At any rate, because we are not 
building pr.laces we need be no less conscientious in our henhouses, 
and if we are not all of us occupied with State capitols, we can at 
least get some pretty good results out of the spare tables and chairs 
which our kind friends allow us to design. 



THE time may have been once when success in architectural 
design was a matter of accident, or when those to whom the 
creation of great buildings was entrusted could depend upon their 
instincts and the inspiration of the Muses ; but we have changed all 
that with our modern civilization, and if there is any one profession 
of to-day that requires long and arduous preparation, it is that of the 
architect. Constant, unremitting study is the only safe program for 
tlie man who would take rank. It has been our editorial privilege to 
1)6 called upon repeatedly for advice to those who contemplate be- 
coming architects. The usual rule is to find the young man eager to 
enter an office, anxious to begin actual work, looking forward to im- 
mediate worlds of conquest. Even when a kindly restraining in- 
fiuence has harnessed him into the routine of one of our best 
technical schools, his impulse after graduation is still to build, to 
hang out his shingle, to get to work, and the idea seems to be that 
if by some mental /our de force he can compress into three years the 
amount of study that is laid out for five or six, it is well worth the 
effort. The difference between this point of view and the principle 
which seems to actuate the French students of architecture goes, 
perhaps, a considerable way towards explaining the manifest superi- 
ority of the French school in its methods. With us the aim is to 
complete the studies as speedily as possible and start to work. With 
them it is not in how little time can education be acquired, but rather 
how many years can the student devote to preliminary training. It 
is often discouraging to the aspirant, who has, perhaps, come from 
the Institute Hushed with his dijjlomatic honors, to be told to take a 
humble seat and keep on studying for five or six years more before 
he allows his kind friends to give him a job, but all experience shows 
that our young men are apt to start too soon rather than to delay too 
long, and that, other things being equal, the man who hangs out his 
sign and begins his professional career with the greatest amount of 
exi^erience behind him will have the richest measure of true success. 
The secret of success in any profession, in these days, is not inspira- 
tion, not native talent, nor even that sine qua iion of the architect, 
good and complacent friends, but thorough preparation and unlimited, 
hard diji. 



202 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



PERSONAL AND CLUB NEWS. 

James L. Chesebro, architect, Hartford, Conn., has moved his 
office to 50 State Street. 

B. Hammett Seahurv, architect, has moved his offices to the 
Besse Building, 368 Main Street, Springfield, Mass. 

Alonzo T. Hak.mer, architect, has opened an office at 1 14 Lib- 
erty Avenue, Jamaica, N. Y. Catalogues and samples desired. 

H. E. Bo.Nirz, architect, Wilmington, N. C, vifill be glad to 
receive manufacturers' catalogues and samples. 

Walter H. Kilham, architect, has opened an office in the 
Phillips Building, 120 Tremont Street, Boston. Catalogues and 
samples desired. 

Walter L Gideon, architect, formerly of Washington, U. C, 
has opened an office in the Sheppard Building, Springfield, Mo. 
Catalogues and samples desired. 

The firm of Brainerd & Holsman, architects, Chicago, has been 
dissolved by mutual consent. Mr. Holsman will continue the busi- 
ness with offices in the Young Men's Christian Association Building, 
Chicago. 

On the evening of September 28, the 15uilders" Club, of Chicago, 
tendered a "smoker" to the members of the Chicago Architectural 
Club. 

BoHEMLAN Night was observed at the Chicago Architectural 
Club on the evening of September 19. Messrs. Frank W. Kirk- 
patric, Wm. H. Eggebrecht, August C. Wilmanns, J. C. Llewellyn, 
N. Max Dunning, A. G. Zimmerman, and Clarence Hatzfeld were 
hosts. 

Mr. Fritz Wagner, of the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany, has offered three prizes: first, of $50; second, of $30; third, 
of $20, for the three best designs for a terra-cotia column and lintel 
with wall surface above, to be competed for by members of the 
Chicago Architectural Club. 

The T Square Club, of Philadelphia, with its usual and com- 
mendable spirit, appointed a special committee to consult with the 
municipal authorities in regard to the decorations and architectural 
accessories which were to be erected and displayed along the line of 
march for the Peace Jubilee. Although their services were not 
accepted on this occasion, arrangements having progressed too far 
to permit of alterations, as a result of their overtures they have 
been promised the supervision of the work on the occasion of the 
next national reunion of the G. A. R., which will be held at Phila- 
delphia next year. 

The St. Louis Architectural Club met on Saturday evening, 
October i. Reports of the different committees were received; $40 
was appropriated for the use of the Lantern and Lecture Committee, 
and $100 for the Library Committee. Mr. B. H. Brown gave the 
club Owen Jones's " Grammar of Ornament," and Kidder's two volumes 
on " Building Superintendence "; Mr. Neimann, the first volume on 
"Architecture," by T. Roger Smith, and Mr. Enders gave the four 
volumes of the " Kensington Schools on Construction." The com- 
mittee reported that the controversy between the club and the local 
chapter A. L A. had been amicably settled, and Mr. C. K. Ramsey, 
of the chapter, was present and gave a little talk. 

The T Square Club held its first regular meeting of the pres- 
ent season on Wednesday evening, October 5, at which a large 
number of members were present. The subject for competition at 
the meeting was " Sketches Made by Club Members During the 



Past Year," and mentions were awarded as follows: First mention, 
John J. Dull; second mention, Oscar M. Hokanson; third mention, 
James P. Jamieson. The third annual exhibition of the club, in 
conjunction with the exhibition of paintings and sculpture, is to be 
held at the Academy of the Fine Arts, Jan. 14, 1899, to Feb. 2, 1899. 
The Jury of Selection and Hanging Committee for the Architectural 
Exhibit will be composed of Mr. John Galen Howard, of New York, 
Mr. C. Howard Walker, of Boston, and Messrs. Edgar V. Seeler, 
Adin B. Lacey, Herbert C. Wise, Horace H. Burrell, David K. Boyd, 
James P. Jamieson, and William L. Bailey, of Philadelphia. All 
correspondence regarding the exhibition should be addressed to 
Albert Kelsey, Corresponding Secretary, 93 1 Chestnut Street. Phila- 
delphia. 

The Chicago Architects' Business Association has passed a 
resolution declaring that it is the duty of the Illinois State Board of 
Examiners to prevent the practise of the profession of architecture 
by all unlicensed persons, and to cause actions to be brought against 
offending parties. The association, at its annual meeting, decided 
that it would instruct its attorney to institute proceedings to compel 
the examining board to enter these actions, and to prevent the board 
from paying the funds it collected into the .State treasury until the ex- 
pense of such prosecutions had been paid. The .\rchitects' Asso- 
ciation also passed a resolution sustaining the professional character 
of the work of Normand S. Patton as school architect. — Const. 
News. 

HARWOOD HOUSE, ANNAPOLIS. 



PLATES 73 and 74. This house was 
and built between 1770 and 1780. 
order not to intercept the harbor 
view of the Chase House, which 
stands directly opposite. The 
brick is laid in Flemish bond, 
with quarter-inch mortar joints, 
and is of the rich color peculiar 
to Southern colonial work. The 
exterior detail is finely carved 
wood, and the interior is hand- 
somely decorated throughout in a 
similar manner. The parlor in 
the rear of the first story leads 
directly out on the garden and 
is handsomely decorated in ara- 
besque. 

The house was built for 
William Hammond, an Annapolis 
lawyer. It was sold to Chief 
Justice Chase, and has remained 
in thefamily of his granddaughter, 
wife of William Harwood. 



designed by Buckland, 
It was made low in 



ILLUSTRATED ADVER- 
TISEMENTS. 

THE Bank of McKeespoit. 
McKeesport, Pa.. Long- 
fellow, Alden & Harlow, archi- 
tects, is illustrated in the adver- 
tisement of the Harbison & 
Walker Co,, page xv. 

Townsend Memorial Hall, Ohio 
State University, Peters, Burns & 
Pretzinger, architects, is illus- 
trated in the advertisement of 
the Celadon Terra-Cotta Co,. 
Ltd,, page xxvii. 




TERRA-COTTA WINDOW MUL- 

LION. 
Executed by the New N'ork Architectural 
Terra-Cotta Company. 



L-. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



203 



The American Schoolhouse. XII. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

(As the writer has been unable to collect all the material requisite 
for the completion of these papers following the order first intended, 
it has been found necessary, in order not to break the issue, to give 
now the specifications for a school building which was promised in the 
announcement of the editors. The other subjects will be treated 
in later issues.) 

SPECIFICATION.S FOR A .SCHOOL BUILDING. 

Section i. The Work to be Done is to — (a) Erect and 
complete with materials and workmanship of the best quality and 
character, unless definitely specified to be otherwise constructed, the 
[Blank] School Building upon a site, at the corner of [Blank] and 
[Blank] streets, [city.] [State ;] the building is to be of brick with stone 
trimmings, and the contractor is to furnish and do to the satisfaction 
of the architect everything required therefor, except that the contractor, 
unless otherwise specifi- 
cally provided in these 
specifications, is not to 
furnish or install the 
plumbing, or the heating, 
or ventilating apparatus, 
including all metal ducts, 
registers, screens, netting, 
etc., required for any of 
said apparatus, or the 
movable furniture, or the 
wiring for the electric 
lighting, electric clocks, 
bells, or telephones ; but 
the contractor is to do all 
jobbing required in con- 
nection with the work of 
installing the plumbing, 
heating, and ventilating 
apparatus, and the plac- 
ing of said electric wir- 
ing, tubing, and fixtures, 
including the furnishing 
and putting up of boards 
for the support and cov- 
ering of pipes, and the 
doing of all cutting, fit- 
ting, and filling necessary 
for the completion of the 
building in connection 
with said plumbing, heat- 
ing, and ventilating ap- 
paratus, wiring, tubing, 
and fixtures, or any of them 
mission of the architect. 

{b) The contractor -^hall carefully protect the work from injury 
from the weather and from water, frost, accident, or other cause, and 
repair any such injury ; shall make good any defect, omission, or mis- 
take in the work within such time as shall be rec|uired in any notice 
so to do, signed by the architect and given to the contractor or mailed 
to him at the business address stated by him in his proposal, whether 
so given or mailed during the progress of the work or after its com- 
pletion, and whether any inspection or approval of, or payment for, 
the work or any part thereof may have been made or certificate for 
such payment given. 

(c) The contractor shall furnish and maintain temporary doors 
and screens for all openings in the building, and protect the work 
from the weather whenever the architect shall so direct. The con- 
tractor shall supply heat and attendance for drying out and protect- 
ing the building during construction. 




the de lancey school, phil.adklphia, ta. 

George C. Mason, Artlntect. 

Tliis school has a twofold purpose — first, to prepare boys for college, or a school of science, and secondly, to 

give a satisfactory English education to such boys as do not expect to take a collegiate course. 



No cutting shall l)e done without i)er- 



{d) The owner will permit the use of the boilers by the con- 
tractor when the mains and returns for addition have been installed 
and when the contractor has installed the temporary radiators as 
hereinafter provided. Before such possible use of the boilers, etc., 
for heating the building the contractor shall, when re(|uired by the 
architect, furnish temporary heaters, stoves, fuel, and competent at- 
tendance for the same, and shall maintain the heating as rec[uired 
until otherwise directed in writing by the architect. The contractor 
shall leave the boilers in perfect condition at the termination of his 
use thereof and he shall then supply and set new grates for same. 

When mains and returns are installed the contractor shall fur- 
nish and connect temporary radiators, and is not to remove the same 
until so ordered in writing by the architect. Heating will be re- 
quired for the protection of the work, for the drying of plaster, and 
continuously while interior finish is being set and painted, and for 
thirty-one days after the acceptance of the building by the architect. 
(f) The contractor shall furnish and lay all water-pipes, gas- 
pipes, and drains from inside the walls of the building to, and con- 
nect the same with, the 
street mains, as shown on 
plans or as directed by 
the architect. 

( /") The contract- 
or shall furnish and 
maintain a temporary 
water-closet approved by 
the architect, in the place 
shown on the plan or as 
directed by the architect, 
and allow the same to be 
used by every person do- 
ing anything relating to 
the erection and comple- 
tion of the building, 
whether under this con- 
tract or others, and carry 
out all directions relating 
to such water-closet and 
its placing and removal 
given by the architect. 

ig) The contractor 
shall take charge of and 
be liable for any loss of 
or injury to any materials 
delivered on, or in the 
vicinity of, the work to 
be used thereon, whether 
furnished by the owner 
or otherwise ; notify the 
architect as soon as any 
such materials are so de- 
livered, and furnish men to handle them for exainination by the 
architect or his assistants; and keep trimmed up in piles so placed 
as not to endanger the work all such materials, and all refuse, rub- 
bish, and other materials not removed. 

(h) The contractor shall pay all water rates for water re(|uired 
for anything in connection with any work on the building until its 
completion, and pay all other charges and fees incident to the doing 
of the work. 

(i) The contractor shall leave an unobstructed way along 
public and private ways for travelers, street cars, and teams, and 
for access to hydrants ; from the beginning of twilight through the 
whole of every night maintain near all places in the jjublic ways ob- 
stiucted or made unsafe by him sufficient lights to protect travelers 
in such ways from injury ; provide proper walks for travelers over 
and around such places; provide and use all other lights, fences, 
guards, and watchmen on and about the work as directed by the 
architect ; provide all necessary bridges and ways for access to 



204 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



property where the existing access is cut off by him, and see that 
the neighboring residents are not unnecessarily inconvenienced ; take 
all proper precautions to protect persons and property from injury 
by the carrying on of the work. 

(J) The contractor shall replace or put in good condition, satis- 
factory to the architect, any tree, or 
public or private way, or sewer or 
drain, or water, gas, or other pipe, 
or catch-basin, wire, building, fence, 
or other structure interfered with by 
him, and not reejuired to be removed 
under this contract. 

(k) The cont ractor shall 
promptly remove from the work and 
its vicinity all materials rejected when 





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Any^' foo" Ai.noAT Ltvei 














ir High 


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manner as not to flow upon or hinder the other work or cause any 

nuisance. 

(w) The contractor in doing the above shall, so far as they 

go, conform to — these specifications, to — the plans and drawings 

marked [here quote in full the title given to the drawings] and num- 
bered I to (say) 15 inclusive, furnished 
by said [here give in full the name of 
the architect and the business ad- 
dress], to — any directions given, and 
detail plans and working drawings 

furnished by said architects and to 

all orders in writing of said architects 
when approved by the owner, increas- 
ing the quantity or taking away any 
part of the work, or making any 



PL^ or fiijt/aroiMV Mf/rot^ 





^ot/Jfr/f /=-t.oO^ 



THE IJE LA.VCEY SCHOOL, PHIL.^DEI.PHIA, PA. 



SO directed by the architect and he shall remove promptly all rub- 
bish when so ordered by the architect. 

(/) The contractor shall maintain the How in all water-courses, 
sewers, drains, and pipes interfered with by him, or convey the flow 
in covered channels to a suitable point of discharge, in such a 



change in the form, materials, plans, or specifications of the work, 
or requiring the contractor to furnish any extra work or materials 
relating to the above; and shall cause all direction.s, relating to 
the work, given by the architect, to be promptly carried out, and 
everything to be completed on or before [Blank]. Said architects 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



205 



are meant wlietever the word arcliitect is used in these specifica- 
tions. 

Sect. 2. General Directions. — (ti) The contractor shall 
not assign or sublet the work unless with the consent of the archi- 
tect in writing: he shall keep the control and charge of the work 
and of every part thereof, and give his personal supervision thereto ; 
he shall keep a competent foreman always present when anything is 
being done on the work ; and he shall allow all other persons doing 
work for the owner free access to, and not interfere with them in, 
their work. 

(/') The building laws relating to buildings in said city, and all 
other regulations of law or public authorities, controlling or limiting 
the method or materials to be used, or the actions of those employed 
in doing the work, are to be carefully observed by the contractor, 
and all necessary permits are to be taken out, and all notices re- 
quired are to be given by him. The contractor shall begin the work 
promptly and shall do the several portions thereof in the order 
designated in writing by the architect, but he is not to proceed with 
any portions of said work until so authorized in writing by the 
architect. 

(( ) The contractor shall follow figure dimensions in preference 
to scale dimensions in all plans and drawings, and in case of any 
discrepancy between the figures, or tiie figures and scale, or the draw- 
ings and speci-ncntio IS. tlie matter is to be submitted to the architect 
for adjustmei t, and any 
work done by the con- 
tractor before such ad- 
justment is made shall, 
if the architect so re- 
Cjuires, be replaced by 
work satisfactory to him. 

(d) The contractor 
shall employ an engineer, 
competent and satisfac- 
tory to the architect, 
who shall lay out the 
work and shall establish 
all lines upon batter 
boards, and shall indi- 
cate grades : the con- 
tractor shall furnish sub- 
stantial and convenient 
batter boards, shall 
maintain the same, shall 
have the lay-out tested 
from time to tiine by 
said engineer, and .shall 

be responsible for all damage arising from any disturbance of the 
same. 

(e) Full-sized detail drawings are to be furnished by the archi- 
tect for such parts of ihe work as he shall desire ; the contractor 
shall call for such drawings, and anything done relating to such parts, 
after such detail drawings are furnished, and not done in accordance 
with such drawings, is, if the architect so requires, to be replaced by 
work satisfactory to him. 

(/) When for any reason the work is suspended, the contractor 
shall protect all the work, and the roadways and sidewalks shall be 
left by him unobstructed, and in a safe and satisfactory condition. 

(g) The contractor shall keep himself fully informed as to the 
size, shape, and position of all openings and special accommodations 
required for heating and ventilating apparatus, plumbing, steam-pipes, 
tubing, wiring, boxing, and other things ; and, in the absence of 
special drawings and information upon these several points, shall re- 
quire and obtain such drawings or instructions before proceeding 
with any work which is affected by such requirements. 

(/i) The contractor will allow free use of his staging by other 
persons working upon the building. 

Sect. 3. Excavation. — Do all excavating re(|uired for the 




NEW BROWN SCHOOL, HARTFORD, CONN 
Wm. C. Brocklesby, Arcliitect. 



work covered by these specifications. Such excavated material as 
is suitable for refilling shall be used for this purpose : the contractor 
shall supply all additional material for same which may be required, 
as directed by the architect, and he shall remove from the site all 
unsuitable or unneeded material. 

Sect. 4. Pile-Driving. — (n) Do all necessary boring and 
sounding, and keep a record of the movement of piles at each blow 
of the hammer for the inspection of the architect. 

(/>) Furnish and drive the piles as shown by plan : all to be 
driven to hard pan, to be good, sound, straight, spruce piles, not less 
than 10 ins. diameter where cut off for capping-stone, or 6 ins. at the 
bottom. 

(r) If any pile is split or driven out of position, the contractor is 
to drive a new one to take its place. 
(</ ) Cut the piles off at grade 5. 

Sect. 5. Fou.ndations. — (<z) Build the foundations of the 
height and thickness shown on drawings, starting same on granite 
levelers, of the dimensions shown by drawings, and 18 ins. in thick- 
ness ; the whole foundation to be of even-split block granite the full 
thickness of the walls, the length of the blocks to be about one third 
more than the width, to give a good lap to the bond, laid in pure, 
fresh hydraulic cement, having good beds, builds, and faces, and 
laid solid, a true and even face showing on the inside, and also 
on the outside where exposed, all thoroughly pointed. 

(fi) Plaster w a 1 1 
below grade, and above 
cellar bottotn in Port- 
land cement on outside 
of wall and give one 
thick coat of hot asphalt. 
(See Asphalt, section 
12.) 

(q Bond all walls 
and angles thoroughly. 

(d) Finish level 
and true on top, ready 
to receive the super- 
structure. 

(£) Leave holes in 
walls for drain, gas, and 
water pipes, and for 
ducts where shown and 
directed. 

S ]•: c i- . 6 . C u T 

Granite. — Furnish 

and set the granite work ; 

to be of best quality 

[Blank] granite six-cut work ; and to be as shown on general and 

detail drawings. 

Sect. 7. Brickwork. — (a) No mason work is to be laid in 
freezing weather, except by written permission of the architect, and 
then only in accordance with such precautions as he may require. 

{//) Construct all the brickwork indicated by the drawings, 
except where otherwise specified, of best quality hard-burned bricks, 
uniform in shape and size, and well wet, when necessary, before 
laying. 

(>■) Lay all door and window heads, jambs, arches, and stools 
in basement with round-cornered brick. 

(r/) Neatly rule all joints of exposed brickwork in basement. 
(e) Bed each and every brick in mortar, under its bottom, 
sides, and ends, and bond the walls, unless otherwise specified, with 
course of full headers every eighth course, and lay in mortar as 
specified above. 

(/■) Set all the ironwork as called for by the plans and specifi- 
cations; all plates to be set in cement mortar. Firmly bed and fill 
in around all beams, girders, etc. 

(,^) Point around all window and door frames with cotton and 
elastic cement ; staff beads to be removed to do this work. 



>o6 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



liASEMENT. 



(//) All gas and electric pipes on plastered walls must be cut in 
to be flush. 

(/) Fill up neatly all putlog holes, and clean down and point 
the entire work at completion, inside and out, where brickwork is ex- 
posed, using no acid stronger than vinegar, and oil with linseed oil, 
one coat, the exterior after the bricks have thoroughly dried from 
cleaning down. 

(j) Carefully protect all work and leave the wluile in a thor- 
oughly clean and perfect condition at completion. Turn arches of 
required number of rings 
where iron beams or lin- 
tels are not called for. 

{k) Furnish all wall 
ties and clamps not espe- 
cially mentioned, but re- 
quired by the building 
laws, of sizes and dimen- 
sions as directed by the 
architect, and build in all 
ironwork. 

(/) Bed all wall 
plates in cement mortar 
on the walls.- 

[ (///) Furnish and 
set molded brick where 
shown in accordance with 
detail drawings.] 

(«) Except where 
otherwise shown, the ex- 
terior brickwork is to be 
of selected Eastern 
water-struck brick, laid 
" Flemish " bond or as 
shown on general and 
detail contract drawings. 

(()) Line the e.\- 
terior walls, where plas- 
tered on inside, with 
hard-burned, hollow-clay 
brick 4 ins. thick, but all 
bonding brick and brick 
about door and window 
openings are to be solid 
hard-burned bricks as 
above (b). 

(/) Lay the whole 
with perfectly level, 
plumb, and true bond, 
rule neatly the joints of 
all exposed work, and 
give the rough brickwork 
of all exterior door and 
window jambs one thick 
coat of hot asphalt. (See 
.Asphalt, section 1 2.) 

(q) Line the walls 
in basement with selected 
Eastern face brick, joints 
ruled for painting. 

(/■) Pave bottom of trenches and conduits in basement with 
best quality hard paving brick laid in Portland cement mortar. 

is) 15uild trenches and conduits of 8 in. brick walls, laid in 
cement, for all pipes inside building and as shown on drawings: the 
outside of walls of these trenches to be plastered with Portland 
cement and then given two thick coats of hot asphalt. (See Asphalt, 
section 12.) 

(/) Line with hard brick the sides of trenches and conduits 
for pipes. 



FIRST FLOOR. 




THIKU FLOOR. 



NKW liROW.N .SCHOOL, HARTFORD, CONN. 



Sect. 8, Concreting. — («) Level off the basement bottom 
and fill in with clean gravel I 2 ins. thick to the grade required, and 
settle and ram the same solidly for concrete. 

Concrete 6 ins. thick throughout basement, with concrete com- 
posed of three parts of clean, coarse, washed gravel, and one part of 
cement, truly leveled, well smoothed off and left perfect at comple- 
tion, [N. B. : This thickness of concrete is advised only for build- 
ings built on " made ground ": elsewhere 3 in. concrete is sufficient 
and Kosendale cement is sufliciently strong.] 

(ly) Furnish and lay 
concrete foundations as 
shown on drawing in pro- 
portions of one, two, and 
four. 

(f) Imbed all iron 
or steel work below grade 
in concrete as in (h). 

{1/ ) For concrete 
work required for fire- 
proofing, see section 16. 

Sect. 9. Cement. 
— (a) Portland cement 
shall be used for the con- 
crete floor of basement, 
for concrete foundations, 
for pointing joints and 
plastering of face ma- 
sonry, and for all brick- 
work below top of 
ground. .American nat- 
ural hydraulic cement 
shall be used in other 
parts of the work. The 
.American cement shall 
be equal in quality to 
the best Rosendale ce- 
ment, and the Portland 
cement equal in quality 
to the best imported 
Portland cement; both 
kinds shall be made by 
manufacturers of estab- 
lished reputation, and 
shall be fresh and very 
fine ground and put up 
in well-made casks. 

{/)) All the cement 
will be subject to inspec- 
tion and rigorous test by 
the architect, and if 
found of improper quality 
will be branded, and 
must be immediately re- 
moved from the works : 
the character of the tests 
to be determined by the 
architect. 

(c) The contractor 
shall at all times keep in 
store, at the site of the work, a sufficient quantity of the cements to 
allow ample time for the tests to be made without delay to thew ork of 
construction. The architect shall be notified at once of each delivery 
of cement. All cement shall be stored in a tight building, and 
each cask must be raised above the ground by blocking or otherwise. 
Sect. 10. Sand, — The sand u.sed to make mortar shall be 
clean and sharp, sufficiently coarse, free from loam and pebbles, and 
equal to the best Plum Island sand, 

{Continued.) 



SECOND FLOOR. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



207 



Suburban Residence Built of Brick. 

COST, TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS. 

BY ALFRED li. HARLOW. 

THE requirements for a suburban dwelling of moderate cost 
and extent, ever new and varied for each individual case 
and governed by varying conditions of exposure and contour of sur- 
face, present an every-day problem always of interest to the practis- 
ing architect, but particularly engaging when he may from the 
beginning consider the house and its surroundings together, not 
merely as to the location of the cellar wall and its height above 
grade, but giving place to gardens, hedges, and walks as essential 
and important factors of an harmonious whole. 

It seems as easy and quite more satisfactory to consider the 
walks and gardens along with house walls and rooms, and so study 
the whole plan rather than the house plan only; the walks expres- 
sive of entrances and halls, and beds and sodded areas standing for 



spots, — so essential an adjunct to a suburban place, — I have adopted 
the wall and terrace treatment which could be economically carried 
out by bringing the earth to the front from the rear, and building 
necessary retaining vyalls of any local stone that would present an 
approximately even and formal surface. The house thus rests on a 
level plateau of which it becomes a part by the continuation of its 
lines in the architectural treatment of balustrade, steps, and walks, 
and its severity is relieved and interest added by dropping again to 
the natural grade on the front, the slope contrasting pleasantly with 
the level line of the balustrade capping the wall at the terrace. 

The easy approach to the floor level of the house over the 
several groups of steps and level spaces, worked out with and re- 
quired by natural conditions, would possess a charm and interest 
not to be acquired by straight and level approaches or forced and 
irregular pathways. The level of the terrace reached, the grass 
plots and walks behind the balusters suggest a desirable privacy, 
and the garden or porch is at hand on the left or the main entrance 
for the formal caller directly in front. A side path at the right leads 



. on 



rM^_ 




FROMT ElLEVA.TrON» 



room space plotted out within. True, in execution they may not be 
seen together, but the inTiuence of relationship will be felt and un- 
consciously recognized. 

In the plan presented such a study has been made and a 
scheme indicated for an arrangement of plan and grounds in a 
simple and unpretentious way, well within the lines for a place of 
moderate cost and extent, and suggestive of a method of study that 
would result in harmony and individuality in the arrangement and 
composition of house and grounds, in place of ill-considered plant- 
ing and approaches, arranged as best may be after the structure is 
completed, and so much in evidence in all suburban districts. 

In the problem presented the conditions of grade are such as 
to involve a system of terracing, or a frank acceptance of the natural 
lay of the land with a more or less picturesque treatment of the 
architectural part of the problem. 

As the latter method would give no level lawn spaces or garden 



from the natural street grade directly back to the kitchen, basement 
and kitchen gardens, and a gradually rising retaining wall following 
the lot line on this side gives a practically level walk to the rear. 

On the left of the house the ]5orch and sunken garden with its arbor 
shelter along the line of a high dividing wall afford seclusion and a rest- 
ful spot not disturbed by adjacent property or the domestic machinery 
of the house, which goes on on the opposite side of the place. 

At the rear of the house a series of terraces on the rising land 
may be arranged, occu[)ied by kitchen gardens, tennis courts, etc., a 
small gateway through the hedge opening to a walk on the left, and 
the service walk continuing along the right side. 

The walks may be a red brick for the approaches, or perhaps 
the very practical though less artistic artificial stone may be used 
for both steps and walks, with the garden walks of fine gravel. 

Coming now to the material for such a house, and leaving out of 
account any question of a frame building, we naturally turn to brick 



208 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



as the most satisfactory material within our means ; and combining, 
as it does, an air of domesticity with good color and scale, it is on 
the whole the most satisfactory substance we could choose. 

It is proposed that this house shall be built of brick of the 
simplest character, the plain gray-red stock brick laid with wide 
lime-mortar joints, making an unpretentious wall, but, with its varied 
and sparkling surface, a wall that is always good, that belongs to 
the vines that cover it, and the grass and shrubbery that grow up 
against it and make it a part of themselves. 

The pressed brick in its varied shapes and colors finds a wide 
field in the requirements of formal town architecture, but in the 
country or for such a suburban dwelling as this article considers, its 
surface lacks the desired texture and touch of time that is found in 
the more modest but picturesque article proposed, and with the 
Flemish bond, which, of course, is used in laying our brick, we have 
already a smack of quaintness to our wall before the roof is on. 

For the masonry details of the exterior terra-cotta is adopted 
as a mobile material of enduring qualities and slight expense. By 
its use we are enabled to adopt the decorative line of cornice topping 
out the wall, with its richly modeled egg and dart and modillion 
courses carrying the wide-spreading eave of light wooden beams, 



toward the north, the dining room properly accessible from the 
china closet and kitchen, and catching the morning sunlight, as it 
always should ; the reception room having the morning as well as 
afternoon sun, and the living room receiving the whole afternoon 
and the sunset light. The most wholesome and desirable house is 
that receiving all the sunlight possible, and to so locate the rooms 
that they may receive the sun as nearly as possible in the order of 
their use from morning on through the day seems most desirai)lc. 
The English fashion of a separate or detached staircase hall has 
many advantages, and the idea has been adopted here. The en- 
trance hall of moderate size can be handsomely treated in wood, 
and it gives a long vista from end to end of the house and forms 
an attractive focal point, from which the rooms radiate, and which 
they directly adjoin as they cannot do in a small hall blocked with 
a staircase ; neither is the attractive feature of a staircase lost, as it is 
seen from the main hall, out of which it directly opens. In itself, too, 
the staircase hall is an attractive feature opening on the axis of the din- 
ing room with its windows overlooking the garden, and its side en- 
trance giving from the dining room directly to a raised terrace somewhat 
above the garden level, and on a path directly in the garden axis. 
The living room, which, with its porch, overlooks the garden, forms 



■*,'_. T» J*A ikvTfii^aL 




■Vf 



SIDE ELEVATION. 



n^ 



--i 




and to give a touch of refinement to corners and angles and window 
lintels by the introduction of ornamental detail. 

For the proper rendering of delicate detail the terra-cotta will 
be white, finished with a combed surface to keep in touch with the 
texture of the brick wall, to which it will also be related by the echo 
of its color in the woven lines of white joints. The gain in quiet 
and repose in a red and white combination of materials by the use 
of white mortar in the brick joints is surprising, the impression 
made being that of a white mass with the bricks imbedded in it 
rather than that of a red wall trimmed or outlined in its mass by 
white cornices and belt courses. 

The porch at the end of the living room is shown with an open 
roof, suggestive of a pergola, a form easily covered with canvas for 
use in the summer, while in the winter it has the great advantage of 
allowing light and warmth free access to the windows behind it. 

All porches, arbor, and balustrade to be wood, painted white to 
correspond with the terra-cotta in color without in any degree affect- 
ing it in substance and texture. 

The color scheme is completed at the roof with tiles of brown 
shading to a suggestion of green, as a quiet topping out of the red 
house in its setting of grass and trees. 

In the arrangement of plan the rooms have been so disposed as 
to gain the maximum of sunlight and air : the stairways and kitchen 



with the latter the household suite during the summer time, and is 
well isolated at all seasons from the service portion of the house. 

The second-floor plan provides four family bedrooms of good size, 
each getting a goodly portion of sunshine for a large part of the day. 

The bath room is accessible, and from the stairca.se arrangement 
is isolated from the lower hallway, a feature well worth striving for. 

Servants are provided for in the roof story, a flat deck over the 
wide central portion giving space for two rooms. 

In the basement there is space for laundry, servants' closet, fur- 
nace, storeroom, coal bins, etc., all well lighted from windows in 
walls across the front and on elevations not here shown, but which, 
from the fall in grade, will give light and air, and insure a dry, well- 
ventilated area under the entire building, with cement floors and 
lime-washed walls and ceilings. 

The interior finish of our house must of necessity be plain and 
simple, nor is highly polished hard woodwork at all desirable here. 

The hall and staircase and dining room may be of oak with 
the simple ceiling beams indicated, and each may be treated with a 
certain amount of paneled woodwork ; the halls paneled to the 
height of the doors (the spaces are small) and the dining room 
wainscoted three or four feet high ; the oak to be aged with acid 
stain, not filled, but finished with shellac and rubbed with wax. For 
the remainder of the house, painted finish with refined details gives 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



209 



E R R A C- E 



»r: ■hiv w r as 'Ja trr-saas-.ctiJ 





ss ssiz:r:S'::^.<-jtm,ax!sasd 



FIRST FLOOR AND GROUND PLAN. 

elegance and home atmosphere in place of obtrusive and uncom- 
promising polished wood. 

The most satisfactory method of heating within reach is by 
means of a hot-air furnace with large pipes and registers to supply 
a goodly volume of warm air, rather than a smaller and more rapid 
delivery of intensely heated and frequently burnt air. No direct 
hot water or steam heating should be introduced in any part of a 
house other than in hallways, pantries, and perhaps bath rooms. A 
combination of direct and indirect steam or hot-water heating is 
most desirable, but involves an expenditure of too large a sum for a 
house of moderate cost. If care is taken to put in a furnace of 
large capacity that will do its work without forcing and scorching 
the air, a house may be kept at a comfortable temperature without 
difficulty. Every room in a house should have an open fireplace ; 
not only is it a necessity in the cool of the spring and autumn bct 
fore furnace fires are lighted, l)ut in the winter a smoldering hearth 
fire helps out the furnace, and radiates cheery warmth and light, 
while the draught pulls air from the room, causing a correspondingly 
increased flow from the registers. Even where the fireplaces are 
not in use, the flue supplies an outlet for furnace-heated rooms and 
aids the draught from the registers, which cannot deliver air into a 
tightly closed apartment, thus insuring a circulation and constant 
change with a gratifying degree of purity. To insurj success, care- 
ful attention should be given to the arrangem'ent for supplying cold 
air to the furnace. If the air is brought directly to the heating sur- 
face by means of a cold-air box, the result when the wind blows 
into the duct will be quite different from the result when it blows 
from the opposite direction. In the one case, with a high wind it is 
difficult to supply enough warm air to the registers, as the damper 
of the box must be nearly closed or the air will be forced so rapidly 
over the dome of the heater that it does not become sufficiently 
heated ; while in the other case, with a very cold wind blowing on 



the opposite side of the house, the pressure down the registers from 
that side has been known at times to actually create a back draught 
through the cold-air duct. The most satisfactory method is to 
bring the air into a small brick chamber, carrying it by a galvanized 
iron duct to the smoothly cemented floor, and on the opposite side 
place the furnace connection. Such an arrangement eliminates the 
factor of wind pressure as far as it is possible to do so and has 
shown most uniform results in actual experiment. 

It is well to add a partition 2 or 3 ft. in height across the cold- 
air chamber to intercept dust and dirt. Such a chamber may be 
made 4 or 5 ft. square, with 4 in. brick walls extending from the 
cellar floor to the ceiling, with an air-tight door for access from the 
cellar. Although this is no new idea, it is an arrangement not often 
found in dwellings using a furnace, and seems worthy of mention 
from the success the writer has met with in its use. 

While not suggested as coming within the limits of the condi- 
tions of this article, a few words seem admissible here relating to the 
possibilities of solid floor construction even in houses of moderate 
outlay. 

As the cost of rolled steel beams has been constantly decreas- 
ing, and will undoubtedly be ([uoted at still lower prices in the 
future, the comparatively small additional cost in masonry houses, of 
constructing the floors of the first and second stories of light steel 
beams and terra-cotta arches, renders the adoption of such a method 
perfectly feasible, and the gain in solidity, the absence of shrinking 
timber, and of resounding and springing floors, and the closing of air 
spaces to draughts and vermin, more than compensate for the addi- 
tional expenditure, which would vary in different parts of the country, 
but at most should not exceed 5 per cent, of the cost of the house. 

It will be seen on the accompanying plan that the substitution 
of brick for wood, in the single partition between the dining room 
and pant.y, would give bearings for steel beams throughout. 

There is little to be said about plumbing beyond the repetition 
of what has long been advocated and practised ; the simplest pos- 
sible arrangement of pipes open to inspection everywhere, the fewest 
possible fixtures, and the careful avoidance of all new and ingenious 
complications of traps and overflows for fixtures. 

This article has been prepared in the interest of simplicity and 
refinement in the treat- 
ment of the home 

building and its sur- 
roundings ; and t o 
add any weight its 
argument may have 
toward the growing 
tendency in that di- 
rection, there is 
need for a less aggres- 
sive architecture in 
our suburban districts, 




SECOND FLOOR PLAN. 



that the house shall stand for that which is within, for the home which 
it covers, having no conscious air of wearing features whose only 
apparent purpose is that of attracting the notice of the passer-by. 



:lO 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 

BY G. EDMUND STREET. 

Chapter x. 

'• With all its sinful doings, I must say 

That Italy's a pleasant place to me. 
Who love to see the sun shine every (lay, 

.\ticl vines (not nail'd to walls) from tree to tree 
Kestoon'd." — Beppo. 

Venice to Verona — V'erona to Mantua — Villa Franca — Mantua: 
its Churches and Palaces — The Theatre — Montenara — Campi- 
tello — Casalmaggiore — Longadore — Cremona : the Cathedral 

— Churches and Public Buildings — Lodi^Pavia: its Churches 

— Castle of the Visconti — The Certosa — Drive to Milan. 

OUR gondolier, anxious not to he too late for us in the morning, 
slept in his gondola beneath our windows, and did his best, 
when the sun rose, to rouse the sleepy porter of our hotel, but in 
vain ; and at last, when I awoke, I found we should have a very 



We reached Verona at ten o'clock ; the station, however, is so 
much out of the town, and the day was so intensely hot, that we gave 
up the idea of again going into it, and, contenting ourselves with the 
general view of its quaint and picturesque walls rising over the 
rugged hills which girt the city on its northern side, we sat down 
to a breakfast of iced lemonade and some of those deliciously light 
cakes which are never had in such perfection as in Italy, and amused 
ourselves by watching the way in which the guards and drivers of 
the train by which we had travelled proceeded to solace themselves 
with a game at billiards, upon a table provided, I suppose, by the 
very considerate directors of the railway company. 

The railway from Verona to Mantua crosses a country which is 
thoroughly uninteresting in point of scenery; it carried us on well 
into the great plain of Lombardy, rich, teemingly rich, in its produce, 
but flat, arid, and sultry to a degree. This was altogether one of our 
hottest days, and took us fairly into a kind of district in which the 
heat is most oppressively felt. 

On the road we passed Villa Franca, a small town which has a 
rather striking castle, with battlemented walls and a good many square 




ST. ZE.NO, VERONA. 



narrow escape, if indeed we did not absolutely lose our train. The 
thing was, however, to be done, and was done. We shot rapidly — 
only too rapidly for the last time — along the smooth waters on 
which we had been so pleasantly loitering before, and soon found 
ourselves at the railway station. Our journey was much like what 
such journeys usually are : as far as Verona we were only retracing 
our steps, but now the hot sun had quite cleared away the clouds 
which, when we passed before, hid the Tyrolese Alps from our sight, 
and these, whenever the high acacia Iredges which line the railway 
allowed us a sight of them, made the journey so far beautiful. 

The names of the engines on this railway are very unlike the 
kind of nomenclature indulged in at home ; we were drawn to Verona, 
I believe, by the Titian, and saw, as we rushed along, engines named 
after Dante, Sansovino, and other artistic and literary celebrities. 



towers, still very fairly perfect ; the whole built in brick, and with battle- 
ments finished square at the top, and not forked like those at \'erona. 

We reached the station at Mantua by twelve o'clock, but, as 
this was very far from the city, it was nearly an hour later before we 
were fairly landed at one — I forget which — of the abominably 
dirty and bad inns to which sojourners within its walls have to sub- 
mit with the best grace that they can. 

Mantua is nearly surrounded by water; two large shallow and 
unwholesome-looking lakes giving it this far from pleasant kind of 
isolation. Over a long mediii'val bridge between these waters the 
way into the city from the terminus lies. One of the lakes is higher 
than the other, and accordingly twelve mills, each adorned with a 
statue of an apostle, are formed upon the bridge, and give it its 
name of Ponte Mulina. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



211 







ir 3- T i\ m t r /I «,K C 






t^f^'nr^iMwico nm 





DUCAL PALACE, MANTUA. 

The general aspect of Mantua is very dreary and unpleasing, 
not less forlorn in its appearance than Padua, and possessing but 
little attraction for an architect. The chief architectural feature of 
the city is the Ducal Palace, which contains, in the midst of a mass 
of Renaissance worl< of the poorest and most unsatisfactory kind, 
some very good remains of pointed architecture. 

The finest portion is a long building of vast height, and retain- 
ing more or less of Gothic work throughout, but especially remark- 
able for the range of windows in its upper stage. Its front faces on 
one side towards the Piazza di San Pietro, and on the other with a 
very nearly similar elevation towards the Piazza del Pallone, one of 
the courts in the vast palace of the Gonzagas, of which it forms a 
part. This building is said to have been commenced about a. d. 
1302 by Guido Buonacolsi, surnamed Bottigella, third sovereign of 
Mantua, and this date quite agrees with the character of all the 
detail. The interior has been completely modernized, mainly by 
Giulio Romano, who carried out very extensive works in other parts 
of the palace. The windows in the upper stage of this portion of 
the palace deserve notice as being about the most exquisite examples 
of their class that I anywhere met with, though those in the cam- 
panile of Sant' Andrea, hard by, are only second to them. The main 
arch is of pure pointed form, and executed in brick with occasional 
voussoirs of stone — one of which forms a key-stone — and over it 
there is a laljel of brick effectively notched into a kind of nail-head. 
The same kind of label is carried round the arches of the window- 
openings, and down the jamb as a portion of the jamb-mould, and 
again round a pierced and cusped circle of brick in the tympanum. 




but u 
more 



In the sub-arches the key-stones and cusps are formed of 
stone. The whole of the jambs are of brick, but instead of a 
monial there is a circular stone shaft, with s(juare capital and 
band and base. The whole is so exceedingly simple as to be 
constructed with ease of ordinary materials, and it is quite 
equal in effect to any stone window of the same size that I 
have ever seen. 

The accompanying drawings will, I trust, sufficiently ex- 
plain the merit of this magnificent piece of brickwork. The 
arcading upon which it rests, and the perfectly unbroken face 
of the whole, are very characteristic of Italian work. 

On the opposite side of the Piazza di San Pietro is the 
cathedral, the only ancient portion of which is a small part of 
the south aisle. It is of very elaborate character, entirely 
built in brick, and so far as it remains appears to have been 
part of an aisle finished with a succession of galjes, one to 
each bay, a common arrangement in (German and French 
churches, where additional aisles are so frequently met with, 
ncommon in Italy, where, as in England, churches have seldom 
than one aisle on either side of the nave.' The brickwork in 




WINDOW IN ducal PALACE, MANTUA. 

this small fragment of the cathedral, though elaborate, was not pleas- 
ing, being of rather late date. 

On the same side of the Piazza as the cathedral is the V'esco- 
vato, a large pile of ancient building, but very much modernized. 
There still remain, however, some good three-light windows in the 
upper stage, inclosed within a circular arch, without tracery, and 
divided by mari)le shafts. Some old arches reiriain also in the lowest 
stage, which, though now built up, are still valuable as examples of 
the best mode of treating brickwork. They consist of three orders 
— the two inner formed of alternate voussoirs of brick and stone, 
carefully and regularly counterchanged, and the outer of a moulded 
terra-cotta ornament, lietween each of these lines a brick of deep 
red colour is set edgeways, shewing a dark line of little more than 
an inch and a half in width, and valuable as very clearly defining the 
lines of the arch. All these courses are on the same plane; and 
probably another rim of the arch is concealed by the walling which 
has been filled in underneath. 



CASTELLO DI CORTE, MANTUA. 



' It is to be seen, however, in the cliurcl) of Snn Pelronio, lioloRtia. 



p-=^ 



212 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




BKICK WINDOW, SANT' ANDRUA, MANTUA. 



Going on from 
the Pia z z a San 
Pietro, and passing 
under an archway, 
we came upon the 
Castello di Corte, 
also a part of the 
ancient palace of the 
Gonzaga family, who 
were for a long time 
lords of Mantua. It 
is certainly a very re- 
markable piece of 
media'val fortifica- 
tion, but its effect is 
much damaged by 
the erection of walls 
between the battle- 
ments, which in my 
view I have thought 
it much better to 
shew in their original 
state, which is evi- 
dent enough upon 

careful inspection. 'The heavy machicolations which run round 

the main building have a peculiar and rather grand effect, ])ar- 

ticularly in the flanking towers. This portion of the palace is 

said to have been erected just at the close of the fourteenth century. 
Close to the Castello 

di Corte is the Ponte di 

-San Giorgio, one of the 

entrances to the city, 

and built between the 

Lago di Mezzo and the 

Lago Inferiore. 

Retracing our steps, 

we soon found ourselves 

at the great Palazzo 

della Ragione, or town- 
hall. It has been very 

much altered, but one 

gateway remains in a 

very perfect state, and 

is quite worthy of illus- 
tration. The marble 

shafts in the upper stage 

of the building are 

coupled one behind the 

other with very beautiful 

effect. Hrick and stone 

are used alternately in 

the main arch of this 

gateway, with thin divid- 
ing lines of brick, as in 

the Vescovato. In a 

wall close to the gate is 

a sitting figure, intended, 

it is said, to represent 

Virgil, of whom the 

Mantuans are still, as in 

duty bound, very proud. 

I cannot say much for 

the figure or its canopy, 

both of which are, how- 
ever, mediaeval. 

We found nothing 

else worthy of notice in 

this building: but close 




liKICK WINDOW, SA.XT' A.NDREA, 
.MANTUA. 




CHURCH OK SANT' ANDREA, MANTUA. 



to it stands the church of Sant' 
Andrea, a hideous Renaissance 
edifice tacked on to a most 
beautiful brick campanile. 

The detail of this is 
throughout very fine. The 
tracery is all of a kind of 
plate-tracery, consisting, that 
is to say, of cusped circles 
pierced in a tympanum within 
an inclosing arch ; the shafts 
between the lights are of pol- 
ished marble, and coupled one 
behind the other. The relative 
proportion of the cusps in this 
and in most other Italian build- 
ings is very good. In trefoils, 
for instance, the upper cusp is 

usually smaller than the lower; and in all good cusping it must be 
so. Modern men generally reverse the order, and, at the present 
day, so little is the subject really understood that at least ninety-nine 
out of every hundred cusped window-openings are designed without 
feeling, and quite unlike the best old examples ; and this, though ap- 
parently a point of very small importance, is really of great conse- 
([uence to the perfection of any pointed work. 

The faulty portions of this campanile are the elaborate arcad- 
ings in brick beneath the string-courses, and the awkward and 
abrupt manner in which the octagonal stage and the round tile spire 

are set upon the square 
tower. The present ap- 
preciation of the build- 
ing by the good people 
of Mantua is shewn l)y 
the opening pierced in 
its lower .stage, in front 
of which the modestly 
withdrawn folds of a 
green curtain disclose 
the interior devoted to 
a barber's shop, and in 
which the patient, seated 
in the middle of the 
shop, and looking into 
the Piazza, submits to 
the painful operation of 
shaving — a common 
picture in almost every 
street of an Italian town^ 
but not pleasant when 
the place is a portion of 
a church. 

The guide-books 
speak of the church of 
Sant' .Vndrea as " among 
the finest existing speci- 
mens of an interior in 
the revived Roman 
•style." If it really is 
so, 1 advise all archi- 
tects interested in the 
failure of the said style 
to venture, notwithstand- 
ing the forbidding west 
front, into the nave, 
when they will perhaps 
find comfort in seeing 
how miserable a building 
"one of the finest" of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



213 




GATEWAY, 



PALAZZO DELLA RAGIONE, 
MANTUA. 



its class may never- 
theless be ! 

The people at 
Mantua seemed to be 
excessively disturbed 
by my attempts at 
sketching, and at 
Sant' Andrea they 
mobbed me so thor- 
oughly that I was 
really beginning to 
think of giving up 
the attempt in de- 
spair, when a kindly- 
disposed hatmaker, 
seeing my distress, 
came down to the 
rescue, and gave me 
and my party seats 
in a balcony on the 
first floor of his 
house, in which, sit- 
ting at my ease 
above my persecutors 
and listening to the 
good man's wife and 
daughters, I finished 
my sketch with great 
comfort. 
In Mantua there are two or three other churches with brick cam- 
panili, but they are very inferior in their character to that of Sant' 
Andrea, and hardly worth special notice. We owe it to the French 
that there are not more interesting churches, for, having succeeded 
in capturing the city after a very prolonged siege, they sacked it, and 
are said to have destroyed no less than about fifty of them. 

Here, as elsewhere in this part of Italy, most of the streets are 
arcaded on either side, affording pleasant shelter from the hot sun, 
but every twenty yards we come upon one of an unpleasant class of 
shops, in which cheese, oil, and the like comestibles are sold, with 
most objectionable effects on all people blessed with noses. 

In the evening we found an Italian performance going on at the 
theatre, and so thither we went, anxious to see how 
far Italian comedy might be amusing. I fear our 
inquiry was not much to our edification, for the 
favourite performers were mainly remarkable for 
the prodigious rapidity with which they uttered 
their facetious sayings, and so we lost more than 
half the dialogue. The theatre was almost en- 
tirely filled with Austrians, but still there was a 
sprinkling of Italians among them, which did 
away with the absurdly martial appearance of the 
only other theatre we had been into — that at 
Verona. 

The next day was ounday, but we were 
obliged to push on ; and so, resigning ourselves to 
the diligence which left Mantua at about nine, we 
booked ourselves for Cremona, under the promise 
that we should be delivered there punctually by 
five o'clock. 

We lost sight of Mantua almost immediately, for, travelling 
along a dead flat and by roads whose sides are lined with high 
hedges of acacia or orchards thickly planted, you never see any 
place or building until you have absolutely arrived at it. There was 
not much to interest me on the road, and the weather, at first cloudy 
only and sultry, gradually became worse, and, before we had gone 
far, settled into a steady pouring rain ; so we read, wrote, and occu- 
pied the many hours in the rumljling diligence as best we might. 

At Montenara, which we passed on our road; the church has a 



£^?^ 




liRICK WINDOW, CAMI-I- 
TELLO. 




BRICK WINDOW, NEAR CASAL- 
MAGGIORE. 



brick campanile, with pilasters at the angles, and in the belfry two- 
light windows, with marble central shafts and round arches. It has 
one of the usual brick conical spires, with small angle-pinnacles — a 
finish to these campanili which certainly does not improve upon 
acquaintance. They are constructed of bricks with semicircular ends 
laid side by side, the joints being 
broken in each course, and so mak- 
ing a very jagged kind of cone. 

The only noticeable point about 
the church at Montenara is that it 
has been lately rebuilt in the very 
worst taste, and at an angle of forty- 
five degrees with the old steeple ! 

At Campitello there are several 
remains of interest. There is a small 
domestic building, with four pointed 
windows of two lights at the side ; 
the windows have central shafts of 
stone, but are otherwise entirely of 
rough brickwork. The church has 
a kind of double belfry-stage, arcaded 
similarly in each stage with round 

arches. There are also here the remains of a castle by the river, 
with a fine tower of the same type as the angle-towers of the Ca.s- 
teilo di Corte at .Mantua, and covered with a very flat-pitched roof. 

At Casalmaggiore, a town of some importance on the Po, we 
stopped for dinner; but it was too wet to attempt to look at the 
river, and the only note 1 made was of a large new church now in 
course of erection, Renaissance in style, and with a large dome, and 
a choir and transepts, all terminated with circular ends. The re- 
deeming feature about it was that it was entirely constructed in brick 
with considerable care, though probably ere long this will be covered 
with a coat of plaster, of which modern Italians are not one whit 
less enamoured than are modern Englishmen. 

At a village, the name of which I did not learn, between Casal- 
maggiore and Cremona, the church had a remarkably good simple 
brick campanile. The belfry windows were pointed, of two lights, 
with a small pierced circle in the head, the shafts being of stone of 
course. Beneath the string-courses there was arcading, and the 
tower was finished with three forked battlements of the Veronese 
type on each face, and behind these rose a circular brick spire. 
This tower was to the south-east of the church. 

At Longadore we saw another church with 
a good early campanile, of which I made a sketch. 
This was Romanesque, with angle pilasters, and a 
central pilaster carried up as high as the belfry- 
stage. The belfry windows were of three lights 
and shafted. The battlement was most peculiar 
— a quarter circle at each angle and a half circle 
in the centre of each side, with a narrow space 
between them ; the whole executed in brick and 
covered in with a flat modern roof. The angle 
pilasters finished under arcaded string-courses. 
Generally speaking, in these churches the only 
ancient features seem to be the campanili, and 
these are always of brick and nearly similar in 
their general design, with pilasters at the angles, 
a succession of string-courses — -generally arcaded 
underneath — and windows in the belfry-stage only. 
It was quite six by the time we reached Cremona, and, deposit, 
ing our passports at the gate, we trotted on along the smooth granite 
(which in these towns is always laid in strips between the rough or- 
dinary paving for the wheels to travel on), and after traversing a 
long tortuous street, and getting a glimpse only of the cathedral as we 
passed near its east end, we were soon deposited at the Albergo del 
Capello, a comfortable hostelry, which we enjoyed the more by contrast 
with the miserable quarters with which we had to put up at Mantua. 
(Continued.) 



214 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Fire-proofing. 



RECENT IMFROVEMKN IS IN IHE MANL'EACTURE OF 
FIRE-PROOF BUILDING MATERIALS FROM CLAY. 

IN The I5ru'K1!UILDek for June, 1897, while commenting on the 
effects of fire and water on the fire-proof Home Office Building 
at Pittsburgh, on May 3 of that year, the following sentences ap- 




peared : -The fire-proofing material throughout is semi-porous red 
clay hollow tiles." ■■ The fire test in the building showed that heat- 
ing, wetting, and cooling did not destroy the structure of the ma- 
terial, as is sometimes the case with very light porous terra-cotta 
made of plastic fire clays." -'The value of semi-porous tiles was 
com])letely demonstrated in this fire." And in August of the same 
year '1"HE Brickbuii.her said, in an article on " The Details of Fire- 
proof Construction " : '■ The use of porous, and not semi-porous, 
terracotta is recommended for inert or protecting material, when 




-=m. 



%- 



ffi 



m. 



B 



/ ^AI.'.V^; /'- • 



-ff- ■ 




k-H 



■:•:•:♦:•:♦:♦:♦: 



\ I 



Lil 






FIG. 3. 



used solid, while the semi-porous terra-cotta is recommended when 
used in the hollow form." Later, in the November i.ssue, in an ar- 
ticle on " The Present Condition of the Art of Fire-proofing." the value 
of a method for finishing the ceilings of fire-proof buildings with in- 
dependent flat tiles, and the fact (which has been repeatedly demon- 
strated by experience) that if such tiles were made by splitting 
hollow tiles, after burning, they would not crack when exposed to fire 
and water, were set forth at considerable length. 

Since then. The Brkkbuilder has anxiously watched to see 
if any advantage would be taken of these suggestions, and the result 




m 



in one instance is highly gratifying. Upon incjuiry it was found 
that the Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Company, of Chicago, had 
since then not only experimented with, but put in practise, some of 
the recommendations of The BRicKituii-DER. We therefore sought 
an interview with Charles F. Eiker, the general manager of the 
company, who has prepared the accompanying illustrations, which, to 
a certain extent, furnish replies to some of the (|uestions addressed 
to architects in Chicago, as given in our August and September i.s- 
sues. 

In answer to an in(|uiry as to what had been their practise in 
preparing and mixing clays, Mr. Eiker said: " Up to five years ago 
we used only the crude clay as it came from our mines, which was 
ground in dry pans tempered with water and 
put through our presses ready to dry and 
burn. If we u.sed any grog, which, as you 
know, is rejected tile ground to a powder, it 
was without any system, and most of our 
rubbish pile was used for filling in low 
ground. I need not add that, according to 
this way of doing things, the (juantity of im- 
perfect material that could not be used com- 
mercially and went to the dump was very 
large. We have since then improved the 
hard product by a more systematic use of 
grog, have thereby decreased the waste, and 
have found this to be more economical in the 
long run. 

•'In 1893 we commenced experimenting 
with sawdust and ground coke for the pur- 
pose of making our material more porous and 
less brittle. We knew that our fire clay, 
which is very ' short.' would not make what 
is called porous terra-cotta. Since the great 
fire in Pittsburgh, in May, 1S97, and after 
reading your comments upon it, we became 
convinced that the best material for all pur- 
poses was semi-porous terra-cotta, and renew- 
ing our experiments, we set about to make it 
as perfect as possible with the materials at 
our command. The result is that we are 
now making and using it in our contracts. 





I I I I I 1 — ! 



7=iAAf er ArK-feA 




Cir,j./ne- TlAN ■ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



15 




KIG. 4. 

We use our lire clay tinely ground in dry pans as a basis. With 
this we mix a small amount of ground shale to make it plastic, a 
proportion of grog to make it burn true and straight without 
cracks, and pulverized bituminous coal. We had to abandon both 
sawdust and coke. Of course the proportions in which we use these 
materials are our own property, and would not apply to any other 
clay. Our composition is the result of numerous experiments, for 
conducting which we constructed a small experiment kiln. We 
formerly made the hard tile as thin as it was possible to run it from 
the dies and burn and transport it successfully. It was necessary to 
do this to meet competition, reduce freights and handling, and to 
comply with the demand of the architects for a light material to be 
used in high buildings. Now that we are able to make the body of 
the material lighter, we have increased the thickness of the walls of 
the tiles about 25 per cent, to insure greater toughness and strength. 
We, as well as the architects, once thought that thin walls were best 
in hard tile, because the heat-resisting quality was found in the air 
cells. But the new material is also more nonconducting, and there 
is not only no objection but a great advantage in making the walls 
thicker, as you have already suggested. We still keep down the 
cost of transportation as well as the weight." 

Q. " What is the relative expense of the new material com- 
pared with the old ^ " 

A. " It is slightly greater. The cost of the materials used and 
the labor employed are considerably more ; but there is a reduction in 
fuel, and the very slight loss from imperfect material offsets this to a 
considerable extent. Instead of having great piles of useless material, 
we have just enough now to grind up for ' grog.' " 

Q. " How are you satisfied that this material is better than the 
old ? " 

A. "We have built a test house at our works at Ottawa, and 
have subjected it to repeated tests to demonstrate its value under the 
conditions which demonstrated the weak points in hard-tile con- 
structions as developed in recent fires in fire-proof buildings." 

Q. " Has this material been used in buildings during the past 
year, and if so, where, as we want to observe the results in case any 
of them should be subjected to an actual test .'' " 

^l. " It has been used in the State .Street addition to the Fair 
Building, the addition to the New York Life Building, the Carter 



Building, and the Strong Building, all in Chicago. We use the same 
material for all purposes, and do not confine it to floor arches." 

The illustration here given (Fig. i) shows two vertical sections 
of the latest pattern of end-pressure floor arches made by the Pioneer 
Company. The upper one is a section through the beams, and the 
lower one a section through the girder. It is intended for a con- 
struction of double 15 in. I beam girders set far enough apart to 
pass outside of the continuous steel columns. The 12 in. I beams 
are framed to the sides of the girders, without necessitating any cop- 
ing of their flanges. The arches are 16 ins. deep, and the under side, 
forming a flush ceiling, is 3>^ ins. below the beams and 2 ins. below 
the girders. This provides for a soffit tile under all beams and gird- 
ers that can be made with two air spaces. Only two buildings 
have been heretofore erected in Chicago with 3 in. hollow soffit tiles 
under the beams : the Western Union Telegraph Building and a 
wholesale store on Fifth Avenue. The girder, according to this con- 
struction, is treated similarly to those of the New York Life Building, 
as already described in The Brickhuilder for July, the protection 
being independent of the floor construction, though both are flush at 
the bottom. The floor arches are built entirely of tiles of one sec- 
tion, including the skew-backs, and cut so as to occupy their respective 
positions, the joints radiating from a common center. Mr. Eiker says 
that this arch can be safely set, for office buildings or retail stores, to 
a safe span of 10 ft. No concrete is used except as ballast for the 
floor sleepers. Being made of semi-porous tile, the walls are made 
I in. thick. Attention is called to the fact that in these sections of 
tiles there aie no sharp angles on the inside of the cells, which are 
the points at which arch tiles have been most liable to crack. The 
angles are rounded, with a radius of about ;^ in., which Mr. Eiker 
claims as the result of tests showing that tiles of this section can be 
successfully dried and burned. This illustration (Fig. i) is taken 
from the detail drawings of the floor construction of an important 
building now under consideration. 

Fig. 2 is a section taken across the girder of a floor construction 
parallel with the beams, and adapted to the form of steel work used 
in the New York Life Building (see July Brickbuilder). It shows 
how the system of ceiling protection suggested in The Brickkuilder 
for November, 1897, can be applied to fiat end-pressure arches. 




FIG. 5. 



2l6 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Pioneer Company has constructed a section of floor and ceiling 
according to this detail in their test house at Ottawa, 111., and sub- 
jected it to a very severe private test for their own satisfaction. The 
tiles forming the arches are run with two projecting dovetails on the 
bottom of each. The alternate dovetails are used for securing ceiling 
tiles which have been burned in couples and split apart. One of 
these is shown enlarged under the section drawing (Fig. 2). They 
are cut oH diagonally so as to have a lozenge shape. This makes it 
possible to insert them between the dovetails with a small amount of 
mortar on each edge. These tiles when plastered are subjected to 
the full effect of fire and water, and have an air space behind them 
for the protection of the bottom of the arch. If they should fall in 
case of an actual test they can be easily and cheaply replaced, which 
would not be the case if the bottoms of the arch tiles should be 
cracked off. Thus the use of them avoids the necessity for resetting 
any of the arches. It has been demonstrated repeatedly, as described 
in these pages, that such flat tiles will resist fire and water better than 
hollow tiles. The Pioneer Company claims to have proved it, as will 
be seen hereafter. 

To make this plain, we reproduce the drawings of their test 
house, with such a construction in position, which are shown in Fig. 3. 
This has many interesting features which seem to make it superior to 
that used by the New York Department of Buildings. The drawings 
are in the main self-e.xplanatory. The " Plan of Arches " shows 
where the joints of the end-pressure arches are seen from the top, 
while the •• Ceiling Plan " .shows the ceiling tiles in position under 
the arches. A further description of this house and the test of tile- 
l)rotected arches will be given in Mr. Eiker's own words : — 

" The test house is very similar to that which was constructed 
two years ago by the New York Department of Buildings to deter- 
mine the relative values of fire-resisting systems of floor construction 
used in that city. We think we have improved on that one by the 
introduction of two additional flues. Engineers of reputation have 
advised us that this is the only way to get a proper and uniform fire 
test. The building was completed Dec. 15, 1897, and the test of 
the protected flat-arch system was made in the latter part of Decem- 
ber. The flat arches and furring tiles on the ceiling were set as 
shown on the drawings, and as 1 have described to you, all having 
been made from special dies made for the purpose, and the side 
walls were furred with 1 yi in. .split tile, all the material being our 
semi-porous terra-cotta. The upper surface of the arches was cov- 
ered with wooden sleepers ballasted with concrete and covered with 
such a wooden floor as is generally used in office buildings. There 
were four 'peep holes.' Opposite one of them, on a shelf made of 
cast iron, were placed a piece of glass, a piece of brass, and another 
of copper. Each of these was melted in turn as the required tem- 
perature was reached. The fire was continued until the cast-iron 
shelf melted, when the 4 ins. of brickwork over the two fire doors 
was torn down. A I in. stream of cold water at a pressure of 50 lbs. 
to the scjuare inch was thrown in until the whole was cooled sufficient 
for examination. I do not claim that this was such a test as scien- 
tific men might have made, but it suited us. The result showed that 
no wall furring had been broken or dislodged, and only three pieces 
of ceiling tile fell. They were immediately in range of the stream of 
water, and it appeared as if the joints had first been washed out and 
the tiles pushed away by the force of water. They were picked up 
unbroken. The photograph that 1 have shown you (Fig. 4) was 
taken after the test; the other one (Fig. 5) shows the outside of the 
test house. This building is still standing and will be used whenever 
we have occasion to make tests for ourselves or put to the service of 
any one who may desire to do so, to find if any new facts can be dis- 
covered." 

In answer to a question, Mr. Eiker said that the fuel used was 
dry pine wood only. It was replenished through the two low iron 
doors, one of which is shown in Fig. 5. Over each of these was a 
sheet of iron with 4 ins. of brickwork built outside of it and so fixed 
that by pulling the sheet the whole would fall at once. The fire was 
maintained from 1 1 a. .m. to 3 v. .\i. for this particular test. 



Masons' Department. 



SOME MISTAKES OF CONTRACTORS AS VIEWED BY 
AN ARCHITECT. 

BY F. E. KIDDER. 

IN the nature of things, there will always be a difference of 
opinion as to the wisest manner of conducting a given business 
and the methods to be pursued to gain the desired end. There are, 
also, and the writer deems it a misfortune, different ideas as to what 
constitutes success in business, although most people will agree 
that a certain amount of financial gain must be produced before one 
can call himself successful as a business man. 

Assuming that a successful contractor is one who so conducts 
his business as to provide a comfortable living for himself and 
family, and to increase to a reasonable degree his original capital of 
goods and money, and to a large degree his reputation for good work 
and satisfactory execution of his contracts, the writer proposes to 
speak of a few of the things done, or neglected, by building con- 
tractors which appear to be in the nature of mistakes, that might to 
a large extent be avoided. 

The first of these, both in point of order and in the conse- 
quences to the contractor, is that of bidding too low. It is certainly 
the opinion of most architects that contractors make a very serious 
mistake when they submit a bid that will not enable them to come 
out " whole " under any contingency, or with probable conditions 
allow a reasonable profit. The greater the risk, the greater also 
should be the margin allowed for profit. 

Many contractors appear to think that they are doing the archi- 
tect a favor when they put in a low bid, and although this may be 
so in special cases, it certainly is not so in the general run of work; 
and whether it be so or not, it is not the duty of the contractor to look 
out for the interests of the architect, in this particular, at least. As a 
rule, owners will finally either pay a reasonable price for what they want, 
or will take what they can get for their money, and that they should 
do so is beyond question. 

To submit a low bid to help out the architect, and then expect 
him to "let up" on the work, is not only a great mistake, for which 
one deserves to lose, but verges on dishonesty. 

That contractors, as a body, recognize the great evil of low 
bidding and have tried in various ways to prevent it is well known, 
but, as a rule, the schemes that have thus far been tried have not proved 
successful. The writer doubts if any scheme of prevention will ever be 
successful for any length of time, and believes that the only effective 
remedy is for each contractor to recognize that he is injuring himself 
when he puts in a low bid. 

That contractors also make a mistake in bidding too high is 
also true, but this is a mistake that seldom occurs e.vcept in individual 
cases. A mistake frequently made by ignorant or careless contrac- 
tors is that of making their bid according to the figures, either real 
or alleged, of some other contractor, and in connection with it is, per- 
haps, the greatest mistake of all : that of not recognizing one's own 
ability, and attempting a business for which one is not equipped, 
either mentally or with experience or capital. 

The writer has known of many cases where a contractor has 
learned that another contractor has offered to do a piece of work 
for a certain sum, and has then put in a bid a little lower, without 
really knowing whether the work could be done for that amount or 
not. In not a few cases misleading bids have been quoted, and the 
contractor using them has been badly "stuck." A person that 
cannot estimate with reasonable accuracy the probable cost of 
work indicated by proper plans and specifications certainly cannot 
expect to become a successful contractor, although he may be a 
good workman. 



THE BRICKBUiLDER. 



217 



Herein lies also a common mistake of foremen, or those who 
expect some day to enter the ranks of contractors, viz., that they 
neglect to observe carefully the cost of doing different kinds of 
work, the labor and materials required, and of making proper records 
of the same for future use. 

When it comes to filling out and signing the contracts, the con- 
tractor not infrequently accepts conditions that he knows or ought 
to know will impose a hardship upon him, and in some instances, if 
strictly enforced, may cause him a considerable loss. 

Until a contract is signed, it may be changed or modified, but 
after the signatures are affixed it can only be modified by the consent 
of both parties, and by that of the surety, if there is one. 

The particular conditions of a building contract that may not be 
fair to the contractor are those relating to the payments and to the 
time allowed for completing the work. 

A contractor cannot be expected to sign a contract unless the 
terms of payment are satisfactory, although it is fair to presume that 
he will be satisfied with the usual conditions of such agreements. 
Not infrequently, however, an owner will endeavor to hold back an 
unduly large percentage of the contract price until some time after 
the work is completed and accepted. 

If the contractor has sufficient capital or credit to carry on the 
work under these conditions, it may pay him to accept them ; but if 
he has not, and cannot pay his bills promptly with the amount of 
money coming to him, he should say so, and insist on better terms, 
and in most cases they would be granted. 

The owner is usually as anxious to accept the lowest bid as the 
contractor is to do the work, and the latter should not be afraid to 
insist on terms as favorable to himself as to the owner. The same 
is also true in regard to the matter of time. Contractors undoubtedly 
know that it is hard to make a forfeiture clause " stick," but it is 
sometimes enforced, and the writer believes that it is a decided 
mistake to go on the principle that it will be " got around " some 
way. 

It is much better to insist on the time necessary to do the work, 
with proper allowance for bad weather, delays, etc. 

Again, many contractors expect the architect to see that their 
interests are looked after in drawing up the terms of the contract. 
Reliance on this is not always safe, nor is it quite fair to the archi- 
tect. Until the contract is signed the architect bears much the same 
relation to the owner that a lawyer does to his client, and no one 
would expect a lawyer to advise the other side. 

The contractor, therefore, should look out for his own interests, 
even at the expense, if necessary, of consulting an attorney, and he 
should be sure of what is in the contract before he signs it. 

The writer has known of several instances in which contractors 
have bound themselves to do more than they intended, through care- 
lessness in reading the contract or specifications, which are con- 
sidered as a part of the contract. After the contract is signed and 
the work commenced, the relation of the architect changes some- 
what, being more that of a judge between both parties, but he is 
also to a certain extent the agent of the owner; and as the faithful 
agent must ever have at heart the interest of his employer, he cannot 
be expected to look after that of the contractor. Most architects 
also desire to have the work done as well as possible, and the natural 
tendency is to impose on the contractor rather than to favor him, 
which makes it all the more necessary for the contractor to stand up 
for his rights. 

(Contumed.) 



A CORRECTION. 

Editors of The Brickbuilder. 

Dear Sirs ; — By some slip of the pen, I spoke of a working day of 
twelve hours, in my article on " Estimating Brickwork," September 
number, thirtieth line, second column. It should have been eight 
hours. Yours truly, 

F. E. Kidder. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — In April we predicted that by this time business 
would be in a healthy condition, provided that the war was 
settled, and in most lines of business this prediction has been fulfilled ; 
but in regard to building operations it is now too late to begin any 
edifice of large size so that it will be well under way before winter. 
Consequently there is very little new work of any consequence to re- 
port, although we have heard of several important buildings now 
being planned, but not to be built until spring. A number of archi- 
tects have been busy with small cottages, some of them brick, but the 
majority built in the regulation way, viz. : brick foundations to line 
of water table, first story clapboards, and shingles above. 

The English half-timbered style is rapidly growing in popularity, 
and the prettiest examples of it that we have in and around New 
York are built with the first story and terraces of dark red brick, 
with the half-timbered work above. This makes a pleasing contrast 
of color, besides adding much to the stability of the structure. 
The following items of new work have been reported : — 
C. P. H. Gilbert, architect, is preparing plans for a five-story. 




TERRA-COTTA PANEL, SCHOOL NO. 7, HAYONNE, N. J. 

Executed by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

Hugh Roberts, Architect. 

fire-proof brick and stone residence to be built on 79th Street, be- 
tween Fifth and Madison Avenues, at a cost of $125,000. 

James E. Ware & Sons, architects, have prepared plans for a 
six-story brick, stone, and terra-cotta apartment house. Central Park, 
West, near 94th Street; cost, $100,000. 

Schneider & Herter, architects, have planned two five-story 
brick and terra-cotta stores and flats to be built on looth Street, 
corner Second Avenue ; cost, $40,000. 

Clarence F. True, architect, has prepared plans for six five-story 
brick and stone dwellings to be built on Riverside Drive near 83d 
Street; cost, $150,000. 



2l8 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




IMPOST CAP, MAIN ENTRANCE, CAXTON BUILDING, CLEVELAND, 
Executed by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. 
K. S. Baraum & Co., Architects. 

C. P. H. Gilbert, architect, i.s at work upon plans for a seven- 
story brick and stone fire-proof office and studio building to be 
erected on Fifth Avenue; cost, $185,000. 

Chas. E. Reid. architect, has prepared plans for a six-story store 
and tenement building to be erected on Oliver Street; cost, $50,000. 

Farnsworth & Miller, architects, have planned a three-and-one- 
half story brick dormitory for the New York Catholic Protectory; 
cost, $40,000. 

N. C. Mellen, architect, has planned a three-story brick store and 
studio building to be built for the Cameron Company, on Fourth 
Avenue, corner 19th .Street; cost, $160,000. 

Buchman & Diesler, architects, are preparing plans for a si.\- 
story brick store building to be erected on Houston Street, at a cost 
of $50,000. 

Three warehouses, built of brick and iron, and 
costing about $150,000 total, are soon to be erected in 
the (lovernment Navy Yard, Brooklyn. 

Fdward Wenz, architect, has planned five four- 
story brick and stone flats to be built on Franklin 
Avenue, corner i6(Sth Street: cost, $105,000. 



est in Chicago just now, when the constant increase of 
school population is calling for so many new and en- 
larged school buildings. One of the newest for which 
plans have been drawn is the Dewey School to be 
erected at 54th Street and Union Avenue. Itse.xterior 
is of pressed brick and cut stone, and its interior fit- 
tings are most full and complete, the whole cost being 
$90,000. 

New buildings are being erected on the site of the 
disastrous fires of last March, and it is to be noted 
j,.Q that special precautions are being taken as to fire pro- 

tection and sufficient elevator service. The Ayers 
Building on Wabash .•\ venue will have a front of white 
glazed terracotta and will be nine stories high. The 
Schoemmann Building, on which but little work has yet been done, 
is to be specially constructed for the carrying of heavy printing 
presses, and will have a front of stone and pressed brick. 

Jenney & Mundie are the architects for a new twelve-story office 
building to be erected on the site of the National Life Building on 
La Salle Street. This is between the Association Building on the 
north of Arcade Court and the New York Life Building on the 
south of an intervening alley, and the fact that the interior walls of 
the latter building are of enameled brick and the former light-colored 
brick will afford much additional light to the interior of the new 
building. 

The Western Methodist Book Concern will build a ten-story 
building on its lot at 57 Washington Street, from plans drawn by 



CHICAGO. — The building trades have been much 
interested in the recent controversy between 
Mr. Downey, of the Board of Education, a contractor "^ 

of long experience, and Mr. N. S. Patton, architect 
of the same board, and a man of no less experience 
in his own line. .Mr. Downey introduced a motion compelling the 
use of a certain make of bricks to the exclusion of all others, and this 
motion was vigorously opposed by Mr. Patton, both for architectural 
reasons and also because it seemed to grant a monopoly to one 
favored firm. The brick manufacturers have entered protest against 
the Downey resolution ; but the school board have gone so far as 
to order Mr. Patton tried for " insubordination." Mr. Patton is 
President of the Illinois Institute of Architects and stands high in 
Chicago. Mr. Downey was formerly Commissioner of Public Works. 
Hence the controversy, and the " trial " is given prominence by the 
daily press. 

Questions affecting schoolhouse construction are of deep inter. 





FOR A liUILDING, MARKET SQUARE, WASHINGTON, D. C. 
Kxecuted in gray terra-coita by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. 
T. F. Schneider, Architect. 

Architect H. B. Wheelock. Mr. Wheelock also has planned a new 
structure for the wholesale region of Chicago, a warehouse on Market 
Street, which is to have a front of pressed brick and terra-cotta. 
Also at Canal and Jackson Streets an eight-story fire-proof building 
is being constructed, its exterior being of red pressed brick with 
stone trimmings. 

A new Union Station is being built at Englewood, one particu- 
larly adapted to the elevated roadways of the four railroads, and 
also the electric service in the subway. 

The Midlothian Country Club, Frost & Granger, architects, has 
just been completed. It is colonial in style with very ample accom- 
modation in every line. 

The Rock Island Road has also erected a new 
._ ^ ,. depot at the station about a mile from the club house, 
conforming in style of architecture to that of- the club 
house. 



PANEL OVER THIRD STORY, BAYARD BUILDING, NEW YORK CITY. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-CotU Company. 

Louis H. Sullivan, Lyndon P. Smith, .Architects. 



ST. LOUIS. — There is considerable complaint of 
dulness among architects and builders, although 
there is, beyond question, indications of improvement, 
which are quite likely to continue, and doubtless the 
beginning of the year will see the opening up of a good 
business. 

Real estate has become more active, and capitalists 
are offering money for investment at lower rates of in- 
terest. This, together with the general expanding and 
shifting of commercial interests, gives considerable 
encouragement. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



219 




220 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




iski' 



TERRA-COTTA DETAIL, ST. CHRISTO- 
PHER'S CHURCH, NEW YORK CITV. 
Executed by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta 
Company. 
Barney & Chapman, Architects. 



The report of the Commissioner of Public Buildings for Sep- 
tember shows a marked improvement in the class of work being done, 
as well as an increase in value over that for the same month last year 
of about 30 per cent. 

The northeast corner of 6th and Olive Streets, around which 
memories cling of many visionary schemes in the past, 
ranging from six-story commercial buildings to twenty- 
twostory office buildings, is again attracting attention. 
This time it is proposed to erect a ten-story building 
at a cost of $200,000, and a permit has been issued 
to the Reliance Building Company for such a building. 
Architect Theodore C. Link has prepared the plans. 

Another corner which has been the subject of sev- 
eral speculative schemes, and for which a permit was 
once issued for a twenty-two-story building, is the 
southwest corner of Olive and 7th Streets. It seems 
as though this may also be improved at once, and, al- 
though it may not be so pretentious as some of its near 
neighbors, nor approach the clouds so nearly as some 
of the previous schemes contemplated, it may become 
more famous from an architectural point of view. The 
building faces two alleys as well as two streets, and 
consequently will have light on every side. It will be 
only three stories high and of stone. Mr. Isaac 
Taylor, the architect, will make the most of the oppor- 
tunity, and place there an architectural monument 
worthy of so prominent a corner. The building is for 
the St. Louis Daily Republic. It is gratifying to find 
occasionally an owner who is willing to sacrifice some- 
thing to the finer feelings. 

James Bright has the contract for a six-story ware- 
house near Cupples station, for the Simmons Hard- 
ware Company. The building is 63 by 120 ft. on 9th 
Street between Clark and Walnut Avenues. The 
plans were prepared by Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge. 

T. B. .Annan is the architect for a seven-story 
building facing on 4th Street 52 ft., for T. J. Lackland. 

Adjoining this property occurred a ver}- disastrous 
fire a few days ago, resulting in two deaths and a 



score or more of serious injuries. The building was occupied with 
sporting goods, and the fire and explosives completely wrecked it. 
It is rumored that it will be rebuilt at once. 

The Commissioner of School Buildings, Mr. Wm. B. Ittner, re- 
cently awarded the contract for four more schools. The department 
is a year behind with its work and is striving to catch up. 



CURRENT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

The Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company is furnishing 
100,000 buff brick for a new power house at Williamsport, Pa. 

The Grueby Faience Company are lining a subway across 
Avon Street, Boston, for Jordan, Marsh & Co. It is to be done in 
a dull green and white. 

The Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Company 
will furnish the terra-cotta for the new library at Hyde Park, Mass., 
and also for a new schoolhouse at Brookline, Mass. 

The Sayre and Fisher Company, of Sayreville, N. J., have 
been very busy during the past season, and are placing orders for 
additional machinery with Chambers Brothers Company, of Philadel- 
phia. 

The town of Somerville, Somerset County, N. J., has given the 
Berlin Iron Bridge Company, East Berlin, Conn., the contract for 
their new iron bridge. Span is about 60 ft., and the bridge has a 
clear roadway of 14 ft. 

Charles Bacon, Boston representative of the Excelsior Terra- 
Cotta Company, is supplying the architectural terra-cotta for the 
Whitman and Nonantum Blocks, Newton, Mass. ; Fuller, Delano & 
Frost, architects; H. F. Ross & Co., contractors. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, East Berlin, Conn., are 




BURT'S theater, TOLEDO, OHIO. 

The building is executed in three colors of brick and lerra-cotta ; the lower storj- in a gray brick, with a gray 

terra-cotta string-course separating it from the superstructure. The darker part of the superstructure, as 

shown in the photograph, is in a golden-yellow vitrified brick, and the lighter part of the diaper in a 

light cream buff, with the terra-cotta matching it. 

Brick furnished by the Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company ; terra-cotta by the Winkle Terra-Cotta 

Company. 
George S. Mills, Architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



221 




and columns supporting the floor structure, and steel 
trusses and beams for the roof. 

The C. p. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, 
Conn., is furnishing the hollow brick for the Back Bay 
Station of N. Y., N. H. & H. Ry., at Boston; Shepley, 
Rutan & Coolidge, architects ; Horton & Hemminway, 
builders. The company is making a specialty of side- 
cut headers in hollow brick, and is meeting with a 
large demand for same. 

The Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Company 
will supply the architectural terra-cotta which will be 
used in the new Law Building at Indianapolis; Louis 
H. Gibson, architect. The building is to be eleven 
stories high, and will have a frontage of 62 ft., which 
will be constructed entirely of terra-cotta. 

The C. p. Merwin Brick Company, Berlin, 
Conn., is just completing its final shipments of orna- 
mental red mud brick to the Pearl Street Church, 
Hartford, Conn.; C. A. Bartlett and Ernest Flagg, 
New York, associate architects. A great variety of 
shapes were required in this work, and the Merwin 
Company feel justly gratified at their success in filling 
the contract in such a creditable manner. 



residence at buffalo, n. y. 

George Gary, Architect. 

furnishing for the Laflin & Rand Powder Company, Pompton, N. J., 
the steel roof for one of their storehouses. The building is 45 ft. 
wide and 150 ft. 
long. 



The C. p. Merwin Bru k Company have added 

to their line of manufacture, hollow brick with closed 

ends. These are used for headers in connection with 

their other hollow brick. The following buildings are being furnished 

with hollow brick through their agent: the Connecticut Builders' 



The Kit- 
tanning Brick 
and Fire-Clay 
Company is fur- 
nishing buff 
bricks, shade No. 
2, for the new 
Mead Building at 
Buffalo ; L. P. T. 
Eckel, architect ; 
and their Akron, 
impervious, dark 
pink Roman brick 
for the new Rob- 
inson Building, 
same city and 
architect. 

The Berlin 
Iron Bridge 
Company, East 
Berlin, Conn., 
have the contract 
for furnishing the 
steel work for the 
Memorial Hall 
being erected at 
Westerly, R. I. 
This building is 
to be fire-proof 
throughout, has 
steel floor beams 



-««,v 




•M ¥!i „ f|" 




S'WiakMj' Ji^^Ui,i>r^'' 





i': 



park theater, NIAGARA FALLS, N. Y. 

(Froin T/if I llustrated Buffa/o Express, Copyright, i8q8, by Geo. E. Matthews N; Co.) 

The front brick are a dark flashed Roman, furnished by the Dagus Clay Manufacturing Company, Daguscahonda, Pa. 

Orcliard & Joralemon, Architects. 




222 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Supply Company, Pepion Block, Hartford, Isaac A. Allen, Hartford, 
architect, Washburn Brothers, contractors ; Arsenal School, Curtis 
& Johnson, Hartford, architects, Chas. B. Andrus, contractor. 

Thk Cicladon Tkrra-Cotta Company, Ltd., is supplying 
the following new buildings with their roofing tiles : J. B. Hanna 
residence, Columbus, Ohio, Yost cS: Packard, architects ; Winnetka 
School, Winnetka, 111., W. A. 
Otis, architect, Chicago ; Super- 
intendent's residence, Ohio .State 
Hospital for Insane, Massillon, 
Ohio, Yost & Packard, archi- 
tects, Columbus, Ohio ; Boys' 
Industrial School, Lancaster, 
Ohio, Richards & McCarthy, 
architects, Columbus, Ohio; A. 
Houghton, Jr., residence, Corn- 
ing, N. Y., Pierce & Bickford, 
architects, Klmira, N. Y. ; C. L. 
Poston, residence, .Athens, Ohio, 
Yost & Packard, architects, 
Columbus, Ohio ; Audubon Ave- 
nue School, New York City, 
C. B. J. Snyder, school architect. 
New York: Geo. T. Dickover, 
residence, Wilkesbarre. Pa., J. H. 

W'. Hawkins, architect: C. li. Scoville, apartment building, Oak 
Park, III., Patton, Fisher & Miller, architects, Chicago. 

The Illinois Supply a.mij Construction C(jmpany is in- 
corporated in i)oth the States of Missouri and Illinois. The ofFuers 




RICSinENCE of FREDERICK \V. WEIT/., 1>K.S .MOINES, 
Frederick W. Weitz, .Architect. 



are Wm. M. Louderman, president, and W. P. Grath, secretary and 
treasurer. The capital stock of same is j?75,ooo, being fully paid. 

The business of this company is the manufacture of face brick 
in the following colors : solid white, buff, silver gray, pink, steel 
gray, molded, red and brown; also dealers in builders' supplies, per- 
fection mortar colors, terra-cotta, fire-proofing, and vitrified street 
paving brick. The company is operating the plant of the American 

Hydraulic-Press Brick Company, 
located at CoUinsville. 111., eleven 
miles from St. Louis. The brick 
manufactured by them have a na- 
tional reputation, being u.sed in all 
the large cities of the States, and 
are manufactured by the latest 
improved hydraulic press, making 
brick of a uniform texture and free 
from granulation, every brick be- 
ing subjected to a pressure of 
fifty tons. The plant is etjuipped 
with the latest improved Grath 
Patent Down-Draft Kilns, which 
patents are owned by the com- 
pany. The company always keeps 
a large stock of plain and orna- 
mental brick on hand in the va- 
rious colors. In the later part of 
May the works were visited by a disastrous fire, the entire brickmak- 
ing department being destroyed. In place of frame buildings a large 
two-story brick building has been erected. 

Views of the plant are shown in the company's advertisement, 
jjage xii. 







Fireplace Mantek 

The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as good or 
as durable. Our mantels don't cost any more than 
other kinds, and are far better in every way — our 
customers say so. Don't order a mantel before you 
have learned about ours. Send for our Sketch Book 
showing 53 designs of mantels costing from $12 
upwards. 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co.^ 

15 LIBERTY SQ., BOSTON, MASS. 




THE BRICKBUILDER, 



XXIX 



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How to Win a Fine Camera. 




To any one sending us six 
New subscriptions for 



The 
Brickbuilder 

(subscriptions prepaid) before Jan. i, 1899, we 
will give a Number 3 

Magazine 
Cyclone Camera. 

This camera is undoubtedly one of the very 
best made, and sells for J^ 10.00. 

Subscriptions may be dated Jan, i, 1899, 
and the November and December, 1898, num- 
bers will be sent free. 

"'Twelve Pictures in Twelve Seconds.'''' "One Turn of the Button Does it^ 



We think it may be truthfully 
said that The Brickbuilder 
has improved with each year, 
and 1899 will surely be no ex- 
ception. 

Architects, 
Draughtsmen, 
Contractors, and 
Clay workers 

are all interested, and will readil}- 
become subscribers if solicited. 

Subscription Price, 
$2.§o pet year. 

Rogers & Manson, 

Publishers, 
85 Water St., Boston, Mass. 




TAKEN WITH ^CYCLONEiNO. 3. (SIZE OF PLATE, 4 X 5.)l 



5^ 



2^ 



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3> 









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3^ 






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XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



INDEX TO ADVERTISEMENTS. 



ADDRESS. 

ACETYLENE GAS GENERATORS. 

Napheys Acetylene Gas denerators 

J. !!. Colt's Co., ^. 5, & 7 W. 2yth St., New York. 

ADVANCE BUILDING NEWS REPORTS. 

The F. \V. Dodge Co 



ARCHITECTURAL FAIENCE MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

New York Agents, Pfotenhaucr & .Vcsbit, .Metropolitan Building, New York City. 
The Grueby Faience Company, 164 Devonshire Street, Boston .... 

Philadelphia Agent, O. W. Ketcham, 24 So. 7th St. 

New York Agent, 2S7 Fourth Ave. 

Chicago Agent, C. T. Harris & Co., Marquette Bldg. 

ARCHITECTURAL INSTRUCTION. 

Correspondence School of Architecture. Scranton, Pa. ..... 

Harvard University, Lawrence Scientific School ...... 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Hldg., Chicago, III. 
Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company .......... 

2S7 Fourth Ave., New \'urk City. 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and .Supply Co., Corning, N. Y. . 
Burlington Architectural Terra-Cotta Co., Burlington, N. J. 
Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market .St., St. Louis, Mo. 
Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, 105 East 22d St., New York City 

New Fngland Agent, Cliarles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, Charities Building, 2S9 4th Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 South 7th St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Indianapolis Terra-Cotta Co., Indianapolis, Ind. ...... 

New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Company, 38 Park Row, New York City 

New England Agents, Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston. 

Philadelphia Office, 1341 Arch St. 
New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company, 108 Fulton St., New York City 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 102 Milk St. 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 287 Fourth Ave., New York City 

Boston Aeents, O. W. Peterson & Co., John Hancock Building. 
Philadelphia Agent, W. L. McPherson, Building Exchange. 

The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company, Room it 18, The Rookery, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Winkle Terra-Cotta Co., Century Building, St. Louis, Mo. .... 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Pressed and Ornamental). (See Clay Manfrs.' Agents.) 
Brick, Terra-Cotta and Supply Co., Corning, \. Y. ..... 

Brush & Schmidt, Office, 2 Builders' Exchange, Buffalo, N. Y 

Conkling-Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, Columbus, Ohio .... 

Dagus Clay Man'f'g Co., Office, Ridgway, Pa. ; Works, Daguscahonda, Pa. 

Day Brick Company, Belleville, 111. ......... 

Evens & Howard Fire Brick Co., 920 Market St., St. Louis, Mo. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. 

Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Harbison & Walker Co., The. Office, 22d and Railroad Sts., Pittsburg, Pa. . 
Hydraulic-Press Brick Co. .......... 

Home office, Union Trust Building, St. Louis, Mo. 
Illinois -Supply and Construction Co., St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Co., L)uquesne Way and loth St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Merwin, C. P. Brick Co., Berlin, Conn. ........ 

New York and New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 1 56 Fifth Ave., New York City. 
Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Co.: Office, 44 Pine St., N. Y.; Works, Shaw- 
nee, Ohio ............. 

Penn Buff Brick and Tile Co., Prudential Building, Newark, N. J. . 
Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City . 

Philadelphia Agent, O.W. Ketcham, Builders' Exchange. 
Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company, New York Office, 160 Fifth Ave. 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros., 88 Water Street. 

Philadelphia Office, 1044 Drexel Building. 
Philadelphia and Boston F"ace Brick Co., 4 Liberty Sq., Boston .... 

Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 
White Brick and Terra-Cotta Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 

BRICK MANUFACTURERS (Enameled). (See Clay Manufacturers' Agents.) 
American Enameled Brick and Tile Co., 14 East 23d St., New York. 
American Terra-Cotta and Ceramic Company, Marquette Bldg., Chicago, III. 
Atwood Faience Company, Hartford, Conn. ....... 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

New York Office, 289 Fourth Ave. Philadelphia Office, 24 So. 7th St. 
Grueby Faience Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Illinois Supply and Construction Co., .St. Louis, Mo. ..... 

Pennsylvania Enameled Brick Company, Townsend Building, New York City 

Raritan Hollow and Porous Brick Co., 874 Broadway, New York City 

Sayre & Fisher Co., Jas. R. Sayre, Jr., & Co., Agents, 207 Broadway, New York 

New England Agent, Charles Bacon, 3 Hamilton Place, Boston. 
Tiffany Enameled Brick Company, New Marquette Building, Chicago 

BRICK PRESERVATIVE AND WATER-PROOFING. 

Cabot, Samuel, 70 Kilby St., Boston ...... 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York ..... 

BRIDGE AND BUILDING, IRON WORKERS. 

Berlin Iron Bridge Co., Berlin, Conn. ...... 

CEMENTS. 

Alsen's Portland Cement, 143 Liberty St., New York City . 

Berry & P'erguson, 102 State St., Boston 

Commercial Wood and Cement Company, Girard Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

New York Office, 156 Fifth Avenue. 
Cummings Cement Co., EUicott Square Bldg., Buffalo, N. Y. . 
Davis, James A. & Co. ......... 

office, 92 State St., H.oston. 
French, Samuel H., & Co.. York Avenue, Philadelphia. Pa. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., New York 

Lawrence Cement Company, No. 1 Broadway, New York City . 



XXVI 

xxvi 



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XXXI 

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xxxii 
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CEMENTS.— Continue J. 

Lesley & Trinkle, 22 and 24 So. I sth St., Philadelphia 

Manhattan Concrete Co., 156 Fifth Ave., New York ....'. 

New York & Rosendale Cement Company, 280 Broadway, New York City' 

New England Agents, Van Name & Co , Hartford, Conn. 

James C. Goff, 31-49 Point St., I'rovidence, R. I. 

The J. S. Noble Co., 2i),S Lyman St., Springfield, Mass. 

Lord Bros. & Co., Portland. Me. 

Thiele, E., 78 William St., New York City 

Union Akron Cement Company, 141 Erie St., Buffalo, N. Y 

Waldo Brothers. 102 Milk St., Boston 

CEMENT MACHINERY. 

Sturtevant Mill Co., Boston ..........> 

CLAY MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS. Brick (Front Enameled and Ornamental), 
Terra-Cotta, Architectural Faience, Fire-prooHng-, and Roofing: Tiles. 

Black, John H., 33 Erie Co. Savings Ilk. Bldg., Buffalo, N. V. 
Illinois Supply and Con.struction Co., .St. Louis, Mo. 
Ketcham, O. W., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia 
Mayland, H. F., 287 Fourth Ave.. New York City 
Meeker, Carter, Booraem & Co, 14 E. 23d Si., New Vork (,'ily 
Peterson, O. W., & Co., John Hancock Building, l;o>ton . 
Twichell, G. R. & Co., 15 Federal St., Boston .... 
Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 



CLAYWORKERS' CHEMICALS AND MINERALS. 

Gabriel & Schall, 205 Pearl St., N. Y 

F. W. Silkman, 231 Pearl St., New York .... 

CLAYWORKING MACHINERY. 

American Clay Working Machinery Co., Bucyrus, Ohio 
Chambers Bros. Company, Philadelphia, Pa. .... 
Chisholm, Boyd & White Company, 57th and Wallace Sts., Chicago 
Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. .... 

Simpson Brick Press Co., 415 Chamber of Commerce, Chicago, 111. 
The F. D. Cummer & Sons Co., Cleveland, Ohio 



Agents.) 



ELEVATORS. 

Eastern Machinery Co., New Haven, Conn. ..... 

Moore & Wyman, Elevator and Machine Works, Granite St., Boston 

FIRE-PROOFING MATERIAL MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers' 
Boston Fire-proofing Co., 166 Devonshire Street, Boston ... 
Central Fireproofing Co., 874 Broadway, New York .... 
Empire Fireproofing Co., 1301 Monadnock Block, Chicago 
Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Co., Bourse Building, Philadelphia 

New York Agent, F. L. Douglass, St. James Building, 26th St. and Broadway. 

Boston Agent, James D. Lazell, 443 Tremont Bldg. 
Fiske, Homes & Co., 164 Devonshire St., Boston ...... 

Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. ....... 

Guastavino, R., 9 East 59th St., New York ....... 

Boston Office, 19 Milk Street. 
Maurer, Henry, & Son, 420 E. 23d St., New York City ..... 
New York & New Jersey Fire-proofing Company, 156 Fifth Ave., New York City 
Pioneer Fire-proof Construction Co., 1515 Marquette Building, Chicago 
Pittsburg Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, Carnegie Building, Pittsburg, Pa. 

New York Office, Townsend Building, Broadway and 25th Street. 
Powhatan Clay Manufacturing Company, Richmond, Va. ..... 

Standard Fireproofing Co., 41 Cortlandt St., New York 

GRANITE. 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

HANGERS. 

McCabe Manufacturing Co. .......... 

S;7 W. 22d St., New York City. 

MAIL CHUTES. 

Cutler Manufacturing Co., Rochester, N. Y 

MASONS' SUPPLIES. 

Gilbreth Scaffold Co., 85 Water St., Boston 

Hamblin & Russell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Ma.ss . 

Waldo Brothers, 102 Milk St., Boston 

MORTAR COLORS. 

Clinton Metallic Paint Company, Clinton, N. Y 

French, Samuel H., & Co., Philadelphia, Pa 

MURESCO. 

Moore, Benjamin & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y. 

PRESERVATIVE COATINGS. 

Smith, Edw., & Co., 45 Broadway, N. Y 

PLUMBING GOODS. 

Randolph & Clowes, Waterbury, Conn 

ROOFING TILES MANUFACTURERS. (See Clay Manufacturers Agents.) 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Limited 

Main Office and Factory, Alfred, N. Y. 

Chicago Office. Marquette Building. 

New York Office, 1120 Presbyterian Building, New York City. 

SAFETY TREAD. 

The American Mason Safety Tread Co., 40 Water St., Boston .... 

SNOW GUARDS. 

Folsom Patent Snow Guard, 116 South St., Boston, Mass. .... 
Hamblin & Russell Mfg. Co., Worcester, Ma-ss. 

VENTILATORS. 

Pancoast Ventilator Co., The. 316 Bourse Building, Philadelphia, Pa. 

WALL TIES. 

Cleveland Pat. Steel Wall Ties. Wason, Hamilton, and Dart Sts., Cleve- 
land, Ohio ........... 

Hamblin & Rus.sell Manfg. Co., Worcester, Mass 

Morse Patent Wall Ties, J. B. Prescott & Son, Mfrs., Webster, Mass. 

WINDOW SASH AND PULLEYS. 

Queen Sash Balance Co , 150 Nassau St., New York . 

The Shull Overhead Window Pulley, 116 South St., Boston 

100 Park Place, New York. 
The BoUes Sash Co., 150 Nassau St., New York .... 



XXXII 

xxxiii 
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XXXI 

xxxi 



XIX 

xii 
iii 



XIX 

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xxx\i 

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XXXVIII 

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XXXVIII 

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THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXXV 




Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, Architects, 

New York City. 







SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

Furnished by 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co. 



See May issue ot this magazine. 




XXXV 1 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



AGENTS WANTED. 

ODntractors and dealers in builders' materials wanted to take agencies for the leasing of the Gilbreth Scaffold to Building 
Contractors. 

Preference given to parties having an opportunity to show this scaffold in actual operation on a building. 

Correspondence solicited. 

See April issue of this magazine. 







Address, 



GILBRETH SCAFFOLD CO., 



85 Water Street, Boston. 



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THEBRICKBUILDER. iii 



O. W. Peterson & Co. 



New England Agents 



Office 

JOHN HANCOCK BLDG., 

178 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. For 

Telephone 484. < -A < at at m A 

Standard Terra-Cotta Company ^ Perth Amboy, n. j. 
Mosaic Tile Company, zanesviik, ohio. 

DagUS Clay Manfg* Co*, Front Brick Manfrs., Ridgway,Pa. 

6^* ^^ ^^ ^^ 6^* C^* ^* 

A full line of Plastic Mud and Semi-Dry Press Brick in all Shades, 
Shapes, and Sizes. 



O. W. KETCHAM, ^ena^Cotta, 

Butlbers' itV^^ jftOUt anb 

Supplies CV^ 



OFFICE: 



^O }enamele6 

Builders' Exchange, />^ V *ft^rtVb 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. • ^f W ^* Jt^llCK* 

-^^^V Every Description. 



Telephone, 2163. 



H. F. MAYLAND <St CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 
DEALERS IN 

FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 

Telephone, 614 I8th St. 287 FOURTH AVENUE, Room 616. 

NEW YORK, 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 






Works : 



Rocky Hill, N.J. 



► 




I 






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OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE COMMERCIAL CABLE CO. 

'.31 STORIES HIQH.) 



New York Office; 



I 105 E. 2 id Street. 



HARDING & GOOCH, Architects. 



Broad Street. New York City. 



W. A. & F. E. CONOVER, Builders 



Architectural Terra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 



Boston Representative: CHARI^ES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 




LAND, TITLE, AND TRUST COMPANY'S BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

O. H. BURNHAM & CO., ARCHITECTS. 

CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior O^^lity • • 

WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA. PHILA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

NEW YORK TELEPHONE CALL 10-95 EIGHTEENTH ST. 



VI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co. 



Perth Amboy, R J. 



....Manufacturers.... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue, 

Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W. PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Vll 



The: Atlamtic Terra Ootta Co. 



MAirjafSlctut^ev^ o'f' 



ARCHlTElcrURAL TtRRA COTTA 



OKfce. 



DIRECTORS. 

DeFoi'est- Gct't^nf. 'W. H<KVi'i6 Roame . 

Williism tiiKnice Dwi^bf W. Tkglo/. 

Alfi^d H. Bond. 



?b.c\^. 



^8r FOURTH AVE. , MEW YORK . 

rele[Dhoi3e, 1767 - 18^> SrKeer. 



Torre Mvi LLE., s.i. hewyork. 



THE NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA=COTTA. 



KARL MATHIASEN, President. 



Office, 108 Fulton Street, 
NEW YORK. 



Works, 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



and 



MATAWAN, N. J. 



\ in 



THE BRICKBUII.D ER 




THE WINKLE TERRACOTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building:. 



AN ENTRANCE IN TERRA-COTTA, UNION TRUST BUILDING, ST. LOUIS, MO. 

LOUIS H. SULLIVAN, Architect. 

Terra.Cott* Executed ay THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA CO. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



White Brick and 

Terra=Cotta Co., 

156 HFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 

Manufacturers of Archltcctural Tcrra-Cotta in ah colors. 

Superior Quality of 

Soli6 mabite 

Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 



A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 

Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 



TELEPHONE CALL, I984-18TH STREET. 



INDIANAPOLIS 
TERRA-COTTA CO., 

MANUFACTURERS OF 

ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA 



IN ALL COLORS. 



J^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IX 



The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta* 



In all Colors and according to Special Design. 



Glazed and Enameled Work in all Varieties. 



Works and Main Office, 
Corner of Clybourn and Wrightwood Avenues. 

City Office^ Room 1118^ The Rookery, Chicago. 









P/Mll ^TWWmm ^ 




TTA- 




THE BRICKBUILDER. 




-•— :iT»y 



OUR MANTEL No. 6. 

Shuwn Krf.ctkd in a Bii.i.iarp Room. 



THE FISKE-HOMES 

Mantel Fireplaces, 

built of molded bricks and terra- 
cotta, are correct in design, soft 
and liarmonious in effect, and are 
particularly suitable for libraries, 
dining and living rooms, halls, 
dens, etc. 

They are being extensively used 
by people of refinement and taste. 

Send for illustrated catalogue. 

Fiske, Homes & Co., 

i66 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 



Brick, Terra-Cotta & Supply Co. 



!i^ 



M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor, 

CORNING, N. Y. 



MANUFACTURER OF 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 
PRESSED BRICK, ORNAMENTAL BRICK, 
BUILDING BRICK, STREET PAVING BRICK, 
FIRE BRICK, MORTAR COLORS, 

FIRE CLAY. 



Brush & Schmidt, 

Manufacturers of 

Fine Red and Buff, Plain and 
Ornamental 

...Pressed Brick, 



(SHALE.) 



WORKS, 



yewettville, 



OFFICE, 

2 Builders'' Exchange, 



N. Y. 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



EVENS & HOWARD 



BRICK 



CO 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 



BUFF, CRAY, GRANITE, MAHOGANY, AND MOTTLED, 

STANDARD AND ROMAN SHAPES. 

920 MARKET STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XIX 



LONG 



JOHN R BLACK, 



33 Erie County Savings Bank Building, 
DISTANCE TELEPHONE. hJUrrALO, N. Y. 



Sales Agent for 

Umpetvious IReb, Buff, 
(5tai2, pink, anb niiottleb 

Front Bricks 

fin StanJ:iar&, IRoman, an& 
©rnamental Sbapes. 

Enameled Brick. Ornamental Terra-Cotta. 

Roofing Tiles. Metal Lath. 

Wall Ties, etc. 



BURGY & McNniLL, 

531-533 Wood St., 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 



Pressed, 

Salt Glazed, and 

Enameled 



BRICK 



For Exterior 
and Interior 
Facings, Mantels, 
Floors, &c. 



SPECIAI, DESIGNS IN BRICK 
MADE TO ORDER. 

Architectural lerra-Cotta. Roofing Tiles. 



Special Representatives for 

The Tiffany Enamel Brick Co. 

The Ohio Mining and Mfg. Co. 

The New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

The ludowici Roofing Tile Co. 

The Canton Sparta Brick Co. 



(3. 1R. tTwicbell ^ Co. 

Office, 15 Federal St., Boston, Mass. 

jftont ffiiich, jFircs^pioofinOt Xime, 
ITetra^Cotta, Sewer pipe, Cement. 



NEW ENGLAND AGENT 



Mount Savage Enameled Brick Co. 

Ridgway Press Brick Co. 
Buft 

nftottieb, ( rSncKS. 

®lb (5olb 



New Hampshire Water°Struck, Wiped-Faced, and Common Bricks. 



THE CANTON SPARTA BRICK CO., 



CANTON, OHIO, 



Sole Manufacturers of 



The Sparta Brick. 

Buff Shades in Light, Dark, and Mottled 

Effects. 

Superior in Expression of Colors. 

Impervious, Non-Fading, Always Clean. 

NO COLORING MATTER USED IN MAKING. 



XX 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



^2 




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Mi" 'OF IHTEREST TO DESlGflERS m BRICK •' 



To carry out in brickwork the more common minor forms or elements of archi- 
tecture has been a problem long before the minds of architects and builders. The 
Raritan Hollow and Porous trade ^'^''■'^ Company have published 

a small pamphlet which discusses r>ADiTAM ^^^^ subject thoroug;hly, and 
shows how expense can be saved ■»'^'^' ' '^'^ and the beauty of exteriors en- 
hanced by the use of molded mark ^mck in the place of terra-cotta 
or stone. Please send for this pamphlet and information in reference to artistic Front 
Brick, Molded Brick, Mantel Brick, Glazed Brick, Mantel Tile, Fire Brick, etc. 

RARITAN HOLLOW AND POROUS BRICK CO., 

OFFICE, 874 BROADWAY, Cor. J8TH ST., NEW YORK. 
FACTORIES and CLAT BAIfES, KEASBET, R. J., ON RARITAN RIVER, HEAR FERTH AMBOT. 



R GUASTAVINO CO. 

Fire-Proof 
Construction. 



NEW YORK OFFICE: 
1 1 East 59th St. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 
19 Milk St. 



TELEPHONE CONNECTION. 



Floors, 


Ceilings, 


Roofs, 


Staircases, 


Subways, 


Ducts, etc» etc. 



ALL IN BURNT CLAY. 



Empire Fire-Proofing Co., 



Manufacturers and Contractors 
For All Kinds of 



FIRE-PROOF WORK IN 



Hollow Tile & 

Porous Terra-Cotta 

FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 

Send for Illustrated Catalogue. 
General Office : 

German National Bank BIdg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Western Office : 

Monadnock Block, Chicago, IIL 

Eastern Office: 

Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 

O. W. KETCHAM, Mgr. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




DETAIL OF IS'ARCH. a 



SECTION OF ARCH. 



Odt Patenleii Transverse System of Floor ArcH CoDstncDoD Made li 9, 10. 12 aBil 15 itcli fleptliB. 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J, A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company^ 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Buading Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 41 CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
Material, Hard= 
Burned Clay and 
Porous Terra=Cotta. 



f^ 



HOI I 0\A/ RI Or^k'Q For Flat, Elliptical, and Setmen- 
llwLLwVV DLL/L>rVO, tal Arches of every Description. 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roofing. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, vrrTIT' VAPIT 
156 FIFTH AVE., nCYY I UIVJV, 

Worlu. LORILLARD (Kayport p. 0.), N. J. 



XXll 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-0)tta . . . 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow, Porous, Front, and Paving Brick, 



WORKS AT 
PITTSBURGH, PA., WASHINGTON, N. J., and at EAST PALESTINE, OHIO. 

General Offices: CARNEGE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office : Townsend Buildings, corner Broadway and 25tli St., New York City. 



The accompanying illustration is of 

The White Building, 

HO-UI BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
L. P. SOULE & SONS Builders. 





FIRE-PROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

J 66 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



xxni 



....Established 1856 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



u 



EUREKA '' 



Floor Arches, 
Partitions^ 
Furring, 



Roofing, Etc* 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

_New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Afent. 




rrrm 



"Excelsior" I'.nd-i i.iriruMion M,ii ArJi d'aieiitecl). 
25 per cent, stronger and lighter timn any other melhotl. 




The Coming Arch for Light Fire-Proof 
Floor Construction (Patented). 

DURABLE, ECONOMICAL, AND RAPIDLY CONSTRUCTED. 




Depth of Arch, 6 ins. 

Si'AciNG, Center to Center of Beams, 

30 ins. 



Depth of Beams, 5 to 6 ins. 

Weight of Arch, per square foot, 

21 lbs. 



Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings* 

Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks* 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 

Factories. _—- — v 

MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



To meet a growing demand for a light, simple, yet .strong and ine.xpensive lire-proof construc- 
tion for floors, we beg to offer our ■' Eureka" arch (see cut above), for which we claim the follow- 
ing advantages : — 

Absolutely tire-proof — made oijfrc-c/ay. 

Quickly erected — no centering required. 

Strong and durable — capable of resisdng heavy weights. 

Light in weight — no concrete necessary. 

Light iron construction only required. 

Ironwork thoroughly protected. 

Only three sections forming arch. 

Can be put up during any season of the year. 

It is absolutely necessarv, when using this arcii, tliat tlie iron beams be spaced 30 ins. center, 
to insure a perfect and well-constructed arch. 

This arch is composed of three tiles: two abutments, or "skew-backs," which lit the l)eams 
(thoroughly protecting their lower flanges), and one center or "key tile," set between 5 in. or 6 in. 
deep beams. The tie-rods going between openings on side of brick and allowing for same, the 
cutting of tiles becomes unnecessary. 

Send for illustrated catalogue of 1898. 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States, 



Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS. COPLEY SQUARE. BOSTON. 

HENRY E. CREGIER, Architect. WOODBURY & LEIGHTON, Contractors. 



The fireproofing and steel work furnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



THE BRICKBUI LDER. 



XXV 



C entral Fireproofing 
Company, 



Hollow 
Tile 

and 
Porous 
Terra- 
Cotta 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President. 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 



Fireproofing. 



874 Broadway t New York* 



XXVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE ATWOOD 






FAIENCE lEalcOMPANY, 


Grueby Faience Co. 




Makers of 

GLAZED AND ENAMELED 
ARCHITECTURAL 


HARTFORD. CONN. 




TERRA-COTTA FOR 
INTERIORS AND 


^ 




EXTERIORS. 


Ename ed Brick and Ti e 




FAIENCE MANTELS. 
TILES IN COLORS FOR 


Faience Mantels, 

Terra-Vitrae. 




WAINSCOTS, 
BATHS, ETC. 
MOORISH TILES. 


^ 






Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 


164 Devonshire Street, jir^Boston. 


Mantel dealers. 







LUDOWICI ROOFING TILE COMPANY, 



419 Chamber of Commerce 



CHICAGO. 



Manufacturers of 



practical Ifntcvlockiucj IRoofin^ ITilc. 




PI^INCIPAl. A(iF\CIKS. 



FISKE, HOMES i: CO., Boston, Mass. 

MEEKER, CARTER, BOORAEM & CO., New York. 

F. W. KENDERDINE & BRO., Philadelphia, Pa. 

HI RGY & McNEILL, PnrsBUROH, Pa. 

ALFRED W. THORN, Buffalo, N. Y. 

THOMAS BROS. & CO., Detroit, Mich. 

BUILDING MATERIAL SUPPLY CO, Cincinnati, O. 

COLUMBUS BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA CO., Columbus, O. 

ILLINOIS SUPPLY AND CONSTRUCTION CO., St. Louis, Mo. 

RICKETSON & SCHNVARTZ, Milwaukee, Wis. 

S. J. IIEWSON, Minneapolis, Minn. 

S. P. SPATES & CO., St. Paul, Minn. 
W. J. WELSHANS, Omaha, Neb. 

J. H. SWEARINGEN, Kansas City, Mo. 

WM. RYNERSON, Topeka, Kan. 



UNITED STATES POST-OFFICE, MADISON, IND. Roofed with Ludowici Tile. "TS " Pattern. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



xxvu 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HENRY S. HARRIS, Vice-President. 



WILL. R. CLARKE, Secretary and Treasurer. 
ALVORD B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 



MANUFACTURER.S OF 



ARTISTIC ROOFING TILK, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 




in II 1 1 

<^ ' p I» I I 








IS] ULl at . 




ilt 



m- 



■ ■III SBl^iB p'l ■ ■! i B a. 



TOWNSEND MEMORIAL ILVLL, OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY, COLUMBUS, O., COVERED WITH CONOSERA ROOFING TILES. 

Peters, Burns & Pretzinger, Dayton, O., Architects. 



OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY. 

ALEXIS COPE, Secretary. 

Columbus, O., April i8, 1898. 
Mr. Charles T. Harrls, Alfred, N. Y. 

Dear Sir : — We have just completed two College Buildings, Townsend Hall, length 260 
ft., average breadth 70 ft., three stories, and the Biological Building, length iio ft., average 
breadth 75 ft., two stories, and for roofing have used Conosera Tile. 

So far we have only praise to speak of it. It adds much to the dignity and artistic beauty 
of the buildings, and we are glad we were able to use it. 

We recommend it without reservation. After seeing it on the Law and Dairy Buildings 
at Cornell, we were not satisfied with anything else. 

Very truly yours, 

ALEXIS COPE, Secretary. 



We have also covered the following named College Buildings, 
beside those named above, with Conosera Tile : — 

ORRINGTON LUNT LIBRARY, Northwestern University, Evanston, 111. 
LIBRARY AT UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS, Urbana, 111. 
AGRICULTURAL BUILDING, Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 
SCIENCE HALL at Syracuse University, Syracuse, N. Y. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 
SUITE 1123-4, PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, 156 FIFTH AVENUE. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 
SUITE 1001-2, MARQUETTE BUILDING, 204 DEARBORN STREET. 



xxvni 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




THE DELMONICO BUILDING, 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE.. NEW YORK CITY. 



JAMES BROWN LORD, ARCHITECT. 



TERRA-COTTA AND BRICK BY THE 



NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



PHILADELPHIA. 



38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK CITY. 



BOSTON. 




^, <5 VOLVME ^S 



VII 
NOV. 



THE 



OFFICE 
85 



J J 1898 

W No. n 



BRICKBVILDER^ 



»fM?nWnWf»»T^^ 



WATER K! 
STREET ^pi 
BOSTON ^ 



iS: 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

Gushing Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 
Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada JiS2.5o per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in the Postal Union $3-50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BV THR BRICKBUII.DHR PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass,, Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1S92. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

A (2UESTI0N OF ETHICS. 

COURTS of law do not exactly teach architecture, but we lis- 
tened to an interesting exposition upon the ethics of the profes- 
sion a short time since in a court where we had the misfortune to he 
called as a witness in a suit brought by an architect to recover com- 
mission, A brother architect was on the stand, having been called 
by the plaintiff to testify in regard to certain points regarding pro- 
fessional charges. On the cross-examination the opposing counsel 
sought to bring out tli2 suggestion that the plaintiff had first ap- 
proached the defendant, whom he had tried to interest in himself to 
the extent of accepting plans, and the question was asked, " Is it not 
very common for architects to offer to submit plans on a venture, 
hoping that they may be accepted.?" The question was promptly 
objected to by the plaintiff's counsel. The objection, however, was 
not sustained by the judge, who made the remark that the architec- 
tural profession was not at all like that of the doctor or the lawyer, 
members of which never solicited work, and that of course it was 
manifest and perfectly well known that all architects were glad to 
compete. We confess we have been interested in trying to reason out 
how the judge arrived at such an opinion, and can only conclude 
that he must have been .somewhat unfortunate in his architectural 
acquaintances, for all of our observation and our knowledge of the 
profession here and elsewhere point to a directly opposite conclusion, 
and we believe that it is the rule rather than the exception for 
reputable architects to decline to speculate on their chances. The 
incident shows how little the architect's point of view is appreciated 
even by the educated portion of the community. As a matter of 
fact, among the architects who would be taken as types of the pro- 
fession, their position in relation to their clients is precisely that of 
the lawyer, and if the time ever comes when the practise of archi- 



tecture is surrounded with the same safeguards against ignorance 
that the law extends to the legal profession, it is quite likely that the 
architect's standpoint will be better understood. It may not be 
necessary for the public which pays for and occupies the houses which 
architects build to thoroughly appreciate the peculiar relations which 
necessarily exist between the honest, educated practitioner and his 
work, but, on the other hand, it is not fairly supposable that the archi- 
tect should be ready at all times to scramble for his work and com- 
pete, cut prices, or do most anything to get a job. Recognition of 
a higher ideal will come with the growth of good architecture. One 
has only to look back a comparatively few years to see that the neces- 
sity for groveling is rapidly diminishing, and that though a learned 
judge may be disposed to class architects, hod carriers, and others 
indiscriminately, the profession has won for itself a place which 
commands a very decided measure of respect. The temptation to 
get work at any price is a constant one, and while the profession is 
so open to any one, irrespective of his ability, it is not strange that 
the position of the architect should be frequently misconstrued, and 
the good and the bad lumped together in a single category. It is 
the saving remnant who have high ideals, who constitute the real 
measure of what the profession stands for, and the leaven of that 
remnant is a force which is constantly increasing. 



THE old New England best parlor, which was closed against 
sunlight, moths, and the family, only to be opened on state 
occasions for the benefit of strangers, might almost be termed a 
prototype of the spirit which is so manifest in our puljlic liuildings 
and which prompts some one, we cannot say whether architect or 
owner, to turn his best front towards the street and to content him- 
self with the commonest kind of work on the inner courts or back 
alleys. This might have been permissible at one time when all our 
buildings were carried to a nearly uniform height, but since the ad- 
vent of modern commercial methods, there is hardly a street which 
does not show some tall structure elbowing itself above its neighbors, 
offering a very brave array of finery towards the street, but ghastly 
in its nakedness elsewhere. This is surely an instance of inherent, 
if unconscious, bad taste. There is no good reason why a building 
should not be jjresentable on all sides. The argument that it is 
often built on party lines does not amount to a great deal, for it is 
the exception to find an adjoining owner who would not be willing, 
for a reasonable compensation, to allow the eaves to project over 
his property, and we venture the stateinent that, in most cases of 
public buildings, the neighbors would be quite ready to welcome such 
partial infringement for the sake of the added looks of the building. 
We need not expend elaboration on the unimijortant sides of the 
building. There is no violation of good taste in recognizing that a 
building has a decided front, that one portion of it is to mark 
the entrance, or that the most desirable portions of the interior are 
to give on a faqade which bears the greatest amount of elaboration ; 
but to assume that we can spread our lavishness along the whole 
expanse of a front and then suddenly saw it off at the turning of a 
corner is to admit that our buildings are not designed as a whole, 
but that a frontispiece is put up simply for show. Without follow- 
ing this idea to the extent which Mr. Ruskin has Seen fit to insist 
upon, we certainly can expect that when a property owner is to 
shoulder himself above his neighbors, he ought, for his own sake and 



224 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



for the sake of the public that permits him to do such things, to see 
to it that the building, which is pretty sure to be visible in its entirety 
from several directions, shall present at least a dignified, respectable 
appearance on its less important sides. The extra cost of doing 
this is far less than is often spent by property owners in advertising 
the fact that such a building is in existence, and yet the beautifying 
of the plain walls, or, perhaps, to put it better, the rationalization of 
the plain walls, as a mere advertisement, would be worth all it would 
cost. 

AND this suggests the oft-repeated query of our brick manu- 
facturers, why the architects seem to prefer old, rough, mis- 
shapen brick to the product upon which the manufacturers have ex- 
pended so much more thought and care. From an architectural 
standpoint the answer is natural enough. We have seen repeated 
instances of side walls of buildings which, as far as the material went, 
was more interesting than the press brickwork of the front. This 
was not, how-ever. because common brick was used in one case and 
pressed in another, but was simply one of those accidental happen- 
ings which sometimes set at naught the wisdom of the academy, just 
as a tumbledown, dilapidated, old mill may be much more beautiful 
than a smart, new affair. We have yet to see an interesting effect 
produced by the use of a poor quality of brick that could not be 
duplicated and bettered with the use of a good brick, and the cause 
for rejoicing over picturesque old brick walls is not in the quality of 
the material so much as in the way it is used. If good brick be used 
with a mixture of picturesque ai)preciation. such as might find ex- 
pression in some of the old things we admire, the result would be 
undoubtedly better than when we arc obliged to content ourselves 
with the ruder product. Other times, other manners. The rough 
brick which might have pleased the medievalists cannot lend itself 
rightly to modern work. We can get the picturesque effects, but we 
must use better material, and, fortunately, the picturesque qualities 
are not a concomitant solely of crudeness of manufacture. 



PERSONAL, CLU15, AND SUNDRY NEWS ITEMS. 

Fki:df,kick N. Reed, architect, has removed his office to 52 
Kilby Street, Boston. 

Wm. H. Gornpert, architect, 2761 Atlantic .Avenue. Brooklyn, 
N. Y.. would be glad to receive samples and catalogues. 

The Columbia College scholarship for this year goes to Wil- 
liam C. Ayres, a draughtsman in the office of Ernest Flagg. 

R. Maurice Tkimule, architect, has opened an office in the 
Ferguson Building, Pittsburgh, Pa. .Samples and catalogues desired. 

Theouor G. Ahre.vs, architect, has opened an office at No. 
8 East Lexington Street, Baltimore, Md. Samples and catalogues 
desired. 

Ekni:st FL.\(iG has been apjjointed by the Government (Navy 
Department), architect for the new iiuilding to be erected at .Annapo- 
lis. It is estimated that the total cost of these buildings will be fuUv 
$10,000,000. 

At the thirty-second annual convention of the American Insti- 
tute of Architects, held at Washington, November 1. 2, and 3, the fol- 
lowing officers were elected : President, Henry Van Brunt : first 
vice-president, W. L. B. Jenney ; second vice-president, J. W. Mc- 
Laughlin ; secretary and treasurer, Glenn Brown ; auditors, S. A. 
Treat and W. G. Preston; directors, for one year, F. M. Day, J. C. 
Hornblower, T. D. Evans; for two years, R. W. Gibson, L. T. Sco- 
field, W. M. Poindexter; for three years, A. G. Everett, W. C. 
Smith, G. B. Post. 

The limited competition for the Shattuck Prize, offered by the 
Mechanics' Charitable Association of Boston, for the best design for 
workingmen's houses, has been decided by the award of the prize to 
R. Clipston Sturgis, of Boston. The open competition was decided 
in favor of George E. Barton and George G. Will, draughtsmen in 
Mr. Sturgis's office. 



The amount of the limited competition prize was 57jo, and that 
of the open competition, $450. 

The judges were Prof. F. W. CFiandler, John M. Carrere. and 
H. Langford Warren. 

The drawings submitted in competition for the Cornell Uni- 
versity Traveling Fellowship in Architecture were exhibited and 
judged at Washington during the recent meeting of the A. I. A. 

The competition program called for a Grand Stairway for a 
Metropolitan Library, the winner to receive ?2,ooo, paid in instal- 
ments, in the manner common to all University Fellowships. W. 
Herbert Dole, a draughtsman in the office of l'2rnest Flagg, New 
York City, was placed first, while Floyd Y. Parsons and Ira C. Shel- 
don were given honorable mention. 

The judges were John M. Carrere and William A. Boring, of 
New York City, and Edward B. Green, of Buffalo. 

A REGULAR meeting of the T Scjuare Club, Philadelphia, was 
held on Wednesday evening, November 2, at which the subject for 
competition was " The Porte-Coch^re of a Theater." First mention 
was awarded to Alfred M. Githens; second mention to Wetherill P. 
Trout, and third mention to Oscar M. Hohanson. 

The Club gave a "smoker" on the evening of November 16, at 
which the drawings entered in competition for St. Paul's Church at 
Overbrook were exhibited. Professor Laird explained how the de- 
signs were viewed by the church committee in making the awards. 

At a meeting held on the evening of November 2, the Club gave 
$100 as a nucleus of a fund to be used for the purpose of erecting in 
Philadelphia a permanent memorial to commemorate the successful 
termination of the late war with Spain. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVERTISEMENTS. 

THE medallion of Thomas Jefferson shown herewith is modeled 
from a painting by Clilbert Stuart. It will be used in con- 
nection with other work in the vestibule of the Jefferson Medical 
College, Philadelphia; designed by Mr. James Windrim. The work 




is being executed by the New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Com- 
pany. 

In the advertisement of Fiske, Homes & Co., page x, is illustrated 
one of their mantels, erected in a billiard roorii. A residence at 
Buffalo, of which Green & Wicks were the architects, is shown in the 
advertisement of The Harbison & Walker Company, page xv. The 
United States Post-Office at Madison, Ind., is shown in the adver- 
tisment of the Ludowici Roofing Tile Company, page xxvi. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



225 



The American Schoolhouse. XIII. 

BY EDMUND M. WHEELWRIGHT. 

SPECIFICATIONS FOR A SCHOOL BUILDING. 
{Concluded.) 

Sect, i i. Mortar. — {a) Mortar for laying brick and stone 
masonry shall be prepared from sand and cement of the qualities 
before specified. The ingredients are to be evenly spread and thor- 
oughly mixed dry, in the proportion of one part by measure of cement 
to two parts of sand, and a moderate quantity of water is to be after- 



Sect. 14. 




pierce grammar school, bkookline, mass. 

Julius A. Schweinfurtli, Architect. 

wards added to produce a paste of the proper consistency ; the whole 
to be quickly and thoroughly worked. 

{b) Cement mortar shall be mixed in such quantities as will 
allow it to be used very soon after being mixed, and any cement 
mortar not used within three quarters of an hour after being first wet 
shall be rejected. 

Sect. 12. Asphalt. — (a) Give one thick coat of hot asphalt 
to rough brickwork of exterior door and window jambs and outside 
of foundation walls and brickwork below top of ground. 

{b) Waterproof Ijottom and sides of trenches and conduits 




with two moppings of hot asphalt on two thicknesses of heavy 
tarred paper. 

[c) Cover in best manner with best Neuchatel or Syssel asphalt 
the floors of rooms so noted on plans. 

Sect. 13. Exterior Stonework. — {a) Provide and set 
exterior trimmings as shown on % in. and |^ in. scale drawings ; all 
to be of best quality [Blank] sandstone, [Blank] limestone, [Blank] 
marble, and to the satisfaction of the architect. 

(b) All moldings must be cut sharp and true, exposed surfaces 
to be fine crandalled [hand tooled] in a manner satisfactory to the 
architect. 

Stone Setting. — Set all cut stone in best manner 
in cement mortar, as above specified, and clamp 
well to brickwork with galvanized-iron clamps. 

Sect. 15. North River Stone. — (u) 
Furnish and set 4 in. North River bluestone slabs 
planed on top for pipe trenches and conduits. 

(/;) Furnish and set outside steps of best 
quality North River bluestone, fine axed in best 
manner. 

Sect. 16. Floors, and Roof Framing. 
— {a) Provide all materials for and construct all 
floors and roof of wholly incombustible materials. 
This construction may be either : — 

fi) Steel frames, girders and beams, with 
flat terra-cotta arch construction, with beams 
protected by end-construction soffit tile ; all 
thoroughly filled about steelwork with cement 
mortar and filled to top of grounds with concrete. 

(2) The concrete and steel construction of 
the [Blank] Company for floors. 

(3) The fire-proof and steel construction of 
the [Blank] Company. 

(/;) Whichever construction is used, it will 
be required to safely sustain the load required by 
the building laws of the city of [Blank], and the contractor shall 
present to the architect, before applying for permit, a complete set 
of framing plans, showing the method of construction proposed, and 
subject to the approval of the architect. 

{c) The floors shall be finished level and true on under side, and 
be arranged for plastering of ceilings directly on floor construction, 
except where ceilings are furred down. 

[(<•/) Supply and set the steel framing for walls, which shall 
be of ample strength to sustain the superstructure, and shall be 
subject to the approval of the architect. Sectional drawings of the 
construction shall be submitted to the architect for approval.] 

{c) Furnish and set all plates, connections, anchors, ties, T's, 
bolts, and washers requisite for the construction of said floors, steel 
framing for walls and roofs in the best and most workmanlike man- 
ner, and do all drilling and jobbing to fully complete the work. All 






J- C H O C5 L ^ T , 

FIRST FLOOR. 

PIERCE GRAMMAR SC 
Second story is a duplicate of first story, except that in place 




HOOL, BROOKLINE, MASS. 

of teachers' rooms, there is a room to be used for teaching sewing. 



226 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



iron and steel work is to have one heavy coat of good red lead and 
oil, when delivered, and one coat after being set in position. 

Sect. 17. Ironwork. — (a) In addition to the iron and 
steel work re(|uired under section 16. furnish all iron and steel shown 
on plans. 

(/') All ironwork is to have one heavy coat of good red lead 
and oil when delivered, and one coat after being set in position. 

(c) P'urnish for all openings lintels of form and size shown on 
^ in. scale drawings. Furnish lintels required for vent and heat 
openings. 

it/) Furnish all beams, ties, braces, lintels, railroad irons, masons' 
iron, etc., not specially called for. but recjuired for the completion of 
the building. 

{e) Furnish in accordance with design shown on '^ scale draw- 
ing and in accordance with full-size drawing, the window and door 
grilles, to be set in best manner by the contractor. 

(/) Furnish boiler flue of '4 in. boiler iron, [Blank | in diameter, 
thoroughly riveted, and securely set same with wrought-iron supports. 

Sect. 18. Iron Staircase, etc. — (a) The contractor shall 
take all measurements at the building, and erect the several flights 
of stairs in a neat and workmanlike manner, furnishing all bolts, 
nuts, screws, washers, etc. All beams and channels are to have, at 
bearings, plates 1 by 8 by 12 ins., and other sizes as marked on 
framing plans, and where members are framed they are to be coped 
and put together with angle plates, properly bolted : also do all drill- 
ing, boring, and jobbing to fully complete the work. .Ml the flights 
are to have channel-iron stringers : the landings of channel-iron and 
T and angle-iron fram- 



ing. 



p*£'-'^ 






to be 
accord- 
full-size 




(b) All girders, 
beams, channels, angles, 
etc., are to be smooth, 
straight, and true, and 
all cast work is to be 
from soft gray iron, free 
from sand-holes or other 
blemishes, to be smoothly 
finished up, and all mold- 
ings are to be clean and 
sharp. 

{c) Stairs 
built strictly in 
ance with the 
drawings. 

{d) [Rail to be of wrought-iron pipe set as shown on ]i in. de- 
tail drawing.] Posts to be surmounted by large ball as shown. 

(e) Treads and landings to be of cast iron, and to be com- 
pletely covered with [.Mason safety treads]. [>^ in. rubber mat like 
sample in architect's office.] 

(/) Paint the whole two good coats of good red lead and oil, 
one at foundry, and one when stock is delivered at site. 

Sect. 19. Roofi.vg and Metal Work. — (a) Cover all 
roofs, except those shown to be of copper, with best 5-ply composi- 
tion roofing, put on in the best manner on top of roof. 

[Cover roofs with heaviest Neponset paper, and lay with the 
best even color, non-fading. Standard No. I Monson blue slate, or 
equivalent, subject to approval of the architect, and laid with 4-in. 
head cover, well bonded and nailed with four-penny tin nails. Bed 
slates in the best elastic oil cement for last two courses at ridge.] 
The copper roofs to be 16 oz. 

ib) All flashing of chimneys, projecting stone-courses, ven- 
tilator curbs, valleys, battlements, walls, coping, etc.. or other rising 
parts and covering of crickets, scuttle, ridges, and molded capping, 
to be of 16 oz. copper. Cover top of brick wall under coping stone 
with Yi in. sheet lead, as shown on ^ in. scale drawings. 

(t) Provide and set where shown, skylights of 16 oz. copper: 
the same to be constructed in the most workmanlike manner, and to be 
of construction approved by the architect, to be furnished with con- 



SOUIH HOSTON HIGH SCHOOL, SOUTH BOSTON, MASS. 
Herbert D. Hale, .Architect. 



densation gutters and ventilators, and to be glazed with best quality 
wire glass. 

{d) Furnish and set ventilator of approved make, where shown, 
all as per detail, of 18 oz. copper on wrought-iron frame. 

O) Furnish and set cowls for vent ducts of 18 oz. copper on 
wrought-iron frames, all as per full-size detail. 

(/') Make the whole rooting work perfectly tight, and keep it so 
for one year from date of acceptance of the building by the archi- 
tect. 

Sect. 20. Cornices. — (aj Provide and set cornices of copper, 
all in accordance with detail drawings and directions. Furnish all 
structural iron and steel framework for the above work as may be 
later re<|uired by full-size details. Provide sleeves of 20 oz. copper 
where conductors pass through roof, strongly secured in place. 

(b) Provide 16 oz. copper conductors where shown: the con- 
nection of same with sewer to be provided by the contractor for 
plumbing. Provide copper wire muzzles or strainers for each con- 
ductor outlet and fasten securely to the roof. Provide sleeves and 
cesspools in roof at conductor heads as indicated, all of 20 oz. cop- 
l)er, and connect with all conductors with lead goosenecks. 

Sect. 21. Metal Vents anu Heat Ducts and Registers. 
— Metal vents and heat ducts and registers will be provided and set 
by the contractor for heating and ventilation. (For ventilator on 
roof, see section 19.) 

Sect. 22. Carpentry. — (a) The carpenter is to assist all 
other mechanics employed in building, including those employed 
upon plumbing, heating, ventilating, and electric work. He is to do all 

cutting, jobbing, furring, 
blocking, finishing, and 
setting of approved strips, 
etc., and provide all 
forms, centers, and lintels 
required by the architect. 
(b) When required, 
provide cloth-covered 
screens, and fit properly 
to all window openings, 
including basement : also 
board up the entrances 
as directed, and provide 
suitable doors and hard- 
ware, locks, etc., and 
keep same in repair during 
the progress of the work. 
(t) [Furnish all timbers, bolts, rods, hangers, joint bolts, anchor 
iron, dogs, etc., for floors and roofs as called for by drawings, as re- 
quired by the building laws, and to make the work satisfactory to the 
architect. P>ame, mortise, pin, raise, and fl.\ in position the several 
floors and roofs, sizes to be as noted on drawings. Floor timbers to 
be anchored to walls and dogged together so as to form a continuous 
tie across the building everywhere. 

((/) [Crown all floor timbers, ceiling joists, etc, ^.i in. where 
span exceeds 15 ft. and gage to an even width. 

(i) [All the floor, ceiling, and roof timbers, girders, etc., are to 
be of the best quality straight-grained, seasoned Georgia pine, of full 
and square dimensions, and free from large or loose knots, shakes, 
wains, or sap. 

(/■) [The wall plates to be secured to brickwork by iron bolts 
every 6 ft., as shown on ^ in. detail drawing.] 

*.4') [Cros.s-bridging where shown to be 2 by 3 in. stock thor- 
oughly nailed together.] 

Sect. 23. Under Floors. — ia) Lay on all fire-proof floors 
spruce boards y%- in. thick [or better, Georgia pine plank 2 ins. thick, 
dogged on to steel construction with wrought-iron dogs], thoroughly 
seasoned, mill-planed, well strained to joints, headings run by. double 
spiked on every bearing : floor boards to be free from large or loose 
knots, shakes, or sap, left perfect in every particular after other 
mechanics and ready to receive upper floor. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



227 



ill) Lay between upper and under floors heaviest Neponset 
building paper, breaking joint. [Lay between upper and under floors 
fire-proofing to be approved by architect.] 

Sect. 24. Roof Pi.ankixg. — {a) Cover the roofs with 2 in. 
planed and matched, thoroughly seasoned Georgia pine plank, free 
from loose knots or shakes, well set up [and strongly spiked to 
rafters], and dogged with wrought-iron dogs on to steel construction. 

(b) Fur for metal cornice, and prepare the roof for roofing, to 
the satisfaction of the architect. 

Sect. 25. Studding and Furring. — (a) Partitions, where 
not shown as brick, are to be of steel channels, furnished and set by 
plasterer. 

{b) Furnish and set 3 by 3 in. pine studding around all door or 
sash openings in channel-iron partitions. 

{c) Furnish approved beveled screeds of chestnut, to be bedded 
into concrete floors, and also in pitch roofs. 

{d) Furnish wood bricks for mason to build into walls to give 
nailings for furring, etc. 

{e) Put on all grounds, angle, or corner beads for receiving the 



have rebated pine plank frames of well-seasoned, clear stock, the ex- 
terior frames 2^ ins. thick; interior frames 2 in. stock. All to be 
put together in the best manner. Window frames are to be painted 
one coat by contractor before being set (see section 34), and are not 
to be set until just before plastering is begim. 

(c) Construct double run sash i i{ '"S. thick, with muntins i y^ ins. 
wide, arranged for the number of lights indicated on drawings, of 
best quality, thoroughly kiln-dried pine stock, molded, tenoned, glued, 
put together, and pinned in best manner, hung with best linen sash 
cord and round cast-iron weights to accurately balance sash when 
glazed; sash to be stained one coat. Exterior single sash and tran- 
soms to be the same as above. Interior transom and other sash to 
be of ash. 

Sect. 27. Door Frames and Door.s. — {a) All entrance 
door frames to be of first quality white pine plank, and securely 
fastened to masonry with iron dogs. All interior door frames to be 
of well-seasoned pine plank ; all except those for closet doors to have 
transoms over them, which are to be veneered, where required, to con- 
form with the finish of the several rooms; all as per detail drawings. 




FIRST FLOOR. 




THIRD FLOOR. 




SECOND FLOOR. 



HASEMENT. 



SOUTH nOSTON HIGH SCHOOL, SOUTH liOSTON, MASS. 



plastering throughout the building. (Grounds to take jjlastering 
properly as directed. 

Sect. 26. Window Frames and Sash. — {a) Make frames 
for windows, as shown by elevations and detail sheet, as per details, 
of pine. Inside to be veneered to compare with the finish of the 
several rooms. Pulley stiles, parting, and stop beads of hard pine. 
Stiles are to be fitted with bronze-face 2 in. steel axle ])ulleys. Sills 
of 2^ in. jjine plank are to be thoroughly seasoned and free from 
knots, sap, or shakes. 

{b) All exterior or interior single sash windows or transoms are to 



(b) All interior doors to be custom made, of thoroughly kiln- 
dried, first quality pine stock, veneered with properly selected brown 
ash, or oak, corresponding with the finish of the several rooms, flush- 
molded, mortised, tenoned, wedged, glued, and put together in the 
best manner; all as per scale and detail drawings, and all to have 
transoms, except closet and water-closet doors. 

((■) Outside doors 2% ins. thick of white pine; interior doors 
I }{ ins. thick, except those for water-closets, which will be i ]{ ins. 
thick. 

{//) Inside doors are to have ^ in. thick best quality, rift 



228 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Pensacola hard pine thresholds, beveled on both edges, where not 
otherwise provided. 

((?) All doors, except for toilet rooms and closets, to have one 
panel glazed with first quality double thick (ierman glass. 

Sect. 28. In.side Fi.msh. — (a) The inside finish, except as 
otherwise specified, is to be of first quality kiln-dried brown ash, of even 
color, all sandpapered off with the grain, and according to detail 
drawings. 

(6) Provide a base around all rooms, corridors, closets, etc., 
of molded brown ash, as per }{ in. detail drawing and full-size 
drawing, to be seen in estimating room, and also molded plinth blocks 
for all doors, using turned corners at all angles and jambs. 

(<r) Trim around all registers with molded ash. 

(</) The oflfice and library to be finished in first quality quartered 
oak, with cornice, boxed beams, and paneled ceilings, and with door 
and window trims of oak. 

(e) Provide and set chair rail throughout all rooms with 
plastered walls. 

(/') Provide and set i ^ in. picture molding to run between the 
windows, of wood, to correspond with other finish, and in all school 
and recitation rooms. 

Sect. 29. Upper Floors. — (a) Upper floor boards through- 
out, except as otherwise specified, to be of the best quality rift Pensa- 
cola hard pine, not over 4 ins. wide, matched and blind nailed, planed 
to an even thickness, % 
in., all thoroughly kiln- 
dried, well strained, all 
heading joints run by and 
cut plumb and square 
(over a bearing in every 
case). 

(/>) Upper flooring 
in library and office to be 
quartered oak; to be J4 
in. thick, not over 3 ins. 
wide, matched, and blind 
nailed. 

(f) All the upper 
floors are to be planed 
and traversed and scraped 
to a uniform surface 

without ridges, etc., for first-class work. This work is to be done the 
last thing after painter has completed his work on the standing 
finish. 

Sect. 30. Mi.scellaneous Carpextrv. — (a) Provide mov- 
able teachers' platforms and fit up the toilet rooms, water-closets, 
bowls, etc., as shown on plans as directed. 

(6) Put up two shelves of seasoned pine in all closets, over 
hooks, as the architect shall direct. 

(c) Supply and set shelving, drawers, etc., in chemical storage 
room, dark room, and apparatus room : the glazed partition to run 
from baseboard to ceiling and to have simple cornice. 

(For glazing, see section 34.) 

The shelving in these rooms is to run to ceiling. 

(^) Supply and set frames and 2J4 in. chalk receivers for all 
blackboards. 

(e) The contractor is to allow and pay the sum of [Blank] 
dollars for electric clock dials. 

(/) The contractor is to allow and pay the sum of [Blank] 
dollars for bookcases and wainscoting in library and oflfice. 

{^^) Allow and pay the sum of [Blank] dollars for tables and 
furnishings of physical and chemical laboratories in addition to 
those otherwise specified. 

(/i) [Supply and set 2^ in. ash hand rail for all stair- 
cases.] 

(t) Supply and set 2}{ in. ash wall rail on bronze brackets (see 
section 31) for all runs of staircases, e.xcept on landings. 

Sect. 31. Hardware. — (a) Furnish and supply all hardware 




GIBSOX district GRAMMAR SCHOOL, BOSTON, 
Edmund M. Wheelwright, City Architect. 



trimmings and fixtures throughout the building, to be of solid bronze 
metal unless otherwise specified. 

(i>) Outside entrance doors are to have vestibule locks. 
Provide suitable door checks, of a make to be approved by said 
architect. Provide door catches, of a pattern to be approved by 
said architect, for outside doors and s'A ^y 5'A •"• bronze metal 
butts, bronze metal knobs, and large escutcheon plates. 

((.) Doors of physical and chemical lai)oratories and of office — 
are to have [Blank] lock, master-keyed. 

(if) All other doors are to have [Blank] three-tumbler lock, 
and with the same master-key, with syi by sH >"• bronze metal 
butts. 

(e) Knobs to be of size and shape to be approved by architect, 
and are to have key-plate escutcheon. 

(/) Sash-fasts, lifts, and flush-pulls are to lie of approved make 
and of finish to match door trims. 

(f) Provide Climax stop adjuster for all inside lieads of sash. 
(A) Transom sash are to be hinged and to have " Solid Grip " 

transom rods of bronzed iron. 

(/) Provide two rows of bronze hooks for all closets. 
(/) Provide brass rubber-tipped door stops for all doors in 
building. 

{/.•) Provide bronze rail brackets for wall rails of staircases. 
(/) Provide all other hardware not specially mentioned, bolts. 

latches, scuttle fixtures, 
etc., as required or di- 
rected to complete the 
job. 

Sect. 32. Gas-Pip- 
ing. — Pipe for gas outlets 
as shown on plans in the 
best manner; all to be 
done in accordance with 
the regulations of the gas 
company, connecting 
with street supply, mak- 
ing meter connections, 
paying all charges, mak- 
ing whole complete ; all 
outlets to be capped. 
Sect. 33. Lathing 
.\ND Plastering. — («) The ceilings throughout addition are to be 
plastered directly on floor construction, and plastered ceilings where 
furred down [or where wooden floor construction is used] are to be 
lathed with No. 19 stiffened wire or " B " expanded metal lathing, 
securely fastened to metal furring strips [where wooden floor con- 
struction is used, the same is to be furred for ceilings with beveled 
Georgia pine strips], in best manner. 

(6) Wire-lath across all iron beams, lintels, vent ducts, or other 
openings in brick walls that are plastered directly on the brick, as 
required to make a thorough first-class job. 

(c) Wire-lath as above across all channel-irons in minor parti- 
tions. 

(t/) All furring is to be of iron. [This is only applicable to fire- 
proof construction.] 

(e) Minor partitions are to be constructed of studs of ^ by y» 
in. channel-iron, set 16 ins. on centers, fastened securely with staples 
or nails at top and bottom, and set true and straight. 

(/) .Attach " B " expanded metal or No. 20 galvanized Clinton 
wire-lath to front side of studs with No. 18 annealed wire; allow }4 
in. for grounds over face of lath on front of partition, and ^ in. 
over studs on back of partition, unless otherwise directed by the 
architect. 

(g) The channel-iron studs are to be securely fastened at top 
and bottom to cross pieces of 1 in. channel-iron. Channels at all 
openings to run to floor. 

{/t ) Grounds for doors and windows are to be set in position by 
carpenter before iron studs are set. 



MASS. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



229 



(/' ) These partitions are to be rodded true and straight, and be 
plastered with King's Windsor cement, or Adamant, or Higginson's 
Prepared Mortar, flush with grounds on both sides of partitions, and 
when finished to be 2 ins. thick; the iron framework to be braced 
with temporary wood bracing from the back of the partition to the 
floor; this bracing to be set by plastering contractor, furnishing iron 
and lath, and is to be removed by plastering contractor after the face 
of partition has been plastered, and plaster has set sufficiently hard 
to hold partition straight and true. 

(j) Wire on and securely fasten all necessary grounds and 
clamps for plumber's pipes, and 
for gas pipes and electric wire 
tubes, and for light fixtures. 

(k) Furnish and set i|^ by 
2 in. T iron frames for all doors 
in minor partitions. 

(/) All plastering to be the 
best three-coat work. 

{m) Plaster all walls through- 
out and ceilings, including base- 
ment ceiling, with same cement 
or mortar that is used on 
channel-iron partitions, lathed 
surfaces throughout, and all 
brick walls, where not otherwise 
specified or noted on plans. All 
to have grounds of proper thick- 
ness as directed by the architect. 

{n) Brick walls to be plas- 
tered directly on the brick. 
Mortar to be well keyed and 
hand floated. 

((>) Skim-coat plaster work, 
all to a true and even surface ; 
angles and arrises to be quarter- 
circle throughout both walls and 
ceilings, except in library and 
ofiice. 

(p) Plasterer to provide 
and set all fire-stops required by 
the building laws, protect all 
weight-bearing metal with plaster 
and wire lath as directed. 

{q) Run beads of English 
Keene's cement on Portland ce- 
ment backing, for all doors and 
window trims and jambs in plas- 
tered rooms, except in library 
and office. 

(r) Allow and pay the sum 
of [Blank] dollars for black- 
board surface, this price to in- 
clude the setting of same. 

{s) Do any required patch- 
ing at completion of the building 
and leave the entire plastering 
work clean and whole. 

(/) Clear away all plasterer's rubbish. 

Sect. 34. Pai.mting and Glazing. 
stop and sandpaper all woodwork. 

{b) Paint all exterior woodwork four coats of best lead and oil, 
the priming coat to be put on immediately after the work is in 
place. 

{c) Paint with three coats of lead and oil, heating and vent flues 
opposite all register openings. 

{d) Paint ironwork and all metal work four coats of [Blank] 
metal paint, in addition to the paint previously specified for the 
same ; colors and finish to be selected by the architect. 




SECOND FLOOR. 




FIRST FLOOR. 




{e) Paint with four coats of best lead and oil, in colors to be 
selected, all exposed brickwork of basement. 

if) All oil used to be linseed oil from best Calcutta seed ; lead 
to be [" Blank "] or [" Blank] Lead Works" best lead. Samples of 
the above are to be submitted for testing, and all paints are to be 
mixed at the building. 

ig) Paint window frames and sills all over, except hard pine, 
before they are delivered at the building. 

{h) Give parting and stop beads of windows one coat of oil and 
two coats of hard-oil finish. Grease pulley stiles with " beef's cod." 

{i ) All other finish, except 
where otherwise specified, is to 
be well filled and rubbed and is 
to have four coats of shellac, 
rubbed with pumice and oil to 
dead finish. All work about 
water-closets to have two coats 
of hard-oil finish with high gloss. 
{j) Mahogany stain inside 
of all exterior sash, and finish 
with one coat of shellac and two 
coats of hard-oil finish. 

(k) Finish all oak floors 
with coat of shellac and two 
coats of Butcher's Boston Polish 
in the best manner. "Hard pine 
floors are not to have painter's 
finish. 

(/) Paint all plastering to 
height of 7 ft. 6 ins. above the 
floor and all Keene's cement 
work four coats of lead and oil. 
Tint the walls above this height 
and all ceilings above basement 
with water color. 

{m) All colors to be given 
by the architect. 

(«) Glaze throughout with 
first quality, double thick Ger- 
man or Berkshire glass, well 
bedded, tinned, and puttied. The 
sashes must not be put in before 
the putty has hardened thor- 
oughly. The basement windows, 
ceiling lights, toilet-room doors, 
and wherever marked are to be 
glazed with fine ribbed glass. 

{o) Glaze with German glass 
as above the interior doors. 

ip) The entire work is to 
be left whole, clean, and com- 
plete. 



BASEMENT. 



GIBSON DISTRICT GRAMMAR SCHOOL, BOSTON, MASS 



- (a) Thoroughly putty- 



The effect of frost, which 
tends to disintegrate bricks and 
stone, can be determined by a 
very simple test; namely, by di- 
rect freezing, says the British Brickbuildej-. Let typical samples of 
the goods be chosen during frosty weather, and saturated with water, 
and then alternately frozen and thawed a dozen times or more. Now, 
if the samples to be tested are weighed dry, and the loss of weight by 
exfoliation determined also on the dry samples, the thing is accom- 
plished. It would be possible to create a standard of permanency 
by counting a given percentage of loss as unity (this would have to 
be chosen arbitrarily) and then referring other percentages of loss 
to it. Thus might be created a scale of permanency, and when 
about to enter into a contract this might be referred to just in the 
same way as the resistance to crushing strain is now quoted. 



230 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




FIG. 67. 



Terra-Cotta Balustrading. 

BY THOMAS CUSACK. 

IN further elucidation of this subject, we give at Fig. 67 one sec- 
tion of parapet balustrading, which, whether by accident or good 
intention, proved well within the capabilities of the material in which 
it was made. This is due to the harmonious relationship of the 
members, also to the nice ratio of voids and solids obtained in fix- 
ing the size of these members. In this way a uniform shrinkage 
was secured, equalizing the strain during that critical process. The 
piece before us is 2 ft. 6 ins. by 3 ft., and but 4 ins. in thickness. 
There was no difficulty experienced in the execution of a score such 
pieces, and the size might have been increased considerably (had 
that been necessary) without incurring serious risk. With a thick- 
ness of 6 ins., single pieces such as this would be quite practicable 
up to, say, 3 by 4 ft.; even at that size, we doubt whether the limit 
would be reached. 

At Fig. 68 we have a piece of balcony balustrade of the same 
general character. It is set up temporarily in connection with the 

dies and capping the better 
to illustrate both design 
and construction. Intrue- 
ness of line, as in other 
points of mechanical excel- 
lence, this work will bear 
comparison with the best 
cut stone. As for price, 
where two or more such 
balconies are required, it 
ceases to be a question of 
comparison, and becomes 
one of contrast. We com- 
mend these facts to the 
consideration alike of those 
who seek adequate returns on a given investment, and to those en- 
trusted with the beneficial expenditure of that which belongs to others. 
The balcony and parapet balustrading to which attention has 
been directed in The Brickbuilder for September, as also in the 
foregoing illustrations, are all associated with classic, or with some 
phase of Renaissance architecture. For the remaining example in 
that class of work, a distinct type of Gothic has been selected; from 
which it will be seen that pierced curvilinear forms, however 
elaborate, are well within the capabilites of burned clay. Indeed, we 
may go farther and say that, in comparison with stone, the advantages 
in favor of the plastic material will be found in proportion to the 
intricacy of the design. This becomes obvious on taking the actual 
value of the stone in the rough, adding to it the cost of punching 
out the voids through a thickness varying from 4 to 8 ins. Thus 
far we get the subject in outline only. An expert stone-cutter has 
yet to mold all the members, to quirk out the intersections, and cut 
a variety of cinctures before it is complete. In figuring out the 
relative cost, it will be well to remember that, in stone, all this is done 
by the persistent, laborious use of mallet and chisel; finally, that the 
man who handles these tools is — -as indeed he ought to be — one of 
the highest paid mechanics employed in connection with building. 
Gothic tracery in stone is therefore a luxury, reserved for the few 
who can afford it. Executed in burned clay, it comes within the 
reach of all builders wise enough to seek an embodiment of the 
artistic with the utilitarian elements of architecture, therein to be ob- 
tained at reasonable cost. Here we have the sound democratic 
doctrine of Mill — " the greatest good of the greatest number " — 
fittingly perpetuated. 

In the production of pierced work in terra-cotta, whether 
bounded by straight or curvilinear lines, the operations just referred 
to are reversed from the outset. Even to cutting the profile of 
a molding in zinc, the part that a stone-cutter throws away as useless 
is indispensable to the terra-cotta maker. Mounted on a wood back- 



ing, it becomes his templet, from which the same molding is run with 
but little effort in a semi-fiuid and very mobile material. Advantage 
being taken of the quick setting and adhesive properties of plaster, 
an equally rapid system of manipulation has been evolved. In this 
the expert plaster worker is guided by well-defined rules of procedure, 
all of which have been suggested to him from time to time by the 
peculiar action of the material in which he works. Chief among 
these is the principle of casting, wherever possible, as distinguished 
from carving in the solid. Hence the plaster model, no less than the 
mold to be taken from it, assumes the desired shape during ihe proc- 
ess of setting, and before the mobile mass has solidified. It may, 
therefore, be said that the resulting molds represent the least 
possible expenditure of raw material, of time, and of mechanical 
effort. So much for the preliminan,- steps of procedure ; which, 
like the working drawings, are but well-devised instruments of ser- 
vice, — a means to an end, not to be confounded with the end itself. 
In producing the actual pieces of terra-cotta from these easily 
prepared molds, the conditions are not less favorable. The raw 
material covers a goodly share of the earth's surface. Its abundance, 
variety, and wide distribution make it available for all time at a 
nominal cost. The facility with which it can be pressed into shape 
is proverbial ; for here, too, the process is strictly plastic throughout. 
From thirty to fifty pieces may be produced from each mold, with- 
out the aid of any tool whatever, beyond the use of a man's hands. 
It is a fact, worthy of more than passing notice, that work such as 
shown in the accompanying illustrations was /w/ hammered out of 
rock by oft-repeated blows and knocks, " but molded in soft clay, 
that unresisting yields itself to the touch." The last dozen words 
show that this easy facility of execution appealed to the poetic 
imagination of Longfellow no less strongly than it does to the most 
prosaic of practical men, to whom " time is money." To the fully 
equipped and qualified architect it should have a twofold signifi- 
cance ; for in him we expect to find these qualities of temperament 
and training united to an extent unlooked for in the members of any 
other profession. 

Considerations such as these, however, do not always occur to 
an architect engrossed, it may be, in the early stages of his project, 
or in time to enable his client to profit by their acceptance. When 
the question of cost comes up, as sooner or later it is likely to do, 
the man who is expected to foot the bills may have something to say. 
To him it then becomes a question as to whether he will pay for 




FIG. 68. 

these embellishments in stone, or, perhaps, abandon them altogether. 
If, at this juncture, he be not guided aright through intervening 
doubts and difficulties by his professional adviser, a still worse fate 
is in store for him. He may, in a moment of weakness, rushing to 
the opposite extreme, perpetrate a sham in sheet metal for which he 
will afterwards hold his architect primarily responsible. 

In the interest alike of architect and owner, we propose to show 
that features such as these can be executed in a material more endur- 
ing than stone, and at a comparatively low cost. These fundamental 
facts are becoming known to our leading architects, and, which is 



J 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



231 




FIG. 70. 



more to the point, are being put to the test with results that must, in the 
nature of things, create an ever-increasing demand in quarters where 

it did not formerly exist. 
While enlarging upon the 
duties and responsibilities 
of architects, it must not be 
forgotten that those resting 
upon the manufacturers are 
not less urgent and exact- 
ing. They were outlined 
somewhat freely by the 
present writer in the first 
of these papers (i5RiCK- 
liUiLDER, May, 1895), in 
words that have not lost 
their original meaning be- 
cause of anything that has 
happened since they were written. We shall take the liberty of 
reprinting them without transposition or abbreviation.' 

In this connection, we would call special attention to Figs. 69 
and 70 ; one showing the construction, the other a view of three 
pieces of Gothic balustrading, set together to illustrate the preceding 
diagram. It will be seen that the shaft by which these two alternat- 
ing designs are, apparently, separated is made to lap in such way as 
to unite them, at the same time rendering the one and only joint 
practically invisible. In short sections the diagonal stays would not 
be needed ; but as this was one of considerable length, they were 
added as a safeguard against lateral vibration. The spacing of 
these sections was, of course, fixed arbitrarily by the design, but the 
jointing and general construction were entrusted to the terra-cotta 
manufacturer. They might — by some makers would — have been 
subdivided into an aggregation of small pieces, on the erroneous 
supposition that this would mean less risk and less responsibility. 
That notion, originating in the unfortunate experience of some who 
are no longer engaged in the business, is far too prevalent, and 
though the originator may have passed from the scene of activity, the 
impressions so created survive with characteristic perversity. Misin- 
formation of this kind has given rise to needless misconception on the 
part of architects, and is still highly prejudicial to the use of terra- 
cotta in general. It has been truly said that " time makes more converts 
than reason " ; yet we have hastened to correct some of these false im- 
pressions, and shall continue to do so as opportunity permits, trusting to 
time for much that we must necessarily fail to accomplish. A learned 
writer has justly remarked that, " He only can rightly guide others in 
the paths of knowledge, he only can know whether his predecessors went 
right or wrong, who is capable of a judgment independent of theirs." 
We know that " a long habit of not thinking a thing wrong 
gives it a superficial appearance of being right " ; therefore, a few 
facts bearing upon the present example may help to remove the 
debris of some antiquated and exploded notions to which far too 
much credence has been given. In dealing with it, it will be seen 
that an opinion, altogether at variance with that indicated in the pre- 
ceding paragraph, prevailed as to jointing from the outset. This 
work was made in single pieces, not because the architects had made 
any stipulation in that direction, nor yet as an empiric test of an 
abstract theory, but voluntarily, advisedly, and by preference. 
First : Because it is incomparably better to have it in that way, not 
only on the score of appearance, but also on the grounds of simplicity 
in setting and because of its greater stability once it has been set. 
Second : We are prepared to affirm that it will cost less, when made 
in the way indicated, than it would if jointed into smaller pieces. 
Third : Rational methods being adopted, the risks attending the manu- 

' Badly made terra-cotta is bad for everybody, irrespective of who bears the odium of 
being its godfather. By the same rule, a well-done job is a universal benefit, no matter who 
may be entitled to the credit of having stood sponsor for it. The better the work, the more 
will it be used and the wider will be the advantages that accrue. Thus does the question 
become one of public concern. Its enemies are of its own household. It lies with the 
mannfacturers of terra-cotta themselves, more than with any other part of the community, 
to hasten or retard its manifest destiny as the popular building material of the future. 



facture of reasonably large pieces are reduced to a minimum — we 
might almost say a minus quantity. While these facts are sufficiently 
conclusive, it may be added that beyond the exact number of pieces 
called for, it was not considered necessary to make an " over " ; nor was 
one required. As in larger blocks, previously described, these came 
from the kiln without a flaw. With hundreds of successful examjjles 
in reserve, we invite the attention of architects and owners to what 
has been said on behalf of advance practise, in which the bugbears 
of other days have become obsolete. 

A pertinent observation left on record by Bacon occurs to us at 
this point, — one that is capable of a wider application than its author 
intended: " The amount of ill-written literature is not diminished by 
ceasing to write, but by writing others, which, like Aaron's serpent, shall 
swallow up the spurious." So, too, the amount of ill-constructed and 
poorly made terra-cotta is not improved by allowing men who are 
notoriously blind to constitute themselves leaders of the blind, but 
by producing work the superior excellence of which will force them 
to seek a less hurtful way of obtaining a livelihood. 

From pierced double-faced balustrading to geometrical tracery 
is but a step, and the transition in such a case naturally suggests it- 
self. What is practicable in the one is equally so in the other, for 
the prevailing conditions are identical. Nearly all that has been said 
in reference to the former will hold good in the latter case, and, so 
far as it goes, may now be emphasized without being repeated. 
There may be an opportunity during the coming year in which to 
say something on church architecture in materials of clay. In that 
case, a more extensive use of terra-cotta tracery will be urged in the 



Wt&THtREO JOirlT.^ 

rioTE . 

Iri'/ISIQI.E VeRTlCAL 

ToirtTs OF Tracery. ^^. 

'\ 
CEMTERS 

• - 2 ' I '- -^- - - 2 ' 



- PLfttl- 



Tit ROD AT E.VERY 
THIRD JOltlT. 
(6 '■ 3"cEnTER5.) 



- C0RT11CE 




CHURCH or STn/VRY- 

- West 46'-^ ST, M.Y. 

N Le Brun iS- Sons 
Architects 



3CALE m TEET 



- SECTlOrt ■ 



ftr^.^. ^. 



ii{;. 69. 

light of accompanying illustrations ; none of them formulated in 
support of new-fangled theories, but all taken from recently executed 
work, or from that which is entitled to yet greater respect, because 
of its survival in the face of time and the elements. 



232 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



An Example of Fire-proof Church 
Architecture. 

To THE Publishers of The Brickbuildek : — I have ex- 
perienced much gratification in having found in my own city a 
building in course of erection in which fire-proof material is beinj^ 
used in the main structure of a work of art, without in any way 
violating the traditional usages of the greatest period of historical 




ST. Paul's church, Chicago. 

From Plaster Model. 

architecture. It must be confessed that in many respects the dis- 
cussion of the problem, how to make buildings fire-proof, has little 
in it to satisfy esthetic aspirations, and unless it can point the way 
to a realization of that which will satisfy the eye as well as utilitarian 
needs, it soon becomes a dull subject as well to the 
average reader as to the writer. But when a fire-proof 
material becomes the essential part of a beautiful 
building, fire-proofing may w-ell be recognized as a 
fine art as well as a science. It was with these 
thoughts that 1 first beheld the new St. Paul's ( R. C.) 
Church, now about half completed, and concluded 
that it was destined to be the beginning of a fire- 
proof architecture in every sense of the term, and 
consequently an object of interest to the readers of 
The Brickbuilder. 

This church is located on the southwest corner 
of Hoyne Avenue and 22d Place, in a quarter west 
of the lumber district mainly inhabited by a poor 
but industrious class of mechanics of German birth 
from the Rhine and Moselle provinces. The pastor 
of this flock is Rev. G. D. Heldmann, a native of 



Chicago. He was the founder of the parish. The architect and 
master of all the work is Henry J. Schlacks. also a native of Chicago, 
and now in his thirty-first year. 

This church has reached the full height of the main walls, and 
the steel framework of the roof is in course of erection. It is de- 
signed and built according to the distinctive characteristics of thir- 
teenth-century church architecture, and the material, wherever possible 
to use clay products, is ^w,<-, both outside and inside; whether for 
walls, groined ceilings, roofing material, interior finish, terra-cotta 
ornamentation and tracery, or flooring : all is some product of 
clay. The only exceptions are a granite water table surrounding 
the whole building (for it is a finished work on all sides), I-beams 
and concrete arches for the floor, small granite shafts with cap- 
itals and bases between the main vaulting piers, and a steel struc- 
ture to support the tiled roof. There will be no wood, and 
consequently nothing to burn in the structure or finish, and all the 
seats and furniture will be movable. The doors will probably be 
of bronze, while the windows, the designs for which are yet to be 
decided upon, will be the best product of American artists in 
stained glass, set into the grooves of the terra-cotta tracery. It is 
only to be added that the pressed brick of the exterior and in- 
terior, most of which is molded (the same forming all the ribs and 
groins of the vaulted ceiling), is all fire brick, at which point my 
description of the fire-proof qualities of this edifice ends, and as 
such it is as nearly perfect as possible. 

Other interesting facts will be given in the words of the 
architect, which I have soUcited. as follows: '-In December. 
1896, Father Heldmann came to me and said he wanted to build 
a new church during the year 1897. We discussed the needs of 
the parish, and he asked me to make preliminary studies, which 
I did along conventional lines, occupying about three weeks, but 
not to my own satisfaction. We then discussed the possibility 
of building a church which would appeal to the affections of the 
people of the congregation by presenting something similar to 
those churches they had seen in the old country. They had 
mostly come from the valley of the Moselle, where the churches, 
which I had fortunately seen, had rough interiors, never intended 
to be plastered. At first we decided to build a church similar 
to the Cathedral of Treves, but on account of the great cost of 
finishing the interior with stone, the idea of building the whole, 
inside and outside, of brick was suggested by me. A brick in- 
terior was a novelty to Father Heldmann, though 1 knew they 
were doing it in Germany, and remembered particularly the 
success of this kind of building by Prof. Johannes Otzen, of 
Berlin. 1 therefore decided at that early stage of the program 
to follow in his footsteps. I also decided if possible to have 
the building vaulted with brick, which I believe has not been 
heretofore done with church edifices in this country. Of course, 
the scheme was to avoid all necessity for plastering, and this made 
it still more difficult. The plan was then settled upon, that is: 
that the church should be cruciform in shape, with very narrow 




FLOOR PL.A.V. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



233 



aisles, to be used only for passage and processionals, leaving the 
nave unobstructed, and an ambulatory around the sanctuary. It 
was to have a large vestibule (narthex) vaulted, with organ loft, but 
no other galleries, two side chapels on the aisles, and two sacristies. 




, ST. Paul's church 



VIEW FROM THE^NORTHEAST (0CT015ER, I 

CHICAGO. 

the second one being behind the sanctuary, to connect with the 
cloister and pastor's house, to be hereafter erected, and a baptistry 
connected with the vestibule. When the scheme of brick construc- 
tion for the interior was practically and satisfactorily settled, the 
exterior presented a very difficult problem, that of combining the 
two towers and the auxiliary chapels that Father Heldmann 
wanted, with the style of architecture we had chosen for the interior. 
But I found my motive for the towers in the Cathedral of St. Cortin, 
at Quimper, France, which I had always greatly admired. I hold 
that an architect should always go to examples of a perfected style 
and work upward, if possible, from them, and not trust too much to 
his own invention, and I think that in this opinion I am upheld by 
the best men in the profession. By so doing we are following in the 
footsteps of the best precedents we have. All the best architecture 
of the Middle Ages was evolutionary; everything was a slight im- 
provement on something that had preceded it. 

" We then determined to erect the building without the inter- 
vention of contractors." 

" Why did you conclude to adopt that method ? " I asked. 

" Because we could find no builder in Chicago acquainted with 
the proposed method of construction, or who could give even an approx- 
imate estimate of the cost from my plans. At a meeting of the 
building committee, when these obstacles to a successful carrying out 
of the plans were discussed, the committee voiced the sentiments of 
Father Heldmann, expressive of his confidence in the architect, by 
deciding to let him carry out the work in his own way. There are 
many members of the congregation skilled in the different building 
trades, and this, together with the fact that at that time there was a 
general dulness in the building market, induced me to decide that, as 
far as possible, the parish should supply all the labor at current rates 
of wages, so that in many cases what a man contributed might come 
back to him. Tliis has been done, and with great success. It has 
aroused an interest and enthusiasm in the parish that would not 
otherwise have existed. As for the materials, we contract for them 
or buy them in the open market. 

" I was given all the necessary time to prejsare the plans, being 
not otherwise engaged at that time, and Ijefore the foundations were 
designed I had borings made on the site. These resulted in the 
surprising fact that there was rock under the church at a depth of 



only twenty feet below the street grade. I then decided to carry all 
the main piers and buttresses down to the rock, the intermediate 
walls being carried on arches. I also became confident that I could 
successfully build the whole church with a vaulted ceiling, as I 
would have no fear of settlement. As a result, we have 
had no anxiety whenever we wanted to change the loads. 
The pier foundation, however deeper it may be than if it 
had been on clay, was much less expensive. 

" My principal drawings were completed during the 
winter of 1896 and 1897, and we were able to commence the 
work in May, 1897. At that time I was fortunate in being 
able to procure the services of Mr. Paul F. P. Mueller, as 
superintendent of construction, his connection with a build- 
ing company having been broken off very suddenly. He 
has since had entire charge of the work on the building as 
my assistant, jjurchasing material and employing men, for 
which his previous education in the best building school in 
Europe, no less than his large experience in this country, 
has fitted him." 

Mr. .Schlacks gave many more interesting particulars of 
his experience, too extensive to be here repeated. 

I have also had a very interesting conversation with 
Father Heldmann, which I wish you had space enough to 
print in full, for it would be an admirable lecture, not only 
to architects, but to clergymen of his church. .So 1 will give 
only its general tenor. He said he had always been dissat- 
isfied with the meretricious ways in which Catholic churches 
had been built, and had made up his mind that if he ever 
built a church, it would be worthy to be called " the house 
of God," and should be an honest creation. His observation of what 
others had done had led him to learn what to avoid, but he had 
never had an opportunity to go to Europe and study either the per- 
fected cathedrals of the Middle Ages or some of the modern churches 
he had heard of. He had, however, been reminded by Mr. Schlacks 
of the successful work of Professor Otzen, in Berlin, which made 




INTERIOR, LOOKING TOWARD ORGAN LOFT (OCTOBER, 1898), 
ST. 1'AUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO. 



234 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



him think that he might be able to do as well. When he had 
accumulated sufficient funds to make a beginning, he and Mr. 
Schlacks had made a journev through most of the large cities of the 



ing with .sacred things. To combat this, and at the same time 
secure economy of cost, a course which has since been justified 
by results, it was decided that the new church should be of brick, 




DKTAIL OK AKCADIC MF.LOW ORGAX GALLERY, ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO. 



United States, East and West, to see what oiIkts had done. 
visited hundreds of 
churches, not confining 
themselves to those of 
the Catholic denomina- 
tion, and he was struck 
with the contrast be- 
tween some of the 
churches of the Epis- 
copal denomination and 
those of the Catholic. 
He said there was a sin- 
cerity of purpose in the 
Episcopal churches, and 
a truly religious char- 
acter in their architec- 
ture, materials, and con- 
struction, that he had 
failed to see in the 
American churches of 
his own faith. This is 
not different from the 
opinions held by many 
thoughtful architects. 
He was struck, not only 
by the unsubstantiality 
of modern churches, 
but their liability to be 
destroyed by fire. He 
had always had a dread 
of fire since the great 
event of 1871 in Chi- 
cago, which made a 
strong impression upon 
him in youth, and 
thought that the way 
churches were gener- 
ally built betrayed a 
great negligence in deal- 



They 



outside and inside, so far as possible. 




INTKRIOK OK ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO, LOOKING TOWARD ORGA.V LOFT. 

From Water Coiur. 



The rest he left to Mr. 
Schlacks, in whom he 
had found an echo of all 
his longings and desires. 
It was in seeking the 
best color of brick to 
satisfy the eye that they 
had chosen a. rich buff 
fire brick, which proved 
to be the cheapest that 
could be found to fulfil 
all the rec|uirements. such 
a s color, fire-resisting- 
qualities, and the nece.s- 
sity of being made in a 
great variety of shapes, 
so that it could form 
continuous moldings. He 
hoped that his new 
church would not only be 
an educator for his own 
people, but would become 
an object lesson to all 
who might come after 
him. He could not 
speak too highly of Mr. 
Schlacks, who has de- 
voted nearly his whole 
invaluable time to the 
work, and who was in 
entire sympathy with him 
in his aspirations. 

A few statistics will 
be necessary to make this 
description complete. 
The outside dimensions 
are as follows : width 
over towers, 76 ft. 4 ins. ; 
width over transept, 103 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



235 




IJKTAIL, WINDOW OF NAVE, ST. PAULS CHURCH, CHICAGO. 

ft.; length, 183 ft.; length, including sacristy, 203 ft. The 
heights are : from floor to under side of nave vaulting, 65 ft. ; 
from floor to under side of transept vaulting at center, 73 ft. ; 
sanctuary vaulting, 58 ft. The interior dimensions are : width 
of nave to axis of piers, 42 ft.; width, including aisles, 59 ft. 
6 ins.; width at axis of transept, 93 ft. The height to ridge 
of roof outside is 100 ft. ; the two towers are each to be 245 ft. 
high. A terrace i ft. 6 ins. high above the sidewalk sur- 
rounds the whole. 

The pressed brick and molded brick are made by the 
Webster Brick Company, of Webster, Ohio. The plain faces 
of exterior walls are of common brick. When completed, the 
entire interior walls and piers will show Webster brick, of 
which also all transverse wall arches and groins of the ceil- 
ings will be made. The wide splay of the chancel arch, and 
a similar splay to the arch over the organ gallery, as well as 
all spandrels of arches and panels now shown on the walls as 
common, will be filled with glass pictorial mosaic on gold 
grounds. The vaulting cells forming the filling in of the 
groined vaulting are of three thicknesses of flat tiles set edge 
to edge. The first course forming the ceiling is of 6 by 6 by 
}( ins. nearly white porcelain tiles, with borders next to the 
vaulting ribs 6 ins. wide of encaustic tiles of the same size, 
in colors, so that the whole ceiling will be decorated. The 
two outer courses are of ^ in. fire-clay tiles. The sculptured 
"eyes" in the vaulting and capitals of all colonnettes in the 
interior are of terra-cotta, made similar in color to the brick. 
All the vaulting is quadripartite and domical, thus avoiding all 
such tours de force of the medieval builders as have mys- 
tified some modern critics. All exterior terra-cotta, consisting 
of the window tracery, crockets, finials, copings, and crosses, 
are of similar terra-cotta, used, however, only where it has been 
impossible to use brick. Many of the pieces, especially for 



interior work, where subjected to great pressure, are cast and burned 
solid. All of this work is furnished by the Northwestern Terra- 
Cotta Company. The floor will be finished with encaustic tiles laid 
on the concrete arches. All exterior walls are hollow. There is a 
deep basement under the whole, which will be utilized by the heat- 
ing and ventilating apparatus. This will, by regularly changing the 
air within the church, prevent all danger of sweating during the 
warm days of spring. The roof will be covered with Ludowici red 
tiles, made in Chicago, similar to those on the German Government 
Building at Jackson Park. 

No metal or wood will enter into the construction of tlie twin 
spires. They will be built of brick, the walls being 12 and 8 ins. 
thick, and the crockets and crosses of terra-cotta. 

In conclusion, let me say that the chief interest that attaches to 
this remarkable building is, not so much that it is an example of 
good architecture, truthful construction, and moreover thoroughly 
fire-proof, or not even because it is a wonderful example of construc- 
tion with brick; it might not be either of these were it not for the 
fact that it is an architect's building and not a contractor's building. 
Or it might be said that it is a builder's building, and the builder was 
also the architect. It demonstrates that what was done in the 
twelfth, thirteenth, and fourteenth centuries can be done in the nine- 
teenth, in the same way, and with the same results. The whole 
work is a labor of love from beginning to end. The modern com- 
mercial idea is entirely obliterated. What is more, it has proceeded 
far enough to demonstrate that this method is the most economical in 



INTEKIOR OK ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO, LOOKING TOWARD SAI 

From Water Color. 



236 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



practise, and gives the largest results for the least 
cost. The wildest estimates have been made by out- 
siders of what it will cost. Those who are building 
it know now what this will be, but I will not attempt 
to repeat their figures. It does not concern the 
public. 

The illustrations that I have procured consist 
mainly of one exterior and one interior photograph 
of the work in its present condition. The latter 
shows the method of interior construction and the 
groined vaulting over the organ gallery completed. 
It also shows the wall arch above it of 40 ft. clear 
span standing free. Mr. Schlacks had this built to 
satisfy some of the congregation that he could do it 
with safety; and it has stood without any other sup. 
port for a month past. Another view is from the 
plaster model showing the completed church from the 
northwest, but much of the detail has been changed 
since it wa.s made. The method of building admits 
of improvements in the design being made as the 
work progresses without extra expense. There are 
two interior views from drawings showing the com- 
pleted building ; also photographs of one of the 
crosses for the front entrance and one finial. Be- 
sides these I send you a ground plan and some of 
the detail drawings of the brickwork that are well 
worthy of study on the part of those who are inter- 
ested, especially in the construction of window 
tracery with terra-cotta. I'eter H. Wight. 



PRESERVING RECORDS OF FOUNDA- 
TIONS. 

THERE are foundations and foundations, and 
though the average builder's foreman will be 
very ready to declare that earth that looks solid will 
hold, in an expressive phrase, all that you can put on 





IJETAIL, WINDOW OF TRANSEPT. ST. PAUL'S CHURCH, CHICAGO. 



)ETAIL, MAIN ENTRANCE. CENTER OPENING, ST. PAUL'S CHI;RCH, CHICAGO. 



it, every one who has studied foundations knows that the con- 
trary is very often the case. We have seen bottom which had 
every appearahce of being the hardest, firmest kind of dry, 
gravelly clay, but which upon investigation proved to be simply 
a thin layer of such clay over a relatively soft and yielding 
earth. 

The practise ought to be rigidly adhered to of always 
sinking test pits before laying the foundations of a heavy 
building. It is a simple thing to have borings made to a 
depth of 20 or 30 ft. below the sidewalk, and there ought to 
be below the bottom foundation a layer of suitable hearing 
stratum at least 5 ft. thick, and of course the thicker the 
better. Furthermore, it is a wise precaution to not only have 
the borings made, but to reserve samples of the soil, and when 
the trenches are dug it is a good idea to have careful photo- 
graphs taken from one or two points so as to show the char- 
acter of the soil. This may prove very useful in case of sub- 
sequent additions or changes in the building, especially if such 
changes involve added loads. Also in large city buildings, 
when one structure is to be carried down below the adjoin- 
ing cellars, it is well to take very careful photographs and 
measurements of the existing adjoining foundations, which 
are very often found not to be as secure as the neighbors 
imagined. These photographs, together with samples of the 
actual earth taken from several points about the building, 
would form valuable data to which the constructor could refer 
with perfect confidence. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



237 



PHYSICAL TESTS OF PORTLAND CEMENT. 

BY CLIFFORD RICHARDSON. 

As with the natural cements, we are accustomed to judge of the 
character of various kinds of Portland cement by certain physical tests 
as well as by their chemical composition. 

In the following table are given the results of the physical ex- 
amination of certain specimens which illustrate the various types of 
high-grade Portland cement now found in our market and recently 
tested in the author's laboratory. 

PHYSICAL TESTS OF THE BEST BRANDS OF PORTLAND CEMENT 
OF VARIOUS ORIGIN. 



Country. 
Brand. 



Residue on 200 mesh 
If I) 100 ,t 

■'. . . " 50 .. 

Set, initial 

,, liard. 

Water for neat mortar 

,, ,, sand ,, 
Tensile Strength : 

Neat, I day 

7 days - 

28 „ 

3 months .... 
QuariZt j parts : 

7 days 

28 „ 

3 months- ■ ■ . 
Crushing Strength , 

Neat, 7 days 

28 „ 

3 months 

Qiiartz, J parts : 

7 days 

28 „ 

3 months 



German. 


Danish. 


English. 
Brooks 


Belgian. 

High 
Grade. 


American. 


American. 


Gerniania. 


Alsen. 


& 
Shoobridge 


High Grade 


Ordinary. 


25-9 


21.0 


23.0 


23.0 


140 


23.6 


6.0 


4 


7.0 


lo.o 


■•5 


6.8 


trace 


trace 


t.o 


I.O 


trace 


.8 


3 hrs. 25' 


3 hrs 


1 hr. 45' 


3 hrs. 


4 hrs. 25' 


2 hrs. 


7 hrs. 40' 


7 hrs. 


''''\li 


6 hrs. 


6 hrs. 20' 


4 hrs. 45' 


20% 
•0% 


20% 


20% 


"^Z° 


■9% 


10% 


9% 


■ 0% 


9% 


9% 










376 


260 


656 


560 


596 


626 


84a 


496 


687 


666 


464 


638 


974 
946 


678 
740 


160 


2S2 


1 20 


226 


280 


162 


230 


262 


192 


306 


3'4 
494 


2l8 

244 


5.458 


6,056 


4,725 


5,091 


10,280 


5,500 


6,695 


6,761 




7.256 


11,822 
13,250 


7.4>2 

5.787 


1,659 


1,32' 


634 


1,601 


1,762 


1,042 


1,700 


2,'57 




2,142 


2,990 
2,923 


1,712 
2,100 



Ordi- 
nary. 



6.8 



25' 
I hr. 
20% 

9% 



350 
790 



364 



4,950 
4,400 



2,137 
2,500 



The results of the preceding tests show that the Portland 
cements are distinguished from the natural cements, in addition to 
differences in characteristics which have already been mentioned, by 
their slower set, except among some of the inferior brands, and their 
more rapid acquisition of strength, which is largely completed in from 
seven to twenty-eight days, although continuing to increase for a 
year or more. Mortars made with Portland cement are much 
denser and less porous than those of natural cement, due to the 
greater specific gravity of the cement itself and to the smaller volume 
of water required. 

Amongst themselves the various brands of Portland cement 
differ very considerably, especially if the inferior Belgian, English, 
and American cements are included, and more so than would be ex- 
pected where the limits of composition are so small. The best Ger- 
man Portland cement can, without doubt, be taken as the standard of 
what is most desirable. When such a cement is mixed with three 
parts of standard sand it yields a mortar which, according to the re- 
quirements of the Association of German Cement Manufacturers, 
should have a tensile strength of over 227 lbs. per square inch and a 
crushing strength of 2,275 'bs. per square inch in twenty-eight days, 
when preserved one day in air and twenty-seven in water of normal 
temperature. Generally much higher results are obtained in Ger- 
many, as may be seen from the results of a test of a sample of 
German Portland given by Professor Tetmajer, which are as fol- 
lows : — 

SAND MORTAR. I TO 3. 

Tensile. Crushing. 

7 days 318 2,824 

28 „ 398 4,082 

3 months 434 4,228 

7 „ 443 5,004 

I year 605 5,429 

Most of the German cements found in our markets fail to reach 
the high standard, especially of crushing strength, seen in this sam- 
ple, but the best ones reach the limits which have been mentioned, 



while the highest grade American cements frequently exceed them, 
except in crushing strength. The lower results obtained here are 
very largely due to the differences in the methods of testing em- 
ployed in the two countries, and not entirely to the nature of the 
cements themselves. 

American cements in some cases have an excessively high ten- 
sile strength at early stages of the hardening process without increas- 
ing in strength after a few months, or even deteriorating after that 
time. This seems to be a peculiarity of the rotary furnace cements, 
while those burned in kilns are more like the similarly prepared 
German and Danish products, which gain their tensile strength 
more slowly, but continue to do so for a long time without reverting. 
It is plain, therefore, that a cement giving the highest results in ten- 
sile strength, especially in the neat form, at an early age, may not 
be the strongest in this respect after longer periods of time. It will 
be noticed, however, that the results obtained in tests of the same 
cement for crushing strength in the form of sand mortar may con- 
tinue to increase when there is a decrease in the tensile strength and 
crushing strength in neat mortar after some time. The importance 
of long-time tests and of determinations of crushing as well as ten- 
sile strength are, therefore, apparent in judging of the character of 
any particular brand. 

Our Portland cements are quite as well ground as those which 
we import, and often are much finer, in the best brands over 80 
per cent, passing a sieve of two hundred meshes to the inch and 
from ninety-five to ninety-eight passing a one hundred mesh sieve. 
Considering the increased value of finely ground cement, this is an 
important consideration. 

VOLUME CONSTANCY OR SOUNDNESS. 

An important determination and consideration in judging a 
Portland cement is whether it is sound and will not change its vol- 
ume on age and exposure, losing, at the same time, its strength and 
coherence. This is usually considered in making tests of cements. 
It appears from the results of our experiments that many second and 
third grade cements are not satisfactory in this respect, as some of 
them check and deteriorate under the conditions of the test. A 
good Portland cement should show no signs of deterioration in sand 
mortar even after considerable periods of time, and although it is 
impossible to always wait for long intervals to settle this point, 
there are forms of tests which can be so accelerated as to give a 
result from which more immediate conclusions may be drawn, and 
it is important that these tests be applied. The best brands, both of 
foreign and domestic cement, generally prove satisfactory in volume 
constancy, and when preserved in the form of pats with thin edges 
for a long time in water, or when the test is accelerated by heat, sel- 
dom show any signs of cracking or checking. As the supply of 
cement of such a quality is plentiful it seems undesirable to use any 
that will not pass the test, although it may prove unjust in a few 
instances if applied severely. The methods of making the tests we 
shall describe later. 



Efflorescence on brickwork may, according to Professor 
Giinther, of the University of Rostock, England, "come either from 
the bricks or from the mortar. While incrustations of calcium car- 
bonate do no harm beyond spoiling the appearance of the work, sol- 
uble alkali salts repeatedly dissolve and recrystallize in the cracks, 
ultimately producing disintegration. To prevent these incrustations, 
pyrites and sulphates can either be removed by the slow process of 
seasoning the clay by prolonged exposure to the weather before 
making up into bricks, or by adding barium salts to the clay before 
burning, so as to produce the insoluble barium sulphate. Another 
remedy is the prevention, in continuous kilns, of the oxidation of the 
sulphur present in the clay or coal beyond the stage of sulphurous 
acid ; which may be effected by limiting the air supply. Finally, 
the bricks should be very thoroughly burnt, since in this state they 
are less disposed to absorb the moisture necessary for the extraction 
of the soluble salts." — S'lg- Record, 



2.38 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Masons' Department. 



SOME MISTAKES OF CONTRACTORS AS VIEWED BY 
AN ARCHITECT. 

BY F. E. KIUDER. 

{Couthn<ed.) 

THE writer is now supervising the completion of a building, 
the architect of which lost his health soon after work was 
commenced, and died when the building was about half completed. 
When the first bids were received they brought the price beyond the 
amount available, and the architect endeavored to reduce the cost 
by omitting some portions and changing the materials. 

As the work has progressed much annoyance has arisen from 
the contractors claiming that they had certain verbal agreements 
with the architect which were not incorporated in the plans and 
specifications nor mentioned to the building committee. One sub- 
contractor claims that to do the work according to the jjlans, specifi- 
cations, and details will cost him three hundred dollars more than 
what he figured on doing. The writer, as superintendent, has only 
the plans and specifications to govern him, and, of course, the owners 
expect him to see that the work is executed in accordance with 
them. 

.Nothing having been said to the building committee about any 
of these changes, they naturally believe that none not shown on the 
plans were contemplated. Consequently, the contractor must com- 
ply with the drawings and specifications or forfeit his bond. 

This is mentioned for the purpose of illustrating the impor- 
tance of having everything in "black and white." It is true, a great 
deal of business is done on verbal contracts, and often without 
trouble, but it cannot be said to be a safe way of doing business, 
and, as a rule, is wholly unnecessary : even if the parties concerned 
are perfectly trustworthy, life is very uncertain, and death may bring 
about unexpected situations. 

If the tracings, when handed to the contractor, are not in ac- 
cord with the drawings on which the contract is based, or with the 
specifications, then is the time to require that they be corrected, and 
not after the work is commenced. 

When once the work is under way it is poor policy to complain 
that more is required than was figured on, or that he, the contractor 
has taken the work too cheap. .Such complaints seldom do any 
good, and often injure the reputation or standing of the contractor. 
Huilding contractors are also often very careless in making con- 
tracts with one another ; the usual contract being merely the verbal 
acceptance of a bid, and even the latter is not always put in writing, 
or if in writing, not in a proper form. It has always seemed to the 
writer, that of all business men, building contractors and subcon- 
tractors are the most careless about their business affairs. This is 
probably due, largely, to the fact that they are generally pretty well 
acquainted with each other, and have, perhaps, done business to- 
gether several times in this loose fashion with satisfactory results. 
Then, too, writing materials are not always at hand for making a 
contract, and the amount is simply jotted down in a note-book, and 
the rest left to a verbal understanding or to custom. 

Again, many people, and they are not all contractors, appear to 
have the idea that to request a written contract or a written order 
implies distrust. This certainly does not follow, as even where 
both parties to a business transaction have the highest sense of 
honor, there is often a chance for a misunderstanding, or one party 
may have in his mind something different from tliat in the mind of 
the other, which, when the contract is put in writing, would be brought 
out. Again, in making a verbal contract one is lialsle to forget some 
important provisions or conditions which would not be so readily 
overlooked in making a written contract. No honest person can 



object to put in writing that which he has promised verbally, and in 
case of the failure or death of either party, a written contract will 
save many complications. Even written contracts are sometimes 
interpreted differently by the different parties thereto, is the writer 
has found in his own experience, but they are far more satisfactory 
than verbal ones. 

The contracts between contractor and subcontractor need not 
be as elaborate as that between owner and contractor, the principal 
points to be defined being the money consideration, terms of pay- 
ment, what is to be done and when it is to be done, and that 
it is to be done according to the plans and specifications. A 
contract embodying these points with sufficient clearness can be 
printed and put up in pads, of a size that can be carried in the 
pocket, and an indelible pencil or fountain pen can be used for filling 
them out. The written acceptance of a bid, if the bid embodies the 
points above mentioned, usually makes a sufficient contract, especially 
if the bid allows a fair profit on the work. It is in those cases where 
the work is taken at too low a figure that a contract is most neces- 
sary, at least to the general contractor. 

Another serious mistake often made by contractors is in caus- 
ing the architect unnecessary trouble, annoyance, and loss of time. 
We believe that nearly all contractors will admit that the good-will 
of the architects is of some financial value to them, and yet many 
contractors act as though it made no difference to the architect 
whether the work drags or not, or whether he has to send for the 
contractor several times to finish up his work or to get it ready so 
that other workmen may proceed, or has to settle disputes between 
the different contractors over some trivial matter. 

The architect receives, practically, a fixed price for his super- 
vision of the work, and if he has to visit the building for six 
months, when the work might as well be done in five, his expense 
of time and labor is increased 20 per cent. He cannot, therefore, 
be expected to desire a contractor to do his work that will make his 
own services expensive and laborious. 

.Some contractors, and more foremen also, often have the very 
annoying habit of urging some different way of doing the work from 
that shown or specified, and of haggling over little things, and some 
are even fond of advising the architect as to what will look best and 
how he might improve his design by making certain changes. 

Both of these habits are not relished by architects, and the 
writer believes result in a financial loss to the contractor, through 
loss of work and favors that might otherwise, perhaps, be extended. 
Contractors also often lose the favor of both architect and owner 
by their utter unconcern as to how the subcontractors under them 
do their work, and as to the materials which they supply. It is true 
that, in a great measure, the general contractor makes no profit on 
his subcontracts, and many apparently think that for this reason it 
is no concern of theirs how the subcontractor does his work, pro- 
vided it does not interfere with their own branch of the work, and 
manages to pass with the architect. This certainly is a mistaken 
idea, especially as it costs the general contractor little, or nothing, to 
keep a supervision over the different branches of the work and 
have them done right, thus securing a better building and saving 
the architect or his representative much trouble and annoyance. 
Contractors that do look after their subcontractors in this way 
stand much better with architects and owners, and are very likely to 
get a preference on account of it: they certainly are more likely to 
be invited to bid on work, while if they are notably negligent in this 
respect, they may not be given an opportunity to figure on another 
job, in the same office, at least. 

The writer does not mean to imply that all contractors make 
the mistakes herein noted, nor that these mistakes are confined to 
any particular line of contractors; but that one or more of them 
are made by a great many contractors, he knows from his own ex- 
perience, while he also believes that they can in a great measure be 
avoided, with benefit to the contractor, the architect, and the 
owner. 

( Continued.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



239 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — -Many report that they have more business in 
hand now, and in a hopeful state of negotiation, than has 
been the case since hostilities began with Spain. However, there 
will be no material revival until spring, when we hope all negotiations 
will be ended and all difficulties settled, in which case we can con- 
fidently predict that 1899 will be a great year for architects and 
builders. 

No one, not even the man who leans by preference to the se- 
curity market for his investments and for speculative diversion, ques- 
tions the superiority of New York real estate over all other forms 
of investment and speculation when the prices are right. This means 
always and invariably when the property, at the price at which it can 
be bought, produces reliably, year in and year out, a rental equal to 
the normal rate of interest on bonds. In this connection it will be 
interesting to watch the outcome of the four great blocks which are 
now on the market, located near St. Patrick's Cathedral, in the most 
exclusive section of the city. 

This is a phenomenal circumstance, and at the same time its 
cause is far from being detrimental to the real-estate interests of 




CAPITAL, PRESS HUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Standard Terra-Cotta Company. 

T. P. Chandler, Arcliitect. 

that region. That these four blocks in the very heart of the up-town 
district are in the market is mainly the result of the up-town business 
movement, and the consequent upward movement of public institu- 
tions. 

Two of the four blocks referred to belong to the Roman Catho- 
lic Orphan Asylum, one to the Women's Hospital, and the fourth to 
Columbia College. The taxpayers of the city will gain by the sale 
of these four blocks, as they are all now exempt from taxation, and 
as their sale will bring at 
least $6,000,000 worth of 
property under taxation. 

The last regular 
dinner and meeting of 
the Architectural League 
was unusually interest- 
ing. The subject was, 
"The Improvement of 
the Water Front of New 
York." Addresses were 
made by Major Wells, 
71st Regiment; Captain 
Taylor, of the battleship 
Indiana^ who received an 
ovation ; Messrs. Greene, 



Burr, and Morrison, prominent engineers; Messrs. Price, Harder, 
Thorpe, and Tilton, architects; and Messrs. Bush-Brown and Ruck- 
stuhl, sculptors. 

Among projected new buildings are : — 

Montrose W. Morris, architect, has prepared plans for two three- 




CAPITAL. 

Executed in terra-cotta by the Conkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta "Company. 

W. H. Allen, Architect. 

Story brick dwellings, to be built on Carrol Street, corner of West 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn ; cost, #45,000. 

Edward Wenz, architect, is preparing plans for four five-story 
brick flats, to be built on 1 1 7th Street, near Fifth Avenue ; cost, $80,000. 

James E. Ware & Son, architects, have prepared plans for a 
seven-story brick and stone apartment, to be built on West Central 
Park, near 94th Street; cost, $125,000. 

Frank W. Herter, architect, has plans for four five-story brick 
flats, to be built on 54th Street, near Lexington Avenue; cost, $175,000. 

Geo. F. Pelham, architect, has prepared plans for a five-story 
brick flat building, to be built on 1 38th Street, near Alexander Avenue ; 
cost, $25,000. The same architect has prepared plans for a six-story 
brick and stone apartment, to be built on 91st .Street; cost, $90,000. 

J. B. McElfatrick & Son, architects, have planned a brick 
theater and music hall, to be built on Seventh Avenue corner of 42d 
Street; cost, $50,000. 



C" 




TRADE-MARK PANEL, BUILDING FOR W. B. CONKEY CO., HAMMOND, 
Executed in terra-cotta by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Conii>any. 
George C. Nimmons, Architect. 



'HICAGO. — It is conceded that architects are feeling more en- 
couraged, probably because of the increase of sketches for 

prospective work, although it is a fact that as for actual work begun, 

as indicated by the taking out of permits, statistics show 8 per cent. 

decrease for the month as compared with even the poor business of 

the corresponding month last year. 

In October occurred the death of Chicago's pioneer architect. 

Mr. W. W. Boyington 
came to this city in 1853. 
The Grand Pacific Hotel 
was one of the older 
buildings which he de- 
signed. Among the best 
known of the recent 
buildings for which he 
stood sponsor was the 
Illinois Building at the 
World's Fair, and the Co- 
lumbus Memorial Office 
Building. 

In the list of archi- 
tects who appear to be 
busy is the name of F. 



240 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




BLOCK, WALNUT STREET, PJIILADELPHIA, PA. 
Cope & Stewardson, Architects. 



' now in hand " a school building, some 




Foltz, who includes in his 
residences, and factories. 

Frost & Granger 
have let contracts for a 
$250,000 union depot, at 
Omaha. The exterior 
will be mottled brick and 
the roof will be tile. 

Wilson & Marshall 
have some fine residences 
on their list. 

Robert Rae, Jr., is 
the designer of an im- 
portant apartment build- 
ing. 

A. G. Lund is de- 
signing a large apartment 
building, and John R. Stone is making working drawings for a row 
of houses. 

Dwight H. Perkins and Frank L. Wright are asso- 
ciated architects for a new church of especial interest. 

Recent happenings at the Chicago Architectural 
Club are as follows : Evening, October 24, " smoker," 
at which Messrs. Fritz Wagner and William D. Gates 
spoke on the subject of " Terra-Cotta as a Building 
Material " ; evening of October 31, " Hallowe'en " night 
was observed; evening of November 7, W. M. R. 
French, director of the Art Institute, gave a lecture on 
"The Value of a Line." This evening was also ob- 
served as "ladies' night"; evening of November 14, 
" smoker," at which Paul T. Potter spoke on " Plumb- 
ing in Buildings," and Henry Lord (iay on " Sewerage 
Disposal in Country Residences." 



PANEL, SCilOOL NO. 7, BAVONNE, N. J. 

Executed in terra-cotta by the New Jersey Terra-Cotta Company. 

Hugh Roberts, Architect. 



dwellings, mostly brick, are, however, being built, but a decided im- 
provement is looked for after the first of the year, and the general 
improvement in all lines seems to warrant this feeling. 

Possibly the most interesting item which has been noted lately 
was the announcement by Mr. Andrew Carnegie, at the exercises of 
Founder's Day at the Carnegie Institute, that as soon as arrange- 
ments could be perfected, he would place at the disposal of the 
trustees a sum, probably about $500,000, to be used in making an 
addition to the present building. The quarters occupied by the art 
galleries and the museum are badly crowded, and this addition has 
been greatly needed ; but while there have been rumors that Mr. 
Carnegie would build it, this was the first oflScial announcement of 
his purpose. 

The third annual art exhibit of the Carnegie Institute was opened 
to the public November 3. This has become an important event not 
only here but in Europe. Committees are chosen in a number of art 
centers, and all pictures, before they can be forwarded here, must 
meet with their approval. The jury of awards, elected by competing 
artists, consisted this year of eight American, one English, and one 
F"rench artist. 

The following items of new work have been noted : — 
Architect C. M. Bartberger has recently let the contract for a 
new school building for the twentieth ward, Pittsburgh. It is to be 
built of brick and terra-cotta, and cost $1 15,000. He is also prepar- 
ing plans for a large addition to the nineteenth ward school, Pitts- 
burg ; for a new school for the thirteenth ward, Allegheny ; and 
for a new brick school at Wilmerding. 

Work has been begun on the thirty-eight-room schoolhouse for 
the third ward, Allegheny ; it is to be of stone, brick, and terra-cotta, 

and cost $200,000. F. 
C. Sauer is the architect. 
Alden & Harlow 
have let the contracts for 
two branch office build- 
ings for the Central Dis- 
trict and Printing Tele- 
graph Company. They 
have also prepared plans 
for a third of these build- 
ings, to be built at Mc- 
Keesport. Pa. The same 
architects have made 
plans for a new stone resi- 
dence for Mr. J. G. Ponte- 
fract, -Sewickley, Pa. 
F. J. Osterling is preparing plans for a row of eighteen houses 



PITTSBURGH. — As a rule, most of the building 
operations in progress at this time of the year are 
those which have not been finished during the preced- 
ing summer, but with our dull spring and summer there 
has been little to last over and work is dull, both with 
architects and contractors ; quite a number of smaller 




SCHOOL BUILDING FOR THE OHIO INSTITUTION FOR THE EDUCATION OF THE 

DEAF AND DUMB, COLUMBUS, OHIO. 

Richards & McCarty, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



241 




PUBLIC LIBRARY, ERIE, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Arcliitects. 

for Mr. C. L. Magee. They are to be built on Fifth Avenue, Pitts- 
burgh. 

W. J. Cast has let the contract for a new First Presbyterian 
Church, at Altoona, Pa. ; cost, ^50,000. 

The exodus of the wealthier inhabitants of the down-town dis- 
tricts of Pittsburgh and from Allegheny seems to have stopped some- 
what, and those especially who own the finer class of homes in these 
districts are turning toward Sewickley and the neighboring country, 
where many have recently bought considerable tracts of ground, and 
intend in the near future to build summer homes, in some cases of 
considerable size. 

COLUMBUS. — There is being erected in this city a building of 
more than usual interest. It is a school building for the Ohio 
Institution for the Education of the Deaf, Richards & McCarty, 
architects. 

The building is 240 ft. long by 1 10 ft. wide, and is practically 
three stories in height above a finished basement. The first and 
second stories and the central part of the third story will contain 
thirty-six schoolrooms, with a superintendent's office, cloak rooms, 
etc. The third story of one wing will be fitted up for a library, with 
reading rooms, etc., and the third story of the other wing will be 
fitted up for an art gallery, with studios, photographers' rooms, etc., 
while the large corridor connecting these wings will be used for an 
exhibition room to display the work of the institution. The gymna- 
sium is in a semi-detached building in the rear connecting with the 
main basement. In one wing are locker rooms, showers, and a plunge 
for the boys, and in the other wing are like accommodations for the 
girls. The front part of the basement is used for chemical labora- 
tories, bicycle rooms, and general lavatories. 

The exterior walls will be faced with press brick furnished by 
the Columbus Brick and Terra-Cotta Company. The facing for the 
basement walls will be gray brick, Norman shape, and for the walls 
above the l)rick will be standard size, using gray brick for the cor- 
ners and a rich buff brick for the body of the work. The ornamental 
trimmings will be a gray sandstone to match the color of the brick. 



CERAMIC MO.SAIC v. MARBLE PAVEMENT. 

BY H. C. MUELLER. 

THERE is a popular idea that nature never does things by 
halves, that when she produces a good material it is very 
nearly perfect for its purpose. As a matter of fact, however, few of 
the natural products used in building operations are perfect or uni- 
form in their quality, and this applies with special force to the 



marbles which are used very frequently and with 
most gratifying success in an artistic sense for pave- 
ments and floorings. There are a few marbles which 
are excellent, and mosaics of marble as well as 
marble tiling have been used for a long period, re- 
placing in many instances the encaustic floor tiles. 
If we may judge, however, by the continual search 
after something which shall be better than the marble, 
it is fair to assume that marble is not perfectly satis- 
factory, and all the indications point to decided su- 
periority in some respects on the part of mosaic and 
tile work manufactured from burnt clay. 

Within the past few years a tendency has l)een 
developed to substitute very largely the artificial for 
the natural product. This has shown itself princi- 
pally in the East and in large cities where marble 
mosaic is extensively used. It has been found that 
the substantial appearance of the marble mosaic is 
deceptive, and that the work is not as strong as it 
seems. The patching of costly marble mosaic work 
is not an uncommon occurrence, and it is especially 
found that the wear, even under the best circum- 
stances, is apt to be uneven, and that this is not ob- 
viated entirely by using a single apparently even quality of marble, 
as in a lot of marble blocks the quality will vary. Furthermore, 
under many circumstances, it is almost impossible to keep the marble 
mosaic perfectly clean, and though marble answered the purpose 
amply for the houses and temples of the Greeks and Romans and 




DETAIL OF FRONT, PUBLIC LIBRARY, ERIE, PA. 

Alden & Harlow, Arclutects. 

did not show wear when traversed by sandaled feet, it is not wholly 
adequate for a vestibule or lobby in a New York or Chicago hotel 
or office building. 

The tile manufacturers have long appreciated the possibilities 
of burnt clay for flooring. The advent of the vitreous floor tile, 



242 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



which is quite recent in its appearance, was a long step in advance, 
as it is a material which surpasses in hardness any known natural 
stone. As the public demand requires, from artistic reasons as well 
as convenience of setting, a mosaic composed of small pieces, the tile 



cement mortar and tile without splitting either parts of the mortar or 
parts of the tile. 

The color of marble mosaic floors is very easily obscured by 
wear. It can be brought back by scouring and polishing, but the 




(From Tlu Illustrated liujfalo Express^ Cnpyriglu, iS<^5, by Geu. li. Mauliuus & Co.) 
liUKFALO GENERAL HOSPITAL, liUFFALO, N. V. 
George Cary, Architect. 



manufacturers have brought forth the ceramic cube mosaic, which is 
now in the market as a strong competitor for favor with the ordinary 
Roman block mosaic. Marble, though looked upon by the casual 
observer as something extremely hard, is in fact not hard at all. rather 
suggesting hardness on account of its polished surface, which is un- 
yielding to the touch. Hurnt clay, with its sometimes velvety sur- 
face, does not look as hard as marble, yet the expert knows very well 
that marble may be scratched witii soft iron, while reasonably hard 
burnt clay cannot l)e touched with 
a hard steel point. Again, while 
any floor covering which is com- 
posed of marble blocks laid upon 
a necessarily more or less yielding 
foundation is liable to develop 
cracks in the surface, it has been 
found by e.xpericnce that a mosaic 
composed of minute fragments of 
burnt clay is much more rigid and 
less liable to develop unsightly 
cracks than is the marble mosaic. 
This is for reasons which can be 
readily appreciated. When the 
ordinary marble mosaic is set, it 
has to be ground and polished off 
on account of irregularity of the 
cubes, and this grinding process 
sometimes has a tendency to break 
the set of the cement, so that it is 
a very easy matter to dislodge in- 
dividual cubes, and in case of re- 
pairs it is found that the cement does not adhere very closely to the 
marble. On the other hand, vitreous tiling forms a complete union 
with Portland cement mortar. The silica contained in the cement 
attacks the silica developed to a glass-like set in the vitreous tile and 
adheres to it in such a degree that it will be impossible to part 







surface of the vitreous tiling is so hard that the scratching due to 
walking over it does not deface the surface, and it is impossible to 
scratch or stain it. As the surface becomes polished through wear, 
the colors remain the same. 

In an artistic sense, when marble work is just right, it is ex- 
tremely satisfactory, but any one who has experimented with color 
attempts in marble mosaic knows how limited is the available pal- 
ette. The best colored marbles are the expensive ones, and for ordi- 
nary conditions the cost is so 
great that they are not used at all. 
The choice is limited, in this 
market, at least, to a rather dirty 
green, two shades of yellow, a dull 
red, black and white, and the 
varying shades of Tennessee. On 
the other hand, with vitreous tile 
there is almost no limit to the 
range of the possible colors, and 
they are all of practically the same 
cost, so that the artist in using 
the latter material has a perfectly 
free hand and can work out his 
color scheme in the humblest 
i>uilding without the restrictions 
of prohibited colors. 






-iiimiiL 

^-ttTttTttt- 



GROUND I'LAN, BUFFALO GENKRAl. HOSPITAL, HUFKALO, \. 
(leorge Car>', Architect. 



CURRENT ITEMS OF 
INTEREST. 



The new Mercantile Build- 
ing, New York City, Robert Maynicke, architect, Thos. J. Reilly, 
builder, will have a front of semi-glazed brick, which are being fur- 
nished by the American Enameled Brick and Tile Company. 

Decker & St. Clair, the general contractors for the new 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



243 




GARDKN VASE. 

Executed in terra-colta by the Winkle Terra-Cotta Company, 

Barnett, Haynes & Barnett, Architects. 

church in Winsted, Conn , have let the contract for furnishing the 
structural ironwork in tlie building to the Berlin Iron Bridge Com- 
pany, of East Berlin, Conn. 

Chamheks Brothers Companv, of Philadelphia, report a de- 
cided improvement in their business during the past month. They 
are giving especial attention to the trade South, and are making new 
customers in that section. 

The Berlin Iro.v Briik;e Company, East Berlin, Conn., are 
erecting for the Seamless Metal Company, Sing Sing, N. Y., across 
the railroad track.s connecting the different parts of their plant, a 
steel foot bridge. 

The Da(;us Ceav Manukacturin(; Company are furnishing 
the face and molded brick for the First National Bank, at Fairmont, 
W. Va. These are an old gold mottled brick. They are also fur- 
nishing a light pink brick for the residence of Mr. L. B. Cushman, 
North East, Pa. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of l'2ast Berlin, Conn., 
are erecting for the United (las Improvement Company, Waterbury, 
Conn., the steel work for a generator room and an engine room. These 
roofs are to have steel trusses, supporting the roof covering. 

John H. Black, Buffalo representative of the Kittanning Brick 
and Fire Clay Company, is furnishing the vitrified buff brick that is 
being used in the interior of the new addition to the Buffalo Coopera- 
tive Brewery, Esenwein & Johnson, architects ; also the gray bricks 
being used in the Albermarle and Aberdeen apartment houses, John 
S. Rowe, architect. 

The Celauon Terra-Cotta Company are supplying their 



roofing tile for the following new buildings : Residence for J. W. 
Mitchell, Columbus, Ohio, Yost & Packard, architects; residence 
for L. Hicklem, Columbus, Ohio, E. W. Hart, architect; office for 
Dr. C. M. Taylor, Columbus, Ohio, W. T. Mills, architect; bathing 
establishment, Revere Beach, Mass., Stickney & Austin, architects. 

The St. Louis Terra-Cotta Company wish announced the 
fact that the company has been recently reorganized, and under the 
present management is in a position to guarantee satisfactory work 
and prompt deliveries on all contracts which may be placed with 
them. 

The entire plant has been overhauled and fully equipped with 
the best terra-cotta machinery, the kiln capacity increased, and an 
enameling department added for the manufacture of enameled and 
glazed terra-cotta and enameled brick. The modeling department is 
in charge of experienced men, thoroughly competent to execute diffi- 
cult work. 

The company would be glad to render estimates on any work in 
their line. 

The following new buildings are being or are about to be 
equipped with the Bolles Revolving Sash or the Queen Overhead 
Pulleys, or both : Bourne Office Building, ten stories, Liberty Street, 
New York City, Ernest Flagg, architect (Bolles Revolving Sash and 
Queen Overhead Pulleys); Vicent Office Building, six-teen stories, 




■I1V1W ^W 




KlETTan 




RESIDENCE, BEACON STREET, BOSTON. 
McKim, Mead & White, Arcliitects. 



244 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Duane Street and Broadway, New York City, George 15. Post, archi- 
tect (Holies Revolving Sash and (jueen Overhead Pulleys) : Mott 
Avenue Public Scliool, New York City, C. B. J. Snyder, architect 
(Bolles Revolving Sash); Auduhorn Avenue Public School, New 
York City, C. B. J. Snyder, architect (Bolles Revolving Sash) ; 
apartment house, Fifth Avenue and 45th Street, New York City, 
J. O'Rourke & Sons, architects (Bolles Revolving Sash and Queen 
Overhead Pulleys); German Liederkranz Club House, Brooklyn, 
N. Y. (Bolles Revolvinj; Sash); Seelye Hall, Smith College, North- 
ampton. Mass., York & Sawyer, architects (Bolles Revolving Sash 
and Queen Overhead Pulleys); New York Hospital, New York City, 
Cady, Berg & See, architects (Queen Overhead Pulleys); Caledonia 
Club, New York City, Alfred H. Taylor, architect (Bolles Revolving 
Sash). 

One of the most annoying things in any house is a sliding door 
hanger that will not run smoothly ; that will leave the track, stick, or 

FOR SALE. 

CLAY MANUFACTURING PLANT WITH STEAM 
POWER AND 4 MUFFLED KILNS, ETC., SITUATED IN 
NEW JERSEY, 20 MILES FROM NEW YORK CITY, BEST 
CLAY LOCALITY, SUITABLE FOR POTTERY OR TILE 
WORK. WILL EITHER LEASE, SELL, OR TAKE IN- 
TEREST IN BUSINESS. ADDRESS 

NEW JERSEY MFG. CO. 

CARE OF THE BRICKBUILDER. 



otherwise behave in an unpleasant manner just when such things 
cause most inconvenience. Lately, what bears every evidence of 
being quite the ideal parlor door hanger has been placed on the 
market by The McCabe Hanger Manufacturing Company, manufac- 
turers of hangers for parlor, barn, fire, elevator, and accordion doors. 
The hanger in question is a perfect device and a gem in the mechan- 
ical way. The track is steel, and the wheels of the carriage are 
turned wood fiber, thus assuring the least possible noise. The car- 
riage has ball bearings and case-hardened cones, and is constructed 
along the line of a bicycle bearing. The hangers have been used 
in Biltmore, the X'anderbilt estate in North Carolina, the Carnegie 
estate in Florida, also the New York City house. They will also 
be used in the Vanderbilt house on Fifth Avenue, now undergoing 
extensive repairs and decorations. They were used throughout the 
new Sherry Building and the Columbia Library Building. In the 
elevator hangers this firm have been unusually successful, theirs 
having been specified on most of the large buildings that have been 
t)uilt all over the country in the last few years. 

WANTED. 

A COMPETENT AND RELIABLE MAN TO ACT AS 
AGENT FOR THE SALE OF TERRA-COTTA ON COM- 
MISSION BASES IN PHILADELPHIA, BALTIMORE, AND 
WASHINGTON. ADDRESS 

TERRA-COTTA, CARE OF THE BRICKBUILDER. 





f^^^^^; 



»■•"»■■'*•'»■• 



Fireplace Mantels. 



The best ones to buy are those we make of 
Ornamental Brick. There's nothing else as 
good or as durable. Our mantels don't cost any 
more than other kinds, and are far better in 
every way — our customers say so. Don't order 
a mantel before you have learned about ours. 
Send for our Sketch Book showing 53 designs 
of mantels costing from $ J 2 upwards. 

Phila, & Boston Face Brick Co,, 

t5 LBERTY SQ., BOSTON, MASS. 



-^4^:^4^¥W¥¥¥^¥^^¥¥W^^^¥¥^^^^^^^^^^^': ■• ; ; 




:-4^ 






THE BRiCKBUILDER. 



XXXV 




Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, Architects, 

New York City. 




SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

Furnished by 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co, 



See May issue ot this magazine. 




XXXVl 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



AGENTS WANTED. 

Contractors and dealers in builders' materials wanted to take agencies for the leasing of the Gilbreth Scaffold to Building 
Contractors. 

Preference given to parties having an opportunity to show this scaffold in actual operation on a building. 

Correspondence solicited. 

See April issue of this magazine. 






MB 



i 



) 




Address, 



GILBRETH SCAFFOLD CO., 



85 Water Street, Boston. 



T H E BRICK 1 

VOL. 7. NO 2. 



LU 



« X 




CHURCH S. PETER AND PAUL (I 
CRAM, GOODHUE & FERC 



;ri LDER. 

PLATES 89 and 90. 




^. C). FALL RIVER. MASS. 
lUSON, Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



Ill 



THE MOSAIC TILE COMPANY, 

ZANESVILLE, OHIO. 

Manufacturers of 

CERAMIC ROMAN MOSAIC in 3-4 in. square and \ in. hexagonal tesserae. 

CERAMIC FLORENTINE or PLATE MOSAIC 

in 6 in. X 6 in. tile with inset designs. 

CERAMIC FRESCOS and SGRAFFITOS 

for indestructible exterior friezes. 

PARIAN VITREOUS TILE for Bath Rooms. 
ASEPTIC TILE for Sanitary Floors and Hospital Operating Rooms. 



ESTIMATES, SAMPLES, AND DESIGNS ON APPLICATION. 
SEND PLANS WHERE POSSIBLE. 



O. W. KETCHAM, 

Builbers' 

Supplies 



OFFICE: 

Builders' Exchange, 

PHILADELPHIA, PA. 

Telephone, 2163. 



^X< 



e-^ 



K 






.<V^ 



Of 



Every Description. 



^erra^Cotta, 

jfront anb 

lEnamcleb 
Brick. 



H. F. MAYLAND &. CO., 

MANUFACTURERS' AGENTS AND 



DEALERS IN 



FRONT AND SHAPE BRICK IN ALL COLORS. 



Telephone, 614 18th St. 



287 FOURTH AVENUE, 
NEW YORK. 



Room 616. 



IV 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



ff>-^^^^ ^gjg'v .^^^g-. .^g^^ .^^^c^. .^g^- ^a^g-- ^z^*- ^2^t ^z^^.^2^^ ^^^^ ^^^^k^^^^^ ^S^^^^^^t ^S^t" ^S^^ ^^^&' ^^^^ ^^^^ ^ 



Works; 



Rocky Hill, N.J. 




i 



I 
I 

I 

I 
I 

I 

i 
I 



New York Office: 



105 E. lid Street. 



HARDING & GOOCH, Architeots. 






OFFICE BUILDING FOR THE COMMERCIAL CABLE CO. 

(91 STORIES HIGH.) 

Broad Street, New York City. 



W. A, & F. E. CONOVER, Builders. 



Architectural Terra-Cotta Executed by the 

Excelsior Terra-Cotta Co. 



Boston Representative: CHARLES BACON, 3 Hamilton Place. 



m 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Conkling:, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 




CROZER BUILDING, PHILADELPHIA, 

Frank Miles Day & Bbo., Architects. 

CONTAINS A LARGE AMOUNT OF OUR TERRA-COTTA. 



. . Architectural Terra-Cotta of Superior Qi^ality . . 

WORKS: OFFICES: 

Wissahickon Ave. & Juniata St., Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, 

PHILADELPHIA, PHiLA. TELEPHONE CALL 9005. and 156 Fifth Ave., New York. 

NEW YORK TELEPHONE CALL 10-95 EIGHTEENTH ST. 



\'I 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



i 



Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Co^ 



Perth Amboy, N» J, 



....Manufacturers... 



Architectural Terra-Cotta 
Special Color Front Bricks 

New York Office, 

160 Fifth Avenue- 
Boston Agents, Waldo Bros*, 102 Milk Street* 



STANDARD TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



Architectural Terra-Cotta, 

PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 

New York Office, 287 Fourth Avenue. 



BOSTON OFFICE: 

John Hancock Building, 

O. W. PETERSON & CO., Agents. 



WASHINGTON OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
WM. C. LEWIS, Agent. 



PHILADELPHIA OFFICE: 

Builders Exchange, 
w. LINCOLN Mcpherson, Agent. 



.ii 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



vu 



The: Atlamtic Terra Cotta Co. 



MAraafSlctuKev^ oT 



ARCHlTElCrURAL TtRRA CoTTA 



Office. 



DIRECTORS. 

Williewm Misnice Dtoi^Wf W. t^jjlo/. 

Alfi^d H. Bor>d. 



lACi^ 



^8r FOURTH AVE. . MEW YORK . 

Xe\t\>\'}o\o& , 176Y - 18'^':' Srt'eer. 



TorreMviLLE:, s.i. ntwYORK. 

Tglejaboi^c, 19 10ttct7Ville. 



THE NEW JERSEY TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA=COTTA. 



KARL MATHIASEN, President. 



Office, 108 Fulton Street, 
NEW YORK. 



Works, 
PERTH AMBOY, N. J. 



and 



matawan, N. J. 



vni 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




GARDEN VASE. 

Executed in Terra-Ootta by THE WINKLE TERRA-COTTA OO. 
BARNETT, HAYNES <k BARNETT, ARCHITECTS. 



THE WINKLE TERRACOTTA CO., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra- Cotta 



IN ALL COLORS. 



WORKS: 

Cheltenham, St. Louis. 



OFFICE: 

502-503 Century Building. 



ST. LOUIS, MO. 



White Brick and 


.: 


Terra=Cotta Co., 

156 FIFTH AVENUE, NEW YORK. 


INDIANAPOLIS 


Manufacturers of Architcctural Tcrra-Cotta m ah colors. 


TERRA-COTTA CO., 


Superior Quality of 




Solib Wihitc 


MANUFACTURERS OF 


ITerra* Cotta 


ARCHITECTURAL 


Will Not Turn Green or Yellow. 


TERRA-COTTA 


A comparison of our goods will manifest superiority 
in execution, vitrification, and perfection of finish. 


IN ALL COLORS. 


Architects' Drawings faithfully reproduced. 




TELEPHONE CALL, 1984 -1 8TH STREET, 





THE BRICKBUILDER. 



IX 



The Northwestern Terra-Cotta Co., 



Manufacturers of 



Architectural Terra-Cotta* 



In all Colors and according to Special Design. 



Glazed and Enameled Work in all Varieties. 



Works and Main Office, 
Corner of Cly bourn and Wright wood Avenues. 

City Office, Room 1118, The Rookery, Chicago* 







THE BRICKBUILDER, 




■«- No 861 



DETAIL OF WINDOW IDESIGN, 

PLYMOUTH BUILDING, MINNEAPOLIS. MINN. 

FREDERICK KEES, AncMlTECr. 

ENTIRE FRONT CONSTRUCTED OF THE FI8KE-HOME8 BRICKS. 



THE FISKE-HOMES 

Molded Bricks. 

We are now prepared to .furnish the most 
complete line of plain and ornamental fancy 
face bricks yet produced by the 

Stiff Mud Process. 

Complete fronts of buildings with ornamental 
architraves, window arches, trims, and sills, belt 
courses, panels, pilasters, cornices, etc., may be 
constructed of our plain and molded bricks. 

These bricks are of proper size to bond to- 
gether to make a perfect construction, are made 
by the stiff mud process from hand-modeled de- 
signs, and are carefully selected after burning. 
They produce pleasing and satisfactory results. 

Complete catalog now in preparation. 

Boston Fire Brick Co., 

Fiske, Homes & Co., Mgrs., 

1 66 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 



Brick, Terra-Cotta & Supply Co. 



M. E. GREGORY, Proprietor, 

CORNING, N. Y. 



MANUFACTURER OF 

ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 
PRESSED BRICK, ORNAMENTAL BRICK, 
BUILDING BRICK, STREET PAVING BRICK, 
FIRE BRICK, MORTAR COLORS, 

FIRE CLAY. 



Brush & Schmidt, 

Afaniifactiirers of 

Fine Red and Buff, Plain and 
Ornamental 

...Pressed Brick, 



(SHALE.) 



WORK'S, 



yewettvilie^ 



OFFICE, 

2 Builders' Exc/iangCy 



N. y. 



BUFFALO, N. Y. 



EVENS & HOWARD 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA, 



BUFF, CRAY, GRANITE, MAHOGANY, AND MOTTLED, 

STANDARD AND ROMAN SHAPES. 

\ 920 MARKET STREET, ST. LOUIS, MO. 




THE BRICKBUILDER 



XIX 



JOHN R BLACK, 



33 Erie County Savings Bank Building, 

LONG DISTANCE TELEPHONE. BUFFALO, N. Y. 



Sales Agent for ' 

1fmpervtou8 IReb, Buff, 
(5ta^, pink, anb fRottleb 

Front Bricks 



■ffn Stan&arD, IRoman, ant> 
©rnamental Sbapes. 

Enameled Brick. Ornamental Terra-Cotta. 

Roofing Tiles. Metal Lath. 

Wall Ties, etc. 



BURGY c& McNmm 

531-533 Wood St, 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 



Pressed, 

Salt Glazed, avd 

Enameled 



BRICK 



For Exterior 
and Interior 
Facings, Mantels, 
Floors, &c. 



SPECIAL DESIGNS IN BRICK 
MADE TO ORDER. 



Architectural Terra- Cotta. 



Rooting Tiles. 



Special Representatives for 

The Tiffany Enamel Brick Co. 

The Ohio Mining and Mfg. Co. 

The New York Architectural Terra-Cotta Co. 

The I/udowici Roofing Tile Co. 

The Canton Sparta Brick Co. 



(3. 1R. ^wicbcU ^ Co. 

Office, 15 Federal St., Boston, Mass. 

fvont Brick, jFire^lproofino, Xime, 
XTerra^Cotta, Sewer Ipipe, dement- 



NEW ENGLAND AGENT 



Mount Savage Enameled Brick Co. 

Ridgway Press Brick Co. 



Bnff, 
(5ra^, 
niiottleb, 
®lb (5olb 



Bricks. 



New Hampshire Water-Struck, Wiped-Faced, and Common Bricks. 



THE CANTON SPARTA BRICK CO., 



CANTON, OHIO, 



Sole Manufacturers of 



The Sparta Brick. 

Buff Shades in Light; Dark^ and Mottled 

Effects* 

Superior in Expression of Colors. 

Impervious, Non-Fading, Always Clean, 

NO COLORING MATTER USED IN MAKING. 



XX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



iiniiiuifliiiiiiniiij |y|. .^■.. .^^i 






:i!llli!iil»ii'r»"i"'?"<"'' 



lIFPriHTEREST TODESIGf^ERS m iRICK 



To carry out in brickwork the more common minor forms or elements of archi- 
tecture has been a problem long before the minds of architects and builders. The 
Raritan Hollow and Porous trade Brick Company have published 

a small pamphlet which discusses d a d i -r a m ^'^'^ subject thoroughly, and 
shows how expense can be saved •»"■»' ' "1^ and the beauty of exteriors en- 
hanced by the use of molded mark [^r\ck in the place of terra-cotta 
or stone. Please send for this pamphlet and information in reference to artistic Front 
Brick, Molded Brick, Mantel Brick, Glazed Brick, Mantel Tile, Fire Brick, etc. 

RARITAN HOLLOW AND POROUS BRICK CO., 

OmCE, 874 BROADWAY, Cor. J8TH ST., NEW YORK. 
FACTORIES and CLAY BAHKS, KEASBET, H. J., OH RARITAH RIVER, HEAR PERTH AMBOY. 



I 



R GUASTAVINO CO. 


Cinpire Fire-Proofing Co., 




Manufacturers and Contractors 
For All Kinds of 


Fire-Proof 


FIRE-PROOF WORK IN 


Construction. 


Hollow Tile & 


NEW YORK OFFICE: BOSTON OFFICE: 
\ I East 59th St. 19 Milk St. 


Porous Terra-Co lla 


I'KLEPHONE CONNECTION. 


FOR FIRE-PROOFING BUILDINGS. 


Floors, Ceilings, 


General Office : 

German National Bank BIdg., Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Roofs, Staircases, 


Western Office : 


Subways, Ducts, etc. etc. 


Monadnock Block, Chicago, III. 


ALL IN BURNT CLAY. 


Philadelphia Office: 

Builders' Exchange, Philadelphia, Pa. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXI 



Pioneer Fire-Proof Construction Company 

1515 Marquette Building, Chicago. 



The Only System 
of 
Fire-Proofing 
Awarded a 
Medal and 
Diploma 




"■"'"'"''-' DE.TAIL OF I5"ARCH. « SECTION OF ARCH. 

Our Patenteii Trasverse SjsteiD or Floor Artli CoDStncDoD Made li 9, 10. 12 anil 15 licb leptlis. 



At the 



WORLD'S 

COLUMBIAN 

EXPOSITION. 



Manufacturers and Contractors for every Description of 

HOLLOW, SOLID, AND POROUS TERRA-COTTA 

For Fire-proofing Buildings. 




R. C. PENHELD, Pres't. R. W. LYLE, Sec'y and Mgr. J, A. GREEN, Treas. 

Standard 

Fire-Proofing 

Company. 

Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Fire-Proofing, Flue Linings, 
Fire Brick, Sewer Pipe, 

Porous Terra-Cotta, 

ORNAMENTAL Building Brick, 

And other Clay Products. 

New York Office, 39 & 4J CORTLANDT ST. 



NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY 

FIRE-PROOFING CO. 

FORMERLY LORILLARD BRICK WORKS CO. 

Fire=Proof Building 
IW^ Material, Hard= 
^ Burned Clay and 

Porous Terra=Cotta. 



HOI I 0\A/ RI Or^k'Q For Flat, Elliptical, aBdSejmen- 
riwLLV_/VV DLv_/V^l\0, Ul Arches of every Description. 

Hollow Clay Ceiling, Hollow Blocks for Partitions, 

Hollow Brick, Fire-Proof Covering for Iron Girders 

and Columns, Hard-Burned and Porous Furring 

Blocks, Hard and Porous Roo&ng. 

SPECIAL SHAPES AND DESIGNS IN ANY OF THE 
ABOVE MADE TO ORDER AT SHORT NOTICE. 



A LARGE STOCK CONSTANTLY CARRIED. ORDERS FILLED 

PROMPTLY. SHIPMENTS BY RAIL OR WATER. 

PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, \TCTI7' \rCiOV 
1 56 FIFTH AVE., iN t W 1 UK JV. 

Wgrk«, LORILLARD (K«y|Mrt P. 0.), N. J. 



xxu 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



Pittsburgh Terra-Cotta Lumber Company, 

Manufacturers and Contractors for the Erection 
of Porous and Dense Hollow Terra-Gitta . . ♦ 

FIRE-PROOFING. 

Also, Manufacturers of Plain and ( under 
the Durant Patents) Ornamental 

Hollow Architectural Terra-Cotta Building Blocks* 

Hollow, PorouS; Front, and Paving Brick, 



WORKS AT 
PITTSBURGH, PA., WASHINGTON, N. J., and at EAST PALESTINE, OHIO. 

General Offices: CARNEGIE BUILDING, PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Eastern Office: Townsend Building, corner Broadway and 25th St., New York City. 




The accompanying illustration is of 

The White Building, 

UO-Ul BOYLSTON STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 

WINSLOW & WETHERELL . . . Architects. 
L. P. SOULE & SONS Builders. 




nRE-PROOFED 



BY THE 



Boston Fire-proofing Company, 

166 DEVONSHIRE STREET, 
BOSTON. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXlll 



.... Established J 856 .... 



HENRY MAURER & SON, 



' Manufacturers of 



Fire=Proof Building Materials. 



" EUREKA 



ft 



Floor Arches^ 
Partitions, 
Furring, 



Roofing, Etc* 



Office and Depot, 

420 EAST 23d ST., 

_New York. 

Philadelphia Office, 
18 South rth Street. 

Boston Office, 
3 Hamilton Place. 

CHAS. BACON, Agent. 




" Excelsior " EiiJ-i.„i,.,uutiiou i lal Arcli (Patented), 
jj per cent, stronger and lighter than any other method. 



The Coming Arch for Light Fire-Proof 
Floor Construction (Patented). 

DURABLE, ECONOMICAL, AND RAPIDLY CONSTRUCTED. 




Depth of Arch, 6 ins. 

Spacing, Center to Center of Beams 

30 ins. 



Depth of Beams, 5 to 6 ins. 

Weight ok Arch, per square foot, 

21 lbs. 



Porous Terra-Cotta 
of all Sizes, 

Flue Linings^ 

Clay Hollow Tiles for 
Bottle Racks* 

These are displacing the ordi- 
nary wooden racks, and meeting 
with general favor. Being both 
rat and vermin proof, all danger 
from falling racks and the conse- 
quent destruction of choice wines 
is avoided. 

Factories. _-^- — \ 

MAURER, N. J. 

On C. R. R. of N. J. 



To meet a growing demand for a light, simple, yet strong and inexpensive fire-proof construc- 
tion for floors, we beg to offer our " Eureka" arch (see cut above), for which we claim the follow- 
ing advantages : — 

Absolutely fire-proof — made oifrc-clay. 

Quickly erected — no centering required. 

Strong and durable — capable of resisting heavy weights. 

Light in weight- — no concrete necessaiy. 

Light iron construction only required. 

Ironwork thorough!}- protected. 

Only three sections forming arch. 

Can be put up during any season of the year. 

It is absolutely necessary, when using this arch, that the iron beams be spaced 30 ins. center, 
to insure a perfect and well-constructed arch. 

This arch is composed of three tiles: two abutments, or "skew-backs," which fit the beams 
(thoroughly protecting, their lower flanges), and one center or " key tile," set between 5 in. or 6 in. 
deep beams. The tie-rods going between openings on side of brick and allowing for same, the 
cutting of tiles becomes unnecessary. 

Send for iUostratcd catalogue of 1898. 



XXIV 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



The Fawcett Ventilated Fireproof Building 

Company, L't'd. 



Patents in England, Belgium, France, United States. 



Contractors for Structural Steel, Fireproof Floors, Partitions, etc. 

ESTIMATES AND DESIGNS SUBMITTED ON APPLICATION. 




I 



WESTMINSTER CHAMBERS. COPLEY SQUARE. BOSTON. 

HENRY E. CREGIER, ARCHITECT. WOODBURY & LEIOHTON, CONTRACTORS. 

The fireproofing and steel work turnished by 

THE FAWCETT VENTILATED FIREPROOF BUILDING COMPANY, L't'd, 

Main Office, 448, 449, 450, and 451 Philadelphia Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Sales Agent for the New England States, 
JAMES D. LAZELL, 443 Tremont Building, Boston, Mass. 

Sales Agent for New York, 
F. L. DOUGLASS, St. James Building, 26th Street and Broadway. 



i 



THEBRICKBUILDER. xxv 



(C entral Fireproofing 
Company, 



Manufacturers 
and 

Contractors 
for 
the 

Erection 
of 

Hollow 

Tile 

and 

Porous 

Terra- 

Cotta 



HENRY M. KEASBEY, 

President. 



Fireproofing. 



874 Broadway t New York* 



XXVI 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



THE ATWOOD 



FAIENCE 1^1 



S COMPANY, 



HARTFORD, CONN. 

Enameled Brick and Tile 
Faience Mantels, 

Terra-Vitrae. 
if? 

Displayed and sold by all the leading Tile and 
Mantel dealers. 



Grueby Faience Co. 

Makers of 

GLAZED AND ENAMELED 
ARCHITECTURAL 
TERRA-COTTA FOR 
INTERIORS AND 
EXTERIORS. 
FAIENCE MANTELS. 
TILES IN COLORS FOR 
WAINSCOTS, 
BATHS, ETC. 
MOORISH TILES. 



164 Devonshire Street, -ir^oston. 



LUDOWICI ROOFING TILE COMPANY, 



419 Chamber of Commerce 



CHICAGO. 



Manufacturers of 



iC^ractical Ifntciiocluucj IRoofin^ XLilc, 




PRINCIPAL AGFNCIES. 



FISKE, HOMES & CO., Boston, Mass. 

MEEKER, CARTER, BOORAEM & CO., New York. 

F. \V. KENDERDINE & BRO., Phm.adei.piiia, Pa. 

BURGY & McNEH.L, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

ALFRED W. THORN, Buffalo, N. Y. 

THOMA.S BROS. & CO., Detjroit, Mich, 

HUH.DIXG MATERIAL SUPPLY CO, Ci.ncin.n.^ti, O. 

COLUMBUS BRICK AND TERRA-COTTA CO., Columbus, O. 

ILLINOIS SUPPLY AND CONSTRUCTION CO., St. Louis, Mo. 

RICKETSON & SCHWARTZ, Milwaukee, Wis. 

S. J. HEWSON, Minneapolis, Mi.nn. 

S. P. SPATES & CO., St. Paul, Minn. 
W. J. WELSHANS, Omaha, Neb. 

J. H. SWEARINGEN, Kansas City, Mo. 

WM. RYNERSON, Topeka, Kan. 



UNITED STATES POST-OFFICE, MADISON, IND. Roofed with Ludowici Tile, "TS" Pattern. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



XXVll 



CHARLES T. HARRIS, President. 
HENRY S. HARRIS, Vice-President. 



WILL. R. CLARKE, Secretary and Treasurer. 
ALVORD B. CLARKE, Superintendent. 



The Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., 



MANUFACTURERS OF 



ARTISTIC ROOFING TILE, 

ALFRED, N. Y. 

(Under Babcock Patents.) 





SOMERSET APARTMENT HOTEL, BACK BAY FENS, BOSTON, COVERED WITH lo" CONOSERA TILE. 

Arthur H. Bowditch, Architect. 



ARTHUR H. BOWDITCH, 

Architect, 
1 1 2 Water Street, 



Boston. 



Dec. I, 1898. 
Charles T. Harris, Pres. Celadon Terra-Cotta Co., Ltd., Alfred, N. Y. 

My dear Sir : — Your letter referring to the tile roof on the " Somerset" reached me duly, and so 
far as the work itself goes, I can only say that it is worthy of, and has received, the most unqualified praise, 
not only from ourselves and the owners, but also from the public at large. 

The color and quality of the tile and the workmanship of the entire job have filled our highest expecta- 
tions, and I am sure the tile will prove itself in the future all that 3'ou have claimed for it as a roofing material. 

Please accept for yourself, and extend to Mr. Clarke, our sincere thanks for your and his courtesy and 
the cooperation we have received in every way from your company in carrying out not only the letter but 
the spirit of your contract. 

Very truly yours, 

ARTHUR H. BOWDITCH. 



NEW YORK OFFICE, 
SUITE 1123-4, PRESBYTERIAN BUILDING, 156 FIFTH AVENUE. 



CHICAGO OFFICE, 
SUITE 1001-2, MARQUETTE BUILDING, 204 DEARBORN STREET. 



XX VI 11 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




THE DELMONICO BUILDING, 44th STREET AND FIFTH AVE., NEW YORK CITY. 

JAMES BROWN LORD, Architect. 
TERRACOTTA AND BRICK BY THE 

NEW YORK ARCHITECTURAL TERRA-COTTA COMPANY, 

PHILADELPHIA. 38 PARK ROW, NEW YORK CITY. BOSTON. 



The Brickbuilder 

for 1899 .. . Prospectus 



PLATE FORM \^3mj^!^^ *^*^ department there will be reproduced each month, carefully selected scale drawings of the very best 
DR^wrnGs r^lli^ work being done in this country, wherein brick or terra cotta is employed. These illustrations will 

comprise elevations, plans, and details secured by personal solicitation from the best offices. 




DRAWINGS We are assured by our representative now at London that we shall be privileged to publish during 

PHOTOGRAPHS ^^^ Y^^^t drawings of some of the best current work of English architects. Arrangements having been perfected 
OF whereby our illustrating plates will be made at London, thus avoiding the necessity of sending drawings to this country, 

w/oHK^" we feel reasonably certain of adding this desirable feature to our Plate Form. In addition to these drawings we shall 

illustrate from photographs recently secured, a number of English brick cottages, manor houses, college buildings, etc 



MEASURED There will be published during the year, measured drawings of old foreign work, made especially for us by men 

of'ol'd °^ holding travelling scholarships. These drawings consist chiefly of details of entrances, windows, cornices, string 

FOREIGN courses, etc 

WORK. 

Among those who will contribute to our columns during the year on architectural subjects are : — 



CONTRIBUTORS 



^.viii niDuiv^no Clarence H. Blackall, F. W. Fitzpatrick, William T. Partridge, 

TO James Brite, Elmer E. Garnsey, Allen B. Pond, 

LETTER PRESS. Arthur G. Everett, R. W. Gibson, T. PIenry Randall, 

Ernest Coxhead, Bertram G. Goodhue, Julius A. Schweinfurth, 

Ralph Adams Cram, Julius F. Harder, Russell Sturgis, 

Thomas Cusack, Thomas M. Kellogg, R. Clipston Sturgis, 

Frank Miles Day, F. E. Kidder, Edmund M. Wheelwright, 

John Lyman Faxon, Henry P. Kirby, Peter B. Wight. 

W. A. Otis, 

Engineering subjects relating to architecture will be discussed by 

Charles J. Everett, Jr., 

Frank S. Harrison, 

Henry W. Hodge, 

Corydon T. Purdy, 

AND Others. 



Leading Articles for the Year. 



country Following the plan inaugurated last year, of inviting a number of well known architects to contribute — each an 

CHURCH article which shall be a treatment of some one building of the popular class, according to a program giving certain 

$50,000. requirements, we have chosen for this year, two types; first, 

A COUNTRY CHURCH TO BE BUILT OF BRICK AND TERRA COTTA. 

Cost, $50,000. 
The contributors will be 

Ernest Coxhead (Coxhead & Coxhead) San Francisco. 

Ralph Adams Cram .... (Cram, Goodhue and Ferguson) . . Boston. 

Allen B. Pond (Pond & Pond) Chicago. 

T. Henry Randall New York. 

R. Clipston Sturgis Boston. 

Second, 

[."b^p'-^^y a PUBLIC LIBRARY TO BE BUILT OF BRICK AND TERRA COTTA. 

TO cost Cost, $ J 00,000. 

$1 00.000. Thg contributors wiU be 

James Brite (Brite & Bacon) New York. 

Arthur G. Everett (Cabot, Everett & Mead) . . . Boston. 

Julius F. Harder (Israels & Harder) New York. 

Thomas M. Kellogg (Rankin & Kellogg) .... Philadelphia. 

Julius A. Schweinfurth Boston. 

These articles will be illustrated from drawings and sketches of elevations, plans and details. 

the use of By Russell Sturgis. In two illustrated articles, Mr. Sturgis will show the possibilities of burnt clay as a medium for 

BURNT CLAY — ', ^, , ^ — , 2_ --» 5 r / 

products for artistic interior work. 

INTERIORS. 

By Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. Mr. Goodhue has been fortunate enough to unearth an hitherto unknown town on 

toso. the northern slope of the Appenines, where he found some of the most notable brick and terra cotta architecture of 

North Italy. A description of this town, with sketches of its architecture, will be given in two numbers of next year. 



Other Leading Articles for the Year. 



PICTURESQUE 

BUILDING 

SITES. 



By Henry P. Kirby» There will be two articles upon the subject, which will be illustrated from charmingf pen and ink 
sketches which Mr. Kirby has specially prepared for this series. 



THE MINOR 
BRICK 
BUILDINGS 
OF FRANCE. 



By William T. Partridge. There will be three articles in this series, which will be illustrated from Mr. Partridge's own 
collection of photographs and sketches of interesting small brick buildings, which are located in the smaller cities and 
towns of France. 



THE ARTISTIC 
TREATMENT 
AND USE OF 
ROOFING TILE. 

AMERICAN 
TILE WORK. 



By W. A. Otis. In two articles upon this subject, Mr. Otis will illustrate some of the many artistic effects that may be 
obtained with roofing tile, and describe the best methods to be employed in laying them. 

By Clarence H. BlackalL A summary of what has been accomplished in this line, and a description of the most not- 
able work produced by our American manufacturers. This will be considered carefully from the artistic point of view 
as showing the possibilities of this art industry. 



THE 

FORMAL 

GARDEN. 



By Elmer E. Garnsey. In connection with this series, consisting of two articles, Mr. Gamscy will describe and illustrate 
some of the more interesting examples of foreign gardens, suggesting the possibilities in architectual effects that may 
be obtained at a reasonable cost by the use of terra cotta. 



ARCHITECTURAL By Thomas Cusack. The valuable series of papers which have been contributed by Mr. Cusack under this general 
heading will be continued during the coming year. He will advocate a more general use of terra cotta and brick in the 
church architecture of the future and discuss the somewhat neglected subject of color combinations in plain and enam- 
elled surface treatment ; not only on exteriors, but in the vestibules, corridors, etc, of public buildings. Historical data 
will be cited, and in each case selected examples will be fully illustrated by drawings and photographs taken from suc- 
cessful work of recent execution. 



ENGINEERING 
PROBLEMS 
RELATING TO 
ARCHITECTURE. 

FIRE- 
PROOFING. 



A series of papers which will deal with the every day problems of construction, 
announced elsewhere in this prospectus. 



Names of contributors 



In this department, which is set apart especially for the discussion of up-to-date matters pertaining to fire-proof 
construction with burnt clay, there will be published a most valuable series of papers, descriptive of improvements that 
have been recently made in the construction of arches, partitions, etc In addition to these, other papers will be con- 
tributed by leading authorities on fire-proof construction. 



MORTARS AND 
CONCRETES. 



This department is maintained for the purpose of furnishing that class of material which shall be an aid to 
architects and builders who recognize the necessity of care in successfully employing cements, and to that end a series 
of carefully prepared papers will be published during the year. 



MASON 
CONTRACTOR. 



In this department there will be published a series of papers which shall be alike of interest to architects and con- 
tractors. 

Suggestions from our subscribers as to important questions needing practical discussion are solicited, and all such 
will be given due consideration. 



BRICK AND 
TERRA-COTTA 
WORK IN 
AMERICAN AND 
FOREIGN CITIES. 



The scope of this department will be somewhat enlarged upon during the coming year, and in addition to regu- 
lar letters from the larger American cities with accompanying illustrations of current work, we shall publish two letters 
specially prepared for our columns by F. W. Fitzpatrick, on the Interesting Brickwork of Washington, D. C. These 
letters will be fully illustrated from photographs and sketches. An additional feature will be a contribution by William 
T. Partridge, on the Modern Brick Architecture of Paris. This, too, will be illustrated from photographs and sketches, 
which are to be prepared by Mr. Partridge during his forthcoming trip to France. Other interesting foreign brickwork, 
both old and new, will be shown in this department. 



EDITORIAL 
AND CURRENT 
TOPICS. 

CONTINUED 
FROM 1898. 



Our editorials are contributed by a staff of able writers, and by them current topics of interest will be discussed. 

Of the articles promised for, and serials begun during 1898, there remain to be published at least three more 
papers of Mr. Wheelwright's series on The American Schoolhouse, and Mr. Day's paper on Italian Brickwork. These 
will certainly appear in the early numbers of the year. 

The reprint of Street's Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages will be continued as opportunity permits. 

The Brickbuilder is published monthly at Boston^ Mass, 

By ROGERS & MANSON. 
Subscription^ Price^^ ^^^^ Publication Office, 85 Water Street. 




VOLVME ^S 
VII 
DEC. fe 

«> 1898 

,_ sS No. 12 



IBRICKBVILDERii 






B05T0N x|j ! 

1^ 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 

AN ILLUSTRATED MONTHLY DEVOTED TO THE ADVANCE- 
MENT OF ARCHITECTURE IN MATERIALS OF CLAY. 

PUBLISHED BY 

ROGERS & MANSON, 

CxJSHiNG Building, 85 Water Street, Boston. 

p. O. BOX 3282. 

Subscription price, mailed flat to subscribers in the United 

States and Canada 1(^2.50 per year 

Single numbers 25 cents 

To countries in tlie Postal Union $3.50 per year 

COPYRIGHT, 1893, BY THE BRICKBUILDER PUBLISHING COMPANY. 

Entered at the Boston, Mass., Post Office as Second Class Mail Matter, 
March 12, 1892. 

THE BRICKBUILDER is for sale by all Newsdealers in the United States 
and Canada. Trade Supplied by the American News Co. and its branches 

PUBLISHERS' STATEMENT. 
No person, firm, or corporation, interested directly or indirectly in the 
production or sale of building materials of any sort, has any connection, 
editorial or proprietary, with this publication. 

The BRICKBUILDER is published the 20th of each month. 

COLORED BRICK. 

THERE was a time, not very long since, when to designate any- 
thing as being brick color was equivalent to saying it was a 
deep, dull red, and no other tone but red was thought of in connection 
with burnt clay for building nrfaterial. Hut when the newer shades 
of brick began to be considered, all this was changed, and our con- 
structors very speedily found themselves in possession of a great 
variety of tones, ranging from almost jet black through chocolate 
colors, browns, reds, buffs, and grays, to the pale yellows and whites. 
The whole subject of colored bricks was an innovation, for a while 
at least, and in the natural efforts to provide the designer with all the 
required shades, to place any suitable color at his disposal, the mul- 
tiplying of colored bricks increased perhaps beyond measure. Cer- 
tainly for a while we had a surfeit of some of the lighter shades of 
brick, to an extent which was bound to bring about a reaction, 
especially as in a great many cases very little care had been exercised 
in selecting the particular color. We have known repeated instances 
where a strong-colored mottled brick looked about perfect in one 
locality or in one design, when the identical shade used on a different 
side of the street, with different surroundings, seemed harsh and 
totally out of place. Consequently the manufacturers of our colored 
bricks have sometimes had to beware of their friends, and have 
suffered because of injudicious selection to an extent which has been 
prejudicial to the use of some of the best shades. Again, the colored 
brick have not always been made with the most care. Some of the 
companies have put out products which have hurt the trade a great 
deal, and the cheap manufacturers of poor brick have imitated all the 
shades produced by better companies, so that it is not unnatural to 
expect a reaction in favor of red brick. We notice in one of our 



contemporaries statements to the effect that red brick is returning to 
favor and that the use of the lighter tones of brick are a passing 
fashion, which is likely to be superseded by the use very largely of 
the old-fashioned red brick, and it quotes a number of buildings in 
New York, which have been constructed entirely of the darker 
shades, arguing from this that the colored bricks are doomed. We 
do not at all share this belief. We have always admired red brick, 
and in its place it is an excellent tone, blending admirably with its 
surroundings and adapting itself to many different styles of design, 
but he would be a poor designer indeed who felt constrained to limit 
himself to any one tone or quality, either light or dark. The dreary 
monotony of continuous rows of sad, overdone bricks is to be de- 
plored, no matter what the particular tone may be. , There are a 
good many incipient shades now in the market which could well be 
spared, but there are certain shades of buff, pale red, and mottled 
browns which we believe will always remain in favor, and will 
always be used by thinking designers in producing certain effects. 
Again, some of the shades of gray have come to stay, and have been 
a factor in some of our best buildings, without suggesting in the 
slightest degree a forced use of either color or material ; while as 
for white brick in its various modifications, there is every indication 
to believe that its use is only just beginning to be appreciated, and 
that in the near future it will command a much larger measure of 
appreciation than has heretofore been awarded it. To build a struc- 
ture in strict conformity to any one type is not a course most calcu- 
lated to develop good architecture. The individuality of ideas which 
is so prominent in our modern work has received no inconsiderable 
measure of its strength from the opportunities for real color which 
have been afforded by our brick manufacturers, and we have every 
reason to believe that the reaction against the excessive use of the 
lighter bricks is a perfectly healthy one, that the pendulum is not to 
swing entirely the other way, that we will be spared the affliction of 
a town made brick red, and that the wide palette, from which with 
care and forethought so much can be accomplished, will be superior 
to any mere whims of fashion. 



A PROPOSITION has recently been suggested in this city 
which certainly deserves earnest thought. The Museum of 
Fine Arts is situated on a tract of land facing Copley Square, and 
open on each side. At the time it was built, some twenty years ago, 
the district had not received its present character, and in fact Copley 
Square in those days was almost in the suburbs. At present the 
Museum is faced on one side by buildings of an altogether non- 
fire-proof character ; on the other it has for a near neighbor a recently 
constructed family hotel, of fire-proof construction, and the buildings 
of the Institute of Technology, constructed with the so-called slow- 
burning construction, which, however, did not hinder a fire in them 
this last summer. Immediately adjoining it towards the southwest is 
a large district of middle-class dwellings, which would offer slight 
resistance to a large fire. In the changes incidental to the railroad 
systems entering the city, it has been necessary to relocate the near- 
est fire-engine house, and the Museum now finds itself at least 
partially surrounded by buildings of a questionable fire-proof charac- 
ter and with less readily available help in case of conflagration. It 



246 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



has been seriously considered whether the Museum should not be 
removed from its present quarters and rebuilt somewhere in the Park 
System, where it could be entirely isolated from adjoining structures. 
The New York fire emphasizes the danger from one's neighbors. A 
fire in the Museum would result in damages that no insurance policy 
could begin to make good. The neighbors of the Museum are apt 
to become more numerous rather than less, and though the building 
itself is fire-proof in construction, its large skylights and necessarily 
large openings would make it an easy prey to a conflagration. In 
view of all these conditions, we feel that the trustees of the Museum 
are not only justified in considering the removal to a more open loca- 
tion, but that such removal is a duty which they owe to the community 
and to the invaluable treasures placed under their care. Copley Square 
is now enriched by the presence of Trinity and the Public Library, 
the New Old South and the .Museum, but it would be far better for 
the square to lose a portion of its distinctive character than to take 
any chances of damage, however slight, to the treasures which the 
Museum contains. 



THE LEAGUE COMPETITIONS. 

THE activity and continued progress manifested by our archi- 
tectural societies is one of the encouraging signs of the times. 
The Architectural League, of New York, worthily keeps up its tradi- 
tions by the manner in which it is constantly creating opportunities 
for study and for improvement, and placing such opportunities within 
the reach of the younger members of the profession. The announce- 
ment has been received of the competition.s which the League is to hold 
this year for the awards of the gold and silver medals, the Avery 
prize of fifty dollars, and the President's prize of the bronze medal 
and twenty-five dollars. The award of the gold and silver medals and 
the Avery prize are open to all residents of the United States. The 
President's prize is open to the members of the Architectural League 
only. For the gold and silver medals the program contemplates a de- 
sign for reviewing stands and public grand stands, arches, etc., in the 
nature of temporary structures required for the purpose of reviewing 
an army returning from foreign service. 
The site is assumed to be Riverside 
Park in the vicinity of Grant's Tomb, 
which in its present condition is cer- 
tainly sadly in need of accessories. A 
reviewing stand of the description pro- 
vided for in this program would be a 
most inspiring addition to Riverside 
Park, and the mere fun of studying out 
such a problem ought to be enough to 
call out a great many designs from our 
younger architects. For the Avery prize 
a design is required for a war medal for 
decoration of .soldiers in commemoration 
of Santiago, while the President's prize is 
to be awarded for the best design for a 
poster for the League Exhibition of 1899. 
Full particulars of these competitions can 
be obtained by addressing Mr. Robert W. 
Gibson, Chairman of the Committee on 
Competitions, 215 West 57th Street, New 
York City. 



Owing to .Mr. Wheelwright's absence 
in Europe, paper No. XIV. of the Amer- 
ican .Schoolhouse Series will not be pub- 
lished until the January issue. There will 
be at least two more papers in this series, 
which will be published in consecutive 
issues following January. 




PERSONAL, CLUB, AND SUNDRY NEWS ITEMS. 

Messrs. Ingle and Al.mirall, architects, announce the re- 
moval of their offices, after December 1 1, from 874 Broadway to 10 
and 12 E. 23d Street, New York. 

The Me.xican Construction and Engineering Company, 
City of Mexico, would be glad to receive catalogues and samples of 
American building materials. 

Herbert E. Gates, architect, 58 Bedford Row, Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, would be glad to receive catalogues and samples of Ameri- 
can building materials. 

The Builders and Traders Exchange, of Columbus, Ohio, 
request manufacturers' and dealers' catalogues. 

On Monday evening, November 21, Normand S. Patton ad- 
dressed the members of the Chicago Architectural Club on the sub- 
ject of "A Typical Public School," especial reference being given 
to the needs of Chicago schools. 

The annual meeting and dinner of the Beaux Arts Society was 
held at the Cafd Flouret, on November 18. 

The retiring president, Mr. Walter Cook, addressed the society, 
speaking of the work of the past year, and in particular of the suc- 
cess of members of the society in the New York Library and Cali- 
fornia University competitions. 

The reports of the secretary, treasurer, and committee on 
education were accepted, that of the treasurer especially being re- 
ceived with great enthusiasm. 

The following officers were elected for the coming year: Presi- 
dent, John Galen Howard ; Vice-President, Edward L. Tilton ; 
Treasurer, Joseph H. McGuire; Secretary, Charles Butler; Corre- 
sponding Secretary, Theo. Evernghim Blake; Members of the Com- 
mittee on Education, Ernest Flagg, John M. Carrere, and Charles 
Morris. Cary S. Rodman, Atelier Blondel, Scellier de Gisors, was 
elected a member of the society. 

An invitation was received from the 
Architectural League to take part in their 
dinner and meeting of January 3, and it 
was decided to inform all the members of 
the society in order that as many as pos- 
sible might be present. 

The meeting concluded with the en- 
thusiastic reception of the six deniiers 
nouveaux. 



T 



WlNlJUW J.VMIl AND I(iN-m)I.. 

Executed in Terra-Colta by the New York .\rchiieclural 

Terra-Cotta Company. 



ILLUSTRATED ADVER- 
TISEMENTS. 

*HE following new illustrations may 
be found in the advertising pages 
of this number: detail of window, Plym- 
outh Building, .Minneapolis, Frederick 
Kees, architect ; advertisement of Fiske, 
Homes & Co., page x ; residence at Buf- 
falo, N. Y., C. D. Swan, architect ; adver- 
tisement of The Harbison & Walker 
Company, page xv ; the Crozer Building, 
Philadelphia, Frank Miles Day & Bro., 
architects; advertisement of Conkling, 
Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company, page v ; 
Somerset Apartment Hotel, Boston, Arthur 
H. Bowditch, architect; advertisement of 
The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company, Lim- 
ited, page xxvii. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



247 



Suburban Residence Built of Brick. 

COST, TEN THOUSAND DOLLARS. 

BY WALTER COPE. 

HOUSES are built to live in and not to look on ; therefore, let 
use be preferred to uniformity, except where both may be 
had," is a dictum oftener quoted than followed. Whose fault is 
this ? Are we architects responsible ? Is it our fault or our misfor- 
tune that much of the domestic architecture of the present day fails 
to express anything very clearly and continually wanders from one 



and the owner keeps entirely in the background. The lot is uncom- 
fortably narrow and slopes quite too violently to make the planning 
of a house for it a restful or soothing exercise. Besides, it slopes 
south and west instead of south and east, and this forces me to 
put my porch on the west side, in the glare of the afternoon sun, 
since it must not be on the front, and we shall have to wait until the 
oak trees grow big before it will be right. Sadder still, our garden 
will not get the early morning sun. Failing to exchange the lot 
for one I liked better, I would have set the house close to the western 
side instead of the eastern, with its drawing room, library and din- 
ing room all looking out on the porch and garden to the east, but I 



'Mm^^ 













r 



caprice of style to another, until we become well-nigh desperate at 
this eternal torment of style and .detail, this babel of tongues? 

The owner usually selects a site for his house before he consults 
with us, and so begins to crystallize his ideas too soon, seizing often 
upon what he considers his own particular province, the "practical " 
part of the problem, and limiting us to what he believes to be the 
architect's only sphere, the mere embellishing of his scheme. 
True, he magnanimously credits us with the magical power to make 
impossible proportions beautiful, and in a general way to bring order 
out of chaos. So, where he sticks fast, he says : " You as an archi- 
tect can, of course, work that out. I don't so much care how that part 
goes, but I must have," etc. Our faces glow with well-feigned ad- 
miration, while our hearts sink. He leaves us, having secured the 
promise of a sketch in the course of a few days. We put on our hats, 
go out to lunch, come back and throw ourselves defiantly at the prob- 
lem as we have accepted it, with a conviction that the scheme is 
hopelessly defective, but must somehow or other be beautified into 
shape. Is it any wonder, under such conditions, that we allow our 
wliole energy and enthusiasm to be 
taken up with that part in which 
" the stranger intermeddleth not " ? 

But if the result of our efforts 
is a senseless and wasteful plan 
whose defects are but partly masked 
behind a studied arrangement of 
architectural detail, whose is the 
fault? It is ours, because we do not 
try to capture the citadel of the 
Philistine but content ourselves in- 
stead with sallying now and again 
from our own stronghold, first in one 
direction and then in another, slash- 
ing madly to right and left, to prove 
to the world that we are the right- 
ful masters. Yes ! We are to blame. 

We are cowards. The Philistines are not so strong as we imagine 
and can be won by strategy if not by direct attack, and when they 
are captured and put under tribute they will make very good sub- 
jects, and the architectural millennium will then begin. 

In the case before us. The Brickbuilder furnishes the lot 






—--"a 



could not bring my mind to thus give up the distant view over the 
valley and out into the western sky. Walled gardens are lovely — 
outdoor rooms, with the sky for a ceiling, and the rest of the world 
hidden. But I must have this and the distant view, too — both of 
them — for my library windows. 

So the house is made as narrow as possible and placed close to 
the eastern line with a narrow driveway between it and our neighbor 
up the hill, whom we cut off with a brick wall of goodly height. 
Ivy will grow well on this wall, for it is mostly against the bank and 
therefore damp and cool in hot weather. I don't own a horse or 
carriage, but hope to some day, and in the meanwhile the driveway 
shall be for the tradesmen and for ourselves when we hire a cab to 
take us out or to bring us from the station in the rain. When I can 
afford it I may build a little stable, up at the back of the lot. In 
plan the house is, in a sense, tumbled together, with "use preferred 
to uniformity." The entrance is at the southeast corner with the 
doorway facing the front, though the hall lies on the eastern side of 
the house. The dining room, of course, is on the east side, too, for 

every one should start the day with 
some simshine at breakfast. And 
we will have a little peep, too, at 
the sunset and a breath of sweet 
air from the garden through the 
little window in the west corner. 
The lot is too narrow to waste in a 
passage from the kitchen to the 
front door. This never seemed to 
me a matter of importance because 
the waitress answers the door bell. 
A drawing room, I suppose, has to 
be ; first because The Bric k- 
BuiLDER says so, and secondly be- 
cause in the course of the year 
many people call to see us who 
must be received decently, though 
we have no idea of sharing our library with them. Besides, we may 
need a drawing room for our daughter's wedding twenty years 
hence ; so we are to have one, and we shall try not to make it al- 
together a Potter's Field. But I feel it in my bones that we are 
going to live in the library and that the door between the two will 




248 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



be surely kept locked, except when we have a party. As for the 
librar)-, 1 like a long room if the ceiling is not too high. A number 
of people can be sociable in such a room in a reasonable and a happy 



The laundry is entered only from the outside and is ventilated like 
the kitchen into the large flue. The clothes yard will be back beside 
the kitchen garden. 






m:. 




way, because they will not sit in a circle like an Indian council. As 
to a porch, I cannot abide it on the front, for we want it to our- 
selves, whether our visitors be peddlers or our dearest friends. Our 
friends are sure of a welcome, and if 
they hear our voices on the porch can 
find us by walking around the terrace 
without stopping to ring the front-door 
bell. 

The house will have its kitchen 
wing, for in this climate any arrange- 
ment which does not insure air on 
both sides of the kitchen and pantries, 
however small they may be, is a mis- 
take. The pantry will not open direct 
into the dining room, for it is trying 
for the hostess to keep up the conver- 
sation with her guests while she hears 
her glass and china being smashed at 
the sink. There is a closet for the 
brooms and coal-scuttles, and a way 
for me to get to the cellar without 
intruding on the cook and her friends; 
and though the back stairs are bound 
to carry the smells of the cooking to 
the second story, we hope to success- 
fully head them otf there from the 
front of the house. The kitchen will 
have a large ventilator in the ceiling 
— not in the wall near the ceiling — 
opening into the flue which encloses 
the iron smoke pipe of the range, and 
the tops of the kitchen windows on 
both sides will be on a level with the 
ceiling, so that we hope to ventilate 
the kitchen well and to keep the room 
over it reasonably cool in summer. 
There is a closet for the cook, a weak 
concession to the modern false sense 
of order ; cooks should not be allowed 
to have closets where they can associ- 
ate old bonnets and ill-washed pots. 
The little storeroom is just big enough 
for a refrigerator and a few shelves 
but it has its own window to keep it 
cool. This room we want to line com- 
pletely with glazed tiles. The cook 
will not have to drag her coal up from 
the cellar, for there is a bin on the 
kitchen porch which will hold a sup- 
ply of coal for three or four months. 



Garden 




.3 



Upstairs we have tried for quiet rooms, cut off as much as pos- 
sible from the sounds in the hall below : and the second floor will 
be built with two sets of joists, quite independent of each other: 

one to carry the first story ceiling and 
the other for the second floor, with 
loose deadening felt between them. 
This method of deadening floors I 
have found very effective. Several 
of the closets between the rooms have 
doors on each side, so that they may 
be used for either room, as may prove 
most convenient, or as communicating 
passages when desired. 

The loft will be reached by a 
little steep stair and will have noth- 
ing but a floor, and while it is not in- 
tended for anything but trunks and 
lumber. I know that it will make the 
most fascinating of play-rooms for the 
children on a rainy day, — a fairy 
world which the " grown-ups " never 
invade, — full of delightful mysteries, 
the scene of dark conspiracies, of 
feasts and tournaments and hair- 
breadth escapes, of solemn funerals 
and happy weddings. 

But the house is only half of our 
scheme. It will be as simple and 
cheap as we can build it substan- 
tially. The bricks will be dark red 
hard brick, selected merely for color 
and laid Flemish bond with over-burnt 
headers, the joints about ('^^ in. wide 
and raked out deep. What little there 
is of moulding or coping will be of 
hand-made bricks like the others, ex- 
cept at tlie entrance door where we 
shall waste a little money on a bit of 
detail in dark red stone. On the 
street front and on both sides of the 
lot, running back at least as far as 
the kitchen garden, we shall have a 
brick wall coped with bricks on 
edge. 

And on this we shall plant vines 
— Irish ivy, where it will grow well — 
and in places jessamine, and climbing 
roses, and honeysuckle, and virgin's 
bower. Then there will be some 
^ beeches and dogwood, and a lot of 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



249 



rhododendrons down near the street, and two or three oak trees, and 
close up near the terrace, a yew. Back near the garden will be 
more oak trees and a honey locust and a lot of sassafras, and at the 
garden entrance, two box trees. At the back of the garden, on each 
side of the steps, there will be lilacs, and along the west side, haw- 
thorn and flowering plums and what-not. The garden will have 
four pear trees, one in each main bed, as in all good old-fashioned 
gardens. Our summer sun is too hot, and the feathery shade of the 
pear trees is welcome to the flowers. Besides, what is more beauti- 
ful than a pear tree in bloom? 

This is not half of what we shall plant ; but why mention each 
tree or shrub more than the books we intend to have in our library 
or the pictures on our walls? We have got an old Scotch gardener, 
and though he does not think much of my garden lay-out and 
shakes his head ominously at it, I know it is only because he intends 



The Architecture of Apartment Build- 



ings. 



g^ 



III. 




to surprise us next summer with the wonderful results that skill can 
accomplish under adverse conditions. He declares that the side 
next the house is hopeless, but I notice that he is devoting much at- 
tention to it, and that the florists' and nurserymen's bills are like to 
ruin me. He has not been in Spain and does not know that ivy- 
leaf geraniums should be set in pots on a parapet, to tumble over 
the wall in masses of bloom. But we shall see: he loves flowers, 
and I cannot help thinking that he takes a pitying interest in me 
as one who really cares for them too, though full of strange notions 
about twigs and masses of foliage, and hopelessly ignorant of botany. 
The kitchen garden shall be his, and if I will not allow coleus in a 
bed in the front grass, or the garden given over entirely to prize 
specimens for the flower show, he can do what he likes in his own 
undisputed domain. 



BY IRVING K. POND. 

IN the matter of height, to the extreme of which modern buildings 
of all classes seem to aspire, much of interest is brought to the 
problem of the apartment building. To what number shall stories 
be added one upon another? Beyond what height do stairs begin 
to be a burden to owner and occupant? and what is the lowest limit 
at which the elevator appears as an income-producing factor ? These 
and kindred questions arise when the matter of height presents it- 
self. An absolutely satisfactory answer to these questions implies a 
knowledge of all the conditions surrounding the special problem ; 
but a few general lines may be laid down. There are various classes 
of apartment buildings, and even the term " first class" is relative 
and varies with the country, the province, or indeed the city. But 
taking it to mean the highest type yet produced in Paris, for instance, 
a city of apartments, or in the two or three principal American cities, 
it is safe to say of the "apartment of the first class," that in these 
latter cities the elevator can be omitted from no building of above 
two stories in height, and this brings the investor up against the 
generally accepted statement, that in no building under five stories in 
height, and with two apartments served to each story, is the elevator 
a profitable institution. But profitable or not to the owner, in many 
localities the elevator is considered an absolute necessity by tenants, 
and must be operated. Of course, in apartments of the highest type 
it is desirable so to plan the building that but one apartment is 
served to each story, yet this makes the matter of the elevator of 
great moment to the investor, from the points both of original outlay 
and of the expense of continued operation, and three or four-storied 
apartment buildings must be extremely well planned and very desir- 
ably located to produce above what is expected of an investment, 
sufficient to cover the interest on the first cost of the plant and main- 
tain the every-day operation of the elevator; so that, as the elevator 
is a necessary feature in the arrangement of any well-equipped apart- 
ment building, it remains to make it not an evil to be endured by 
the owner alone, but a blessing which will fall with equal beneficence 
on owner and occupant. Experience has demonstrated that this 
good effect may be brought about by increasing to the natural limit 
the number of stories of the building; the natural limit being that 
imposed by local conditions, the width of contiguous streets or alleys, 
the size of the building lot, the character of the locality, and so on. 
There is no limit to the height of even a first-class apartment build- 
ing, except as determined by these and reasons of structural economy 
and necessity, for the upper stories are the more to be desired, as 
they are above the dust, noise, and discomfort of the city pavements, 
and, where prospects are to be had, command wider views. 

The elevator has made possible the high building, which itself 
was the outgrowth of a demand for the concentration of masses of 
humanity in desirable or seemingly desirable localities, for business 
or the purposes of residence. The high building has brought in its 
train many important problems for solution, and among them is the 
problem of the court. The court which is capable of such liberal 
and artistic treatment is now apt to be studied only from the stand- 
points of the necessity for light (and not too much of that) and for 
air. The unsightliness and ofttimes unwholesomeness of the back 
alleys, which are a feature in the geography of American cities, have 
operated against the use of the rear of the lot to the best advantage, 
and the street front is about all there is architecturally to an Ameri- 
can apartment, or, for that matter, business building. In Paris, as 
there are no back alleys, each lot and almost each building abuts 
directly upon its neighbor in the rear. This has led to a systematic 
development of the court, which is made spacious, and is enclosed by 
walls oh the unbuilt sides, and on one or more sides by the building, 
with apartments in front, or fore and aft, or on all sides, and in each 
case the principal stairway is reached from the court, and not directly 
from the street, insuring privacy, as every visitor to the building or 



250 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



court must pass the concierge* ie. In all cases the courts receive ar- 
chitectural treatment ; in some cases they are embellished with land- 
scape auxiliaries, and in many cases they are made useful beyond 



in a structure in which the stories are piled up to the number of 
six or ten or twenty, growing more and more inadequate as the 
number increases; so that which a superficial glance at a ground 









novRE z\ 



what is ajjparent on the mere surface ; the area underneath the pave- 
ment being devoted to the use of cellars, storerooms, and not infre- 
quently horse stalls, thus demonstrat- 
ing how the French architect econo- 
mizes the last scrap of space in his 
building, even as the French cook 
gives the shreds of last week's turkey 
or potato paring in to-day's croquette 
or soup. But the fact, interesting in 
this connection, is that the court is 
frequently architecturally the most 
pleasing portion of the building and 
forms the most inviting prospect from 
living rooms and principal chambers. 
Fig. 21 presents a Parisian type, tHth 
one apartment to the story, while 
Fig. 22 shows the French architect's 
manner of making desirable the rear 
apartment in a scheme of apartments 
fore and aft. 

In any proposed scheme for an 
apartment building in which a court 
is necessary to the plan (and few 
apartment buildings are so circum- 
stanced that courts are needless or 
are merely incidental;, in the matter of 
the arrangement of rooms in any one 
apartment, and of the relation of 
apartments to each other, the ground 
area of the court must be studied in 
conjunction with and made dependent 
on the number and height of the 
stories. For it goes without saying 
that a court or area which would be 
sufficiently light and airy for a build- 
ing of one or two low stories, would 
be entirely inadequate to its purposes 



plan may seem to reveal as wasted space in the court, in the ultimate 
analysis of the case may transpire to be of highest economy, com- 
mercial and otherwise ; and con- 
versely, many a building has failed as 
an investment, because while the plan 
seemed to present an economical ar- 
rangement in the finished building, 
the court was totally inadequate to 
its purposes. There can be no hard 
and fast rules regulating the ratio 
which shall exist between the height 
of surrounding walls and the ground 
area of a court, for the special situa- 
tion and the nature of the chambers 
depending on the court all count as 
determining factors. To get air and 
sunlight into the lower stories of a 
group of high buildings situated on 
not over-wide streets is a serious prob- 
lem, and the high building surround- 
ing a court presents the same difficul- 
ties. Attempt has been made by 
designers of high skill, along the lines 
suggested in Fig. 23, plan, and Fig. 

24, section, and applied in more or 
less modified form to office building 
construction with practical results. 
In such a scheme the streets and 
alleys receive the benefit of direct 
sunlight, which is in itself an admir- 
able and much to be desired attain- 
ment. The same scheme as applied 
to an enclosed court is noted in Fig. 

25. In the arrangement of stairs 
and elevators the scheme of Fig. 24 
permits of the centralization which is 

rluVrvL d^ required in a building designed for 




QOQO 

101100 

QQOO 

QQDQ 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



251 




FlGVUe 25 

office uses, while a plan such as would result in the section indicated 
in Fig. 25 would admit of and require widely separated stairway and 
elevator arrangement, such as is demanded in large buildings with 
numerous apartments to the story. 

This scheme of offset walls is more practical in an office than 
in an apartment building, where for sake of economy in plan 
and internal arrangements one story must repeat in a measure the 
principal features of the one below. However, a modification is pre- 
sented in Fig. 26 in plan, and in Fig. 27 in section, which is interest- 
ing and may be found to contain much of suggestion. The mansards 
of Paris and the storied roofs of Nuremberg, adding their suggestive- 
ness to a knowledge of the varied conditions of social life of a Berliner 
apartment building and of the communal life of a family hotel in 
Europe or America, but more especially in America, are reflected 
in the scheme, and present an arrangement designed to meet 
the requirements of two special and distinct phases of apartment 
life not heretofore mentioned. For Figs. 26 and 27 are intro- 
duced not alone to indicate how the introduction of sunlight may 
be effected, but also to suggest the possibility of catering to that 
variety which is essential to the comfort and convenience of the 
higher social life of to-day. A study of apartment buildings would 
not be complete if it did not recognize the necessities of those 
who are painfully self-conscious in the public glare of the hotel and 
desire the privacy of family life, yet wish also to avoid the cares and 
responsibilities coincident with the direction of a large corps of ser- 
vants, and therefore wish to reduce the culinary department to a 
minimum. Apartments for such as these, in all their appointments, 
follow types already described, except as to kitchen, which is small, 
but so efficiently equipped that the household shall not at all times 



and under all conditions be dependent on the public restaurant. In 
a building containing apartments of this type a public restaurant 
must be maintained, and a general laundry is desirable. 

Nor would a study of apartment buildings have fulfilled its pur- 
pose if it were to take no notice of the requirements of a large and 
rapidly growing constituency known as " bachelors," and of another 
smaller though important section known in fiction as " bachelor 
maids." Entire buildings are devoted to the accommodation of 
these members of the bodies politic and social, and these buildings 
generally are equipped with a restaurant more or less public in its 
nature. It seems highly desirable to combine bachelor apartments 
in the scheme with apartments for those who desire to depend for 
the most part on the public dining service. Such combination does 





novuE- 2^ 



not tend to isolate the bachelor, but to bring him in closer contact 
with society and make him more of a factor in the life of civilization. 
The smallest suite for a bachelor should consist of a sitting room and 
bed alcove or a connected bedroom and a toilet room with basin, 
bath, and closet. A practicable fireplace in the sitting room is 
almost as much of a necessity as the room itself for the companion- 
ship and the air of comfortable homelikeness it affords. 

Probably the best location for the dining room or cafd con- 
nected with an apartment building is in the topmost story, and so 
situated as to command the best views without, for while it is 
desirable to have the attention centered about the board, in 
a public dining room this is almost impossible, and attractive 
exterior vistas, together with pleasing interior decorations, 
serve to occupy thoughts and speech to the exclusion of neigh- 
bors. Smaller rooms for private service will be found desir- 
able in connection with the apartment cafd. The roof caf<5, 
decorated with potted plants along the lines of the palm gar- 
den, is gaining favor and will become a feature of public 
dining service. In all cases enclosed corridors and elevators 
must connect the general or public dining room with each and 
every apartment depending on it. The kitchen of the public 
cafe must be isolated and thoroughly ventilated, for kitchen 
odors are obnoxious in apartments and persist if once intro- 
duced. 

A possibility of combining these various elements of 
public and private service and of lesser and more extended 
accommodation is sought to be suggested in the section pre- 
sented in Fig. 27. 

Another glance at this same figure with special reference 
to the shadow line will help to an appreciation of some of the 
problems of court embellishment. The ground of the court 



2C2 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



may be treated in one of three manners or in a combination of these. 
First, the court may be paved with a desirable material, such as 
marble, brick, or concrete, or these used in combination, and made 
to be effective viewed from above by the pattern and form and color 
of the integral parts, or it may be treated as an artificial garden, or 
again as a natural garden. A court pave which is continually drenched 
in shadow must be treated as a pave alone. If at some time during 
the day sunlight touches it, the pave may be embellished in an en- 
tirelv artificial manner with plants in pots and shrubs and trees in 
boxes. That this treatment may be charming to a high degree is 
evidenced in the courts of Old-World hotels, and in the palm gar- 
dens of American cities. 

A court, however, to be treated as a natural garden, that is, a 
garden in which is greensward and flowering plants and shrubs in 
beds, must be bathed in sunshine during a greater portion of the day. 
Natural gardens, to be entirely harmonious and artistically effective, 
must be laid out and developed in a formal manner when they come 
in close conjunction with apartment buildings, for the apartment 
building is necessarily one which should present a graciously formal 
front to the world. Courts, to be of sufficient size to admit of this 
treatment, may not be possible in the older and more completely occu- 
pied portions of the great cities, but struggle should be made to 
procure them in the newer and as yet undeveloped quarters, where 
the architect and landscapist may have free sway. The ideal scheme 
to be sought even in the neighborhood of great parks is to have con- 
venient and homelike apartments in buildings of reasonable height, 
surrounding a cultivated court or garden on which the apartments 
shall face, gaining thus quiet and privacy and insuring a beautiful 
prospect, which shall continue undisturbed by neighboring building 
' operations. 

If any one accessory of court embellishment is to be given 
special mention, it must be the fountain, which beyond all else is the 
most musical, poetical, and vivifying feature of landscape treatment. 
Whether the court be artificial or natural in its handling or whether 
it be barren of all other decorative objects, the fountain gives an 
atmosphere of life and animation. However, it is not the function 
of this article to enlarge on the possibilities of court treatment beyond 
that already suggested, which is, in fine, that the ample court has a 
commercial value and may have an artistic value as well, and should 
be developed to the full extent of its architectural and decorative 
capabilities. 

As it has been the purpose of these articles to bring to notice 
such matters of general scheme and detail as appertain particularly 
to apartment buildings, such other matters as all buildings have in 
common, as systems of plumbing or of heating or of construction of 
walls, and floor systems, have been disregarded ; nor is it needful to 
discuss them here, for they are part of the general knowledge of 
building, requiring, however, considerable care and foresight, not to 
say insight in the application. And, too, as to the architectural style 
which shall be adopted for the treatment of apartment buildings, little 
need be said. Greatly to be desired is a dignified yet domestic feel- 
ing, quietly handled in any style which is real style and which may 
prevail at the time and in the locality. When ideals of domesticity 
and home life change, style will change and no amount of argumen- 
tation will alter the course. The only suggestion that a lover of 
sincere style can offer is that at all times a simple scheme be made 
the base of the design both in plan and elevation, and to this as 
much of elaboration and beautiful decoration be applied as may be 
deemed desirable, but that no complexity of scheme be offered as a 
reason for its adoption. In apartments as in life complexity of pur- 
pose palls ; simplicity gains with age and knowledge. 



Thk principle which artists now have mainly to contend for is 
that of truth; forgotten, trodden under foot, despised if not hated 
for ages, this must be their watchword. If they be architects, let 
them remember how vitally necessary truthfulness in construction, in 
design, and in decoration is to any permanent success in even the 
smallest of their works. Street. 



Important Problems in Construction. 

FOUNDATIONS. 

KV WII.I.IA.M W. ( RKMORE, AS.SOC. M. AM. SOC. C. E. 

THE less plastic or spongy the soil i.s, the more weight it will 
carry per unit of surface. Sometimes the ground has to be 
excavated to a considerable depth before a sufficiently stable soil can 
be found. In designing for heavy loads it is always best to investigate 
beforehand by sinking test holes or by making careful borings, be- 
cause without the knowledge thus obtained it is impossible to decide 
upon the most economical method of procedure or to design a founda- 
tion that shall be best adapted to the conditions of the case. In 
making borings it is not sufficient to have ascertained the depth of 
the hard-pan below the surface, but samples of the soil taken at fre- 
quent intervals — every two or three feet if the material is changeable — • 
should be preserved for reference. Nor unless they all yield exactly 
the same result is it sufficient to make two or three such examina- 
tions do for the whole building ; but a separate investigation should 
be made for each footing in order to determine with any degree of 
precision the best method of executing the work. Furthermore, it 
is important to continue the borings far enough to find out the thick- 
ness of the hard pan upon which it is proposed to rest; for if it 
should prove to be only a crust 3 or 4 ft. thick overlying quicksand 
or other dangerous material, it would be unwise to impose upon it as 
great a load as if it were 10 or 12 ft. thick. 

When upon investigation it is found necessary to go several 
feet below the proposed cellar floor level in order to obtain a suitable 
bearing stratum, it will be cheaper and better to design the footings 
as isolated piers, each of such section as would be determined by the 
distribution of its load on the bearing stratum (gravel, hard-pan, 
rock, or whatever it may be) with the proper allowance per unit of 
area. These piers can be placed well within the limits of the prop- 
erty and the imposed loads brought to them if necessary by means 
of a system of girders (see Fig. 1); or, being on the property line, may 
receive the wall load through a system of brick arches (see Fig. 2). 
If rock is found at a reasonable depth, a more satisfactory result 
will be obtained by sinking all piers to rock even though a good hard, 
bearing stratum be found a few feet above it. One reason for this 
is that a very much larger load per unit of area may be imposed on 
the rock than on the hard-pan or gravel, and thus the extra expense 
required to cover the greater area is avoided, and the pier may be 
built of uniform section from the bottom up. The piers may be 
built of brick, masonry, or good Portland cement concrete. In ex- 
cavating for them it is necessary to drive sheet piling in the form of 
a square or rectangular box, or else to sink a steel cylinder or bot- 
tomless box, called a " caisson." the necessity for the latter method de- 
pending upon the depth of the hard-pan and the character of the 
material to be excavated. In this box, when driven or sunk, the pier 
is built. Good Portland cement concrete is the best and cheapest 
material to use for the pier, as it may be lowered in place with the 
least expenditure of time and labor. As caissons have to be driven 
vertically, each must necessarily have a cross section ec^ual to the 
required bearing area of the pier. Therefore, if the bearing is to be 
on rock the size of the pier, the amount of the excavation and the 
labor required to sink the caisson are all much less than would be 
required if the bearing stratum were anything except rock. 

As just stated, it depends on the depth and the character of the 
material to be excavated whether to drive sheet pding or to u.se 
steel caissons. It also depends on the amount of water in the 
ground. Alluvial soils or quicksand filled with water cannot be ex- 
cavated below the water level without danger of drawing into the 
hole some of the material outside of it, and thus undermining the 
neighboring ground. Even with the best of tongued and grooved 
sheet piling quicksand will flow through the cracks and eventually 
cause a "cave-in" when the excavation has proceeded but a few 
feet. Through such material it is necessary to excavate by means 
of a steel caisson tightly riveted and jointed. The cutting edge must 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



253 



be kept well down below the level of the excavation to pre\?ent any 
back-flow of the material. It will require heavy weighting with pig 
iron or old rails to accomplish this, and the bulk of this weight 
should be piled on shelves inside the caisson as near the cutting edge 
as possible, without interfering with the men in their work. This 
will keep the center of gravity low, and thus assist in preventing the 
caisson from getting out of plumb as it goes down. 

With a large amount of water in the ground the work of pump- 
ing increases very rapidly as the excavation goes deeper, for the 
water has to be kept out so that the men 
can work. When the caisson reaches 
bottom or the highest point of rock and 
cannot be driven down any further, the 
excavation is continued by driving narrow 
tongued and grooved yellow pine sheeting 
all around the inside edge (see Fig. 3). 
This sheeting, or " lagging," as it is called, 
accommodates itself to the unevenness of 
the rock, and when down tight all around, 
the rock can be thoroughly cleansed before 
the first concrete is thrown in. If the 
rock lies on a slope too great for a secure 
bearing and contains no unevenness in its 
surface into which concrete may settle and 
form prongs for anchoring the bottom of 
the pier, it may be necessary to drill a few 
holes and set iron anchors into the rock, 
allowing them to stand up an equal dis- 
tance in the pier, or to dress off the rock in 
a series of level steps. If the pier is to 

rest on hard-pan or gravel instead of rock, no lagging is needed. The 
cutting edge of the caisson should be sunk well into the hard stratum 
and the bottom of the hole leveled off ready for the concrete. In 
holes where the water runs in rapidly it is necessary to work fast 
towards the end. Concrete should be mixed dry in large quantities, 
and as soon as the bottom of the hole is prepared, the pumps should 
be withdrawn and the concrete lowered in as quickly as possible, so as 
to keep ahead of the water, which will at once begin to accumulate. 

When the depth to rock or hard-pan warrants the expenditure, 
caissons should be sunk by the pneumatic or compressed air process. 
By this method most of the risks and inconveniences incident to the 
open caisson method are eliminated 
or reduced to a minimum. No pump- 
ing is required, because the air pres- 
sure in the caisson keeps the water 
back, and if water cannot run in, of 
course sand cannot either. Then, too, 
the rock may be thoroughly cleaned 
off without the use of lagging, no 
matter how rough or uneven it may 
be. But it costs money to use com- 
pressed air, and the work has to be 
continued both by night and by day 
to obtain the greatest economy out 
of the plant. It is, therefore, an open 
question how deep the excavation 
must be to make it profitable to use 1 

the pneumatic method. This again 

depends on the nature of the ground to be excavated and the amount 
of water in it, because the open caisson work can be carried suc- 
cessfully much deeper in dry soil than in wet. Probably it is safe to 
say that in alluvial or sandy soil containing much water the open 
caisson method should not be used further than twenty or twenty- 
five feet below the ground level.' In less dangerous soil it might 
be used to thirty feet. Beyond this depth, however, it is wiser to es- 
timate on the compressed air method at the outset. 

1 By ** ground level " is meant the level of the general excavation or the cellar bottom, 
which is usually twelve to fourteen feet below the street surface. 




FIG. I. 



f"^^''^yy^>:?^^:Z:!^7'^<7^:^?^^;:;;!::^^^ 




Reference has already been made in this paper to the fact that 
the capacity of any bearing stratum depends, among other things, 
upon its thickness. The angle of repose of any material is the 
greatest angle at which the material will remain heaped or piled up 
without sliding. This angle is measured between an element of the 
sloping surface and the horizontal. As generally calculated, the 
bearing power of any material is a function of its angle of repose, its 
density, and its depth or the thickness of the stratum. These last 
two properties affect the bearing capacity in a direct ratio ; that is, if 
the stratum were twice as thick it would 
bear twice as much, or if the material in it 
were twice as dense it would bear twice 
as much. It is also true that of two kinds 
of material the one having a greater angle 
of repose will bear more weight than the 
other, but not proportionately more. 

Another style of foundation very often 
used where isolated loads have to be taken 
care of is a pile foundation. Piles are 
driven in clumps as close together as prac- 
ticable, but not so close that the last four 
or five in the clump cannot be driven as 
far as the first four or five. Of course, 
the profitableness of pile foundations de- 
pends largely upon the kind of material 
through which the piles " have to be 
driven, and how long they must be to ob- 
tain a secure bearing. Then, too, piles 
cannot be used except in water-bearing 
soil, and it should be pretty certainly as- 
certained that the water level will continue to be permanent. This 
is a somewhat difficult point to determine unless the location is near 
some body of water which remains at a more or less permanent level. 
It is then a simple matter to cut off the piles below the lowest 
water level and start the masonry or concrete at this point. But 
without some assurance as to the permanency of the water level it 
is imprudent to use pile foundations. Surface water or surface 
drainage changes with the different seasons of the year very materi- 
ally, and the water level in the ground is apt to rise and fall many 
feet in a short period of time. This action is very injurious to piles 
or timber of any kind; in a very short time timber under such action 

will disintegrate and decay, and, of 
course, piles so injured could not be 
depended upon to carry weight. This 
is the chief objection to using piles 
for foundation work under heavy 
loads. 

Piles should be driven until their 
points enter the hard-pan three or four 
feet, especially if the mtermediate 
material is alluvial or spongy soil. In 
such soil, and in quicksand or other 
material containing large quantities 
of water, there is always more or less 
motion way below the surface of the 
ground, owing to the variations in 
:. pressure from near-by or distant 

causes. Consequently, piles whose 
points were not firmly fixed in a hard, immovable stratum would be 
liable to dislocation from outside forces in the ground. It is thought 
by some very advantageous to use piles in material of this nature 
where the underlying stratum is rock, driving the piles down until the 
points are battered against the rock ; but such a method is not to be 
depended upon. It may work all right and it may not. If the rock pre- 
sents a sloping surface and the material above it is of the nature just de- 
scribed, liable to motion at times, there is danger that the feet of the 
piles may slide down the surface of the rock and thus lose their bear- 
ing, and even if the rock presented a fairly level surface and the 



254 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




piles stood squarely on it, there would be some danger that the motion 
in the material throuj^h which the piles passed might displace them 
or throw their heads (and consequently the foundation itself) out of 
line. These remarks apply more particularly to short piles, or to 
^ localities where the rock is not 

very far below the surface. Of 
course, the deeper the rock is, 
the more material there is 
above it to hold the pile in 
position, and therefore the less 
liability there is that any dis- 
location will occur. Another 
objection to driving piles to 
rock bottom is, that the last 
few blows of the pile-driver 
are apt to break the pile some 
distance from the point, any- 
where in fact where the pile is 
weak. It requires very care- 
ful driving to avoid this; the 
material through which the 
pile is driven being soft and 
spongy, when the point strikes 
the rock the sudden change 
is so great that it may not be 
discerned quickly enough by 
the operator. 

The usual way of starting 
the foundation on top of piles 
is to cut them off at a given 
level and till in a solid con- 
crete bed 2 or 3 ft. thick down 
to a point i8 ins. or 2 ft. below 
the heads of the piles. On 
this bed of concrete the ma- 
sonry is started, or if it is to 
carry a column it may be coveted by grillage beams properly spread 
over its surface to distribute the load of the column. The amount of 
load which may be safely imposed upon each pile is in some cities 
regulated by law, but such a regulation, of course, restricts all cases 
to the conditions of the worst. Localities differ so much that it is 
not probable that any two sets of pile foundations constructed in the 
same manner possess the same efficiency, but it is safe to form a 
definite conclusion as to the bearing capacity of a pile from its action 
under the hammer. The usual rule is : — 

C . , 2wh 2 X weight of hammer x hammer's fall in feet 




FIG. 3. SECTION.AL KI.KV ATION. 



S+1 



set under last blow in inches -f i. 



There is this objection to the use of any such rule which has to 
be applied during the progress of the work: namely, that it is not 
possible to decide in advance just how many piles will be needed and 
therefore to design the footings with reference to this ; but in most 
cases there is some circumstance from which one may form a fairly 
correct judgment in advance, and thus approximate the number of 
piles necessary under each footing. It may be done, for instance, by 
observing the results of other work in the neighborhood or by com- 
paring samples of the soil with other soil in which piles have been 
driven. If deemed necessary, a few test piles might be driven to 
determine the allowance of weight for each. Specifications usually 
require piles to ht driven with a hammer of given weight, falling a 
given height, until the set under the last blow does not exceed a given 
specified amount, which has been determined by an application of the 
foregoing formula for safe load. This works very well where there 
is a sufficient stratum of hard-pan to receive the points of the piles 
and embed them properly: but if, as is often the case, the hard-pan 
is only a thin crust overlying something softer, it then requires con- 
siderable skill to stop the pile just at the right point in its downward 
course, and more often, just as it is thought to be properly set, the last 



^ 



blow will send it crashing through the hard-pan in open defiance of 
the specification. This only emphasizes the nece.ssity for making 
preliminary borings or soundings in the case of pile foundations as 
well as for other kinds. 

A very much better although more expensive way of building a 
foundation in localities where the rock is not far below the surface is 
to use pipe piles filled solidly with concrete. These pipes, 8 to 1 2 ins. 
in diameter, are driven by steady pressure and with water jet, being 
made up in short lengths, say 4 to 6 ft. each, with the customary pipe 
fittings on each piece. They are screwed together as wanted, and 
forced down to a solid bearing on the rock. These pipes, obviously, 
bear very much more weight than it is safe to allow on wooden piles 
of the same diameter, and consequently they need not be spaced as 
closely. When down to solid rock, the bottom should be cleaned off 
and Portland cement concrete filled in to the top. The heads of 
these piles should be embedded in a solid bed of concrete similar to 
the one described, the depth of this bed depending upon the average 
distance of the piles from each other, so that the farther apart the 
piles are the thicker the bed should be. 

This latter method of footings is an ideal way of underpinning 
or shoring buildings adjoining which there is to be deep excavation 
or heavy foundation work (see Fig. 4). Pipe piles may be sunk one 
at a time and driven down by the use of jacks under the building's 
own weight. Their distance apart is regulated by the load to be 
carried, and they should be so placed as to receive this load most 
advantageously. Such supports as these form the most secure 
underpinning for a building resting upon more or less spongy or 
water-bearing soil, which is liable to be drawn away by the opera- 
tions of the work adjoining. More especially is this true if there is 
a large underlying stratum of quicksand. Very many buildings are 
resting upon (|uicksand, either immediately on or a few feet above it, 
and in fact such a stratum is perfectly secure and stable so long as 
it is allowed to remain undisturbed; but as soon as the pressure in 
the neighborhood is relieved at any point, the quicksand ceases to be 
confined and moves in the line of least resistance, thereby undermin- 
ing the actual material upon which the building rests or perhaps the 
building itself. It is therefore exceedingly necessary to provide care- 
fully for the security of weights or buildings resting upon soil of this 
nature before any of the pressure in the neighborhood is relieved. 
In comparison with other methods of shoring buildings which rest 
upon uncertain soil, the method of pipe-piling is far superior to any. 
In any system of spur-shoring or needling, the building's weight is 
merely transferred from one point to another on the same surface, 

and unless the feet of the 
shores are resting on stable 
material, there is just the 
same danger in undermin- 
ing them as in undermining 
the building without them. 
In fact, to hold a building 
securely against damage, 
it must be underpinned to 
something solid and stable 
enough to 
carry its 
weight with- 
out yielding, 
and further- 
more, the un- 
derpin n i ng 
must go down 
a t least a s 
deep as any 

excavations in 
fk;. 4. ,, . ... 

the immediate 

vicinity are to be carried. This can be done thoroughly well and 

with comparatively little expense by the method of pipe-piling, or 

"stilts," as it is occasionally called. 



DD D D D n DD 
DO □ D n D DD 
DD D D D D DD 

□D n D DD DD 



xt- 



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ir#4\^^ 



jtyg^^.y i-gygL. 



J^fifiWgVT rLooR. 






THE BRICKBUILDER 



255 



A SEVENTEEN-STORY BUILDING TESTED BY FIRE. 

THE most crucial test to which a building of typical modern 
construction has yet been subjected occurred in New York 
City, a little before midnight, on the 4th inst. A fire originated in 
the basement of an old-style erection of five stories, stocked with in- 
flammable merchandise. This building stood on the southwest cor- 
ner of a block, and the fire reached its height during the progress of 
a wind storm blowing from the northeast. This fiery ordeal was 
therefore a conclusive one, in point of severity and duration. The facts 
obtained and observations made by the writer at the scene of this fire 
on the 5th and again on the6th inst. suggest a number of important con- 
siderations, and will be found to bear out the following deductions : — 

First. The fire did not originate in the modern building, but in 
a structure which had been erected long before the era of fire-proof 
building. The former had little to 
fear from fire on its own account, and 
should one have occurred on any of 
its floors, there is little doubt but it 
would ' have been extinguished by 
means of the appliances at hand. 
Certainly it would have been local- 
ized, and subdued without serious 
damage to other parts of the build- 
ing. The origin, as well as the ex- 
tent, of the disaster is therefore due, 
not to the height of the building, or 
to defects in its construction, but to 
the proximity of an undesirable and, 
as it proved, dangerous neighbor. 

Second. The omission of iron 
shutters from the north wall and 
around the light shaft of the Home 
Life Building was undoubtedly the 
secondary cause of the extensive 
damage which that building sus- 
tained. With flames towering up from 
the seething mass of five stories be- 
low, and driven by a fierce wind 
against twelve stories of plate glass 
and window sashes, it was, of course, 
but a question of minutes before they 
would gain admission to the interior. 
These windows giving way simulta- 
neously, tongues of flame reached the 
furniture, fittings, loose papers, and 
other combustible contents on every 
one of these floors. The modern 
building had then to withstand twelve 
distinct fires of its own, all of which 
were fed from the sheet of solid flame 
in which it was enveloped on the out- 
side. Had the window openings been 

furnished with close-fiiting shutters of sheet iron, leaving an air space 
equal to the depth of the reveals, we doubt whether the flames would 
have penetrated into any portion of the interior. Doubtless there 
would have been broken gla.ss, scorched woodwork, and other evi- 
dences of a fire that had been held at bay ; but the immunity from 
flame on these twelve floors would have enabled a detail of fire- 
men to remain on each of them, playing water on the inside of the iron 
window shutters, until the fire in the old building had been exhausted. 

Third. Had the Broadway frontage been less pretentious, it 
would have been more enduring, even when attacked by fire. A free 
adaptation of French Renaissance detail, carved in the choicest marble, 
was indeed a thing of beauty — before the fire had calcined the car- 
bonate of lime, and water had reduced it to a hydrate. Our photo- 
graph, taken on the day following the fire, gives an idea of the extent 
to which every projecting member had already suffered. At that 




HOME LIFE INSURANCE KUILDINC 
Burned Dec. 4, 1898. 



time but little water had reached the upper stories, and the utter' 
destruction of the marble will therefore not become apparent until 
after it has lost all cohesion (" slacked "), which it will do by the 
immediate action of successive rains, alternating with approaching 
frost. If allowed to stand untouched, very little of the marble in 
the upper stories would sustain its own weight during the four months 
next ensuing. 

Fourth. A frontage of terra-cotta and brick walling that had 
already passed through a white heat in the kiln would have defied 
the action of the flames, besides affording a corresponding degree 
of increased protection to the structural steel. We have no hesita- 
tion in saying that had these materials been used instead of the 
more expensive marble, it would have required but a good cleaning 
down with soap and water to render the Home Life Building the 
abiding home of its owners. As it is, the apparently casual use of 

burned clay in the form of tile, hip- 
roll, and ridge cresting has alone en- 
abled them to retain a roof over their 
heads. Not a particle of this red roof- 
ing tile has suffered, in which respect 
it stands out in uncompromising con- 
trast with its surroundings. 

Fifth. The steel frame remains 
erect, having stood this remarkable 
test in a way to dispel doubts as to its 
efficiency, instead of giving cause for 
alarm in relation to skeleton construc- 
tion generally. This fire, so far from 
being " the death knell of the sky- 
scraper," has furnished a striking, if 
not a conclusive, vindication of its 
safety under the most trying condi- 
tions. The superintendent of the build- 
ing department does not overstate the 
case in saying that " the firemen would 
have been blowing up buildings away 
down below the Astor House in an 
effort to stop the progress of a con- 
flagration, had there not been such a 
bulwark interposed between the flames 
and the blocks below." Our own opin- 
ion is, that had the block bounded by 
Broadway, Murray, Church, and War- 
ren Streets been composed of five- 
story buildings, such as the one in 
which the fire took hold, none of them 
could have escaped destruction. This, 
we think, will be considered a very con- 
servative estimate, when we recall 
what happened in Boston, Chicago, 
etc., during the present generation. 
,, ,898. Si.vth. With the two fundamen- 

tal exceptions to which attention has 
been directed, this building proved that there is such a thing as 
fire-proof construction. It has likewise accentuated a number of 
things liable to be overlooked or underestimated by architects, in 
settling the details and selecting the materials to be used in build- 
ings of the class to which it belongs. In the present instance, we 
have noted what seems to us the two fatal weaknesses to which is 
due nearly all the damage that has befallen an otherwise successful 
scheme of construction. With the Broadway frontage executed in 
architectural terra-cotta, and the rear windows adequately protected, 
the Home Life Building could have been made equally beautiful and 
at the same time invulnerable. Now that the upper half of the 
frontage overlooking this famous thoroughfare will probably be re- 
built, we venture to offer these belated reminders on the principle 
that capable men can afford to admit their mistakes, and wise men 
always hasten to correct them. T. Cu.sack. 



NEW YORK CITV. 



256 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



REPORT ON 



HOME LIFE BUILDING 
YORK, DEC. 4, 1898. 



FIRE, NEW 



BV CHAKLES J. EVERETT, JR. 

CONTR.A.RY to popular opinion, the recent fire in Rogers, Peet 
& Co.'s large clothing store, and in the adjoining •' sky- 
scraper," furnishes evidence of the efficiency of progressive fire-proof 
construction, notwithstanding the fact that in some respects the 
building was not the most advanced type of modern fire-resisting 
structure, as will be pointed out further on. A change of plan by 
the owner, doubling the width of the building after reaching the 
sixth story, rendered necessary certain modifications of detail, and in- 
creased the burden of the architects, who are rarely free agents in 
such matters. 

The block on Broadway, between Warren and Murray Streets, 
was occupied by three buildings, namely. Rogers, Peet & Co.'s five- 
story store on one corner, the fourteen-story Postal Telegraph Build- 
ino- on the other corner, and the Home Life Insurance Company's 
building filling the space between. The Home Life Building is a 
steel frame structure of fifteen stones, surmounted by a tall, wedge- 




shaped tower, and was erected in 1S94, from designs of Messrs. N. 
Le Brun & Sons, architects. 

On the night of December 4, at about ten o'clock, fire started in 
the first story of the store of Rogers, Peet & Co., during a furious 
northeast gale, which at times reached a velocity of over sixty miles 
an hour. The Hames soon broke through the roof of the building, 
and were driven by the strong winds against the lofty walls of the 
Insurance Company's building, rushing up the light shaft, which 
formed an excellent chimney extending 150 ft. above the roof of the 
clothing store. Two sides of this light shaft consist almost entirely 
of window openings unprotected by iron shutters, and the third or 
rear side shows two windows to each floor, likewise unprotected. 
The main wall of the building on the same north side also contained 
two windows at each story, without shutters. The flames from the 
clothing store, beating against all these windows, shivered the glass, 
ignited the sashes and frames, and urged by the strong gale, soon 
filled every story of the taller building above the seventh floor with 
a mass of fire. This assault from the outside made it impossible for 
the firemen to fight thq flames within the Insurance Building until 
the clothing store was entirely consumed. 

The floor construction of the Home Life's building was 9 in. 
beams in the front portion and 12 in. beams in the rear, spaced 
about 4 ft. 6 ins. apart, and 9 in. hard tile terra-cotta side-construc- 
tion arches between beams. The lower flanges of beams were pro- 



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tected by skew-backs with protecting lips. The floors were of two 
thicknesses of }i in. boards nailed every 16 ins. to 3 by 4 in. 
sleepers laid on beams. Little or no concrete was used over arches, 
thus leaving a free air space of about 4 ins. in front and 7 ins. in 
rear, between the top of arches and the wood flooring. The absence 
of concrete filling over arches left the upper flanges of beams ex- 
posed for, say, I in. and those of girders for 2 ins. in front portion of 
building, and still more in rear. While none of these exposed 
flanges appear to have been injured by fire, except on the fifteenth 
floor, they escaped only by reason of the limited height of exposed 
metal, as demonstrated by results on fifteenth floor, mentioned 
further on. Over a large part of the building above the seventh 
story the flooring and sleepers were entirely consumed. This air 
space beneath the floors insures the destruction of all combustible 
floor material. It should be entirely filled with incombustible 
matter. 

The partitions were of 4 in. porous terracotta tile, and the 
column covering and furring was of same material 2 ins. thick. The 
partitions rested directly on the arches, or on a ridge of concrete 
brought to a level with the top of beams, so that there were no fire- 
runs under the partitions, as has been stated by some critics. The 
hall partitions, as is usual, did not extend to the ceiling, windows 
with wooden frames filling the upper 3 ft. or so. The columns were 




FIG. 3. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



257 




1 k;. 4. 

covered with 2 in. porous tile blocks ribbed at backs to allow a 
partial air space. The lower flanges of important girders which pro- 
jected below ceilings were covered with wire netting and plaster, or 
mortar, rather. 

As tlie building was practically gutted from the eighth Hoor to 
the roof, it is unnecessary to describe the condition of each floor 
after the fire. 

In many of the rooms the fire consumed everything combustible, 
including all door and window frames and casings, all floors and 
sleepers. The heat was strong enough to warp and twist ironwork, 
such as steam and water pipes, typewriters, etc., and in one room the 
brass of a light bracket was melted ; yet the terra-cotta arches (of 
hard tile), the furring and column covering (of porous tile) were 
uninjured, and with a very few exceptions, the floor arches are in 
such condition as to require little or no repair. The first exceptions 
are where safes resting on floors between beams were dropped a 
distance of several inches, through the free air space just con- 
demned, on to the tile arches, by the burning away of the flooring. 
In one instance a safe weighing about two tons fell through the tenth 
floor into the office of the Rapid Transit Commission on the ninth 



floor and there stopped. The tile arch directly under the falling 
safe was knocked out, but the double wooden floor, and the fact that 
one edge of the safe struck the side of a girder, stopped further 
descent. The second exception occurs in the rooms on the fifteenth 
floor, on west side of light shaft, where an entire panel of arch has 
fallen, and the remaining arches between it and the stairs are bellied 
so as to necessitate removal. The i 2 in. beams of this section are 
found to be sagged. The failure of these beams can only be due to 
the heating of the upper portions, which were exposed for a height 
of 4 ins. above the arches, as the lower flanges of some of them are 
still well protected by the tile. Some other arches appear to be 
slightly bellied, and in some places the lower webs of single blocks 
are cracked off ; but the condition of the arches, taken as a whole. 





FIG. 5. 



indicates a splendid resisting power and adecjuate protection of 
metal from a very hot and prolonged fire. 

This fire warns us against the use of wire netting and plaster 
for protecting beams in the manner here applied. (See Fig. 1.) 

The webs of all girders were well protected underneath by tile 
blocks supported by lower girder flanges, but the girder flanges 
depended for protection upon wire netting bent around them and 
then plastered. Where the wire netting was thus bent around both 
sides of flanges it held itself in position, but in some cases the netting 
was nailed on one side to the porous partition blocks, as shown in 
Fig. t. In the hall partitions the upper blocks were supported by 
the wooden framing of the partition windows, and, of course, fell 
when this framing was burned, and pulled down with them the pro- 
tecting plaster coat, exposing the girder to the fire. This, however, 
could hardly have occurred until after the fire had begun to subside, 
since the girders show no marks of injury ; but had the fire continued 
after the netting fell, some of the main girders must have failed by 
reason of their lower flanges being exposed for a length of i o ft. or more. 



'■S8 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



In general, where the fire played strongly against plastering it 
fell off from walls and ceiling, and the plaster on the under side of 
the wire netting likewise drojjped off. leaving only that portion which 
was pressed through on the upper side of the netting to protect the 
metal framing. In some instances the netting hugged the metal so 




FIG. 7. 

closely at some points that there was no room for protective 
plaster on the inner side, and practically left the metal without 
protection. 

Wherever this method of fire protection is adopted, a space of 
at least 1 in. should always be preserved between the netting and the 
metal requiring protection, and this space filled with the coating of 
plaster, etc. Without this precaution the supposed protection may 
be entirely useless. 

Referring again to column covering, the porous tile preserved 
the plate columns from injury ,in every case ; but in many in- 
stances the cement bond of the joints was broken, and the tile must 
be reset. 

The growing opinion is that no air spaces should be left around 
columns, but that the covering blocks should be set directly against 
the metal and made as solid as possible with mortar or cement. 

Fig. 3 shows condition on the eighth floor after the fire. 

Fig. 4, the office of the Rapid Transit Commission on the ninth 
floor, showing the two-ton safe that fell through from floor above. 

Fig. 5 shows one of the main columns on the eleventh floor 
after being stripped for inspection. 

Fig. 6, fourteenth floor ; showing arches, girders, and column 
covering, all in good condition. 

Fig. 7, fifteenth floor; west side of light shaft, showing the floor 
where the whole panel fell, and where the 12 in. beams are bent. 

Fig. <S, fifteenth floor; showing the most seriously injured steel 
member. This is the middle section of the 24 in. by 10 in. plate 
girder, that crosses the Broadway front of the building. The other 
two sections of the girder are also distorted, but in a less degree. 
The upper flange was about 10 ins. above the floor, and by an over- 
sight had no fire protection. The upper flange and upper part 
of the web of this girder were sufficiently heated to buckle and de- 
flect sidewise; this caused it to twist enough to loosen the fire- 
proofing from the lower flange. The girder has sagged somewhat 
under its load, and appears to have been very near to the point of 
collapse. 

On cooling, the flanges being bent, the original length was de- 
creased, and the strong end connections pulled the sides of the 
columns slightly out of line. This appears to be the greatest dam- 
age sustained by any part of the metal frame, and is entirely due to 
ab.sence of fire protection. 

There is room for great improvement in the construction of 
partitions within buildings, that i.s, for partitions so constructed that 
they will not tumble down as soon as subjected to attacks of fire or 



of water. Fig. 5 gives an idea of the destruction of the.se flimsy par- 
titions. To prevent the falling of the blocks pver the doorways as soon 
as the wood frames are burned, the tile manufacturers recommend 
constructing flat arches over the doorways by setting the blocks on 
end, as per Fig. 2. 

A lesson taught by this fire is that no unprotected metal of ex- 
tended and continuous lengths should be employed upon the external 
walls of buildings. The windows of the light shaft were furnished 
with cast-iron sills, lintels, and muUions. The sills and lintels were 
2Z}4 ft. in length. The fire, drawing up past and into the windows, 
heated and expanded these iron members, in some places sufficient 
to force the brick wall, that extended 18 ins. beyond the iron, about 
an inch out of line, and crack it. If we figure the expansion by heat 
of a bar of iron 2^yi ft. long we find that an increase of 350 degrees 
in temperature will produce an elongation of about r ^'^ in. 

The Home Life Building in its present condition furnishes a 
very interesting study for the engineer, and it affords proof of the 
theory that a steel structure may be so protected by other material as 
to resist fire without material injury. 

From the foregoing facts the following conclusions may be 
drawn, namely, that in a really fire-proof building : — 

Firsf. The steel framing should be entirely protected by 
burned clay or its equivalent. 

Second. No combustible materials should be used for floors, 
doors, door frames, window frames or sashes. 

Third. Partitions should be so built as to resist ordinary im- 
pacts and pressure of a fire stream. 

Fourth. Wire glass should be employed for partition lights and 
for door lights. 

Fifth. Column covering should be more strongly bound together. 




FIG. 8. 

Sixth. No continuous or extended lengths of iron should be 
employed in the external walls. 

Seventh. All window openings, liable to be exposed to fire from 
without, should be provided with shutters of iron or .some better fire- 
resisting material. 



THE BRICKBUILDER 



259 



The Bonding of Brickwork. 

BY ERNEST FLAGG. 

ONE might say, with a good deal of confidence, that nothing is 
more certain than that the next few years will witness a great 
change in the methods of bricklaying in this country. The princi- 
ples of good design are being so rapidly introduced among us from 
France, that the present standard of taste in brickwork and also in 
the use of many other building materials must give way to more rea- 
sonable methods. These principles of good taste in design are so 
simple and reasonable that any child may understand them, and 
when once understood, they are sure to be applied. 

One of the first things that the student of architecture at the 
French National School has impressed upon him is that good design 
calls for the use of reason, or let us say common sense, on the part 
of the designer. A great work of art is necessarily a great achieve- 
ment of the intellect. Such a work calls into play the highest powers 
with which we are endowed. Reason must play an important part. 
Nothing is more sure than that no work of man can be called great 
which does not show the use of this wonderful gift, which is the 
measure of man's superiority over the lower animals. 

Now, in none of the fine arts is there so great an opportunity for 
the use of reason as in architecture, and it is doubtless because of 
this, no less than that it is the mother art, that it has always been 
considered among the most artistic and enlightened nations of 
Europe as the chief of the fine arts. The architect is called upon 
to use his reasoning faculties at 
every turn, and the success or fail- 
ure of his work depends upon the 
use he makes of them. Some 
there are who have an innate sense 
of what is admirable, and apply 
their reasoning powers to their 
work almost unconsciously. These 
are they who create masterpieces, 
and of whom we say they are en- 
dowed with genius. 

The architect deals with many 
different materials, and applies 
them to many diverse purposes. 
Each of these materials has cer- 
tain cjualities and limitations which 
he should understand. These qual- 
ities and limitations suggest and call for the use of certain appro- 
priate forms and methods of use prescribed by reason or common 
sense, as adapted to the material for the purpose for which it is 
used. The knowledge of these qualities and the humble submission 
to the limitations which common sense dictates is a great aid to the 
designer, for if he will humbly follow where reason leads the way, 
all sorts of interesting forms and methods will suggest themselves as 
appropriate, which otherwise he might not have thought of. More- 
over, he will feel safe in their use, for he will know that he is being- 
guided by a true principle of good taste. 

A striking illustration of what I mean is often seen in the use 
of wood in exterior work by architects of our colonial times. The 
resources of the builders did not permit of the use of stone where it 
is generally used abroad, and wood was substituted for it, but this 
substitution involved no slavish imitation of the stone model. The 
work generally shows that the architect had a keen and logical ap- 
preciation of the nature of the material he was using, and its capa- 
bilities and the designs are designs for wood, not for stone. Retain- 
ing the main features of the classic forms which are founded upon 
the eternal principles of common sense, he varied the detail in an 
endless number of ways appropriate to the nature of the material, 
thus securing a charming variety of fresh and interesting forms, and 
by the most simple means giving to the work a stamp of good taste 
and elegance which to see is to admire. 




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FIG. I. 



The very common disregard of this principle, which is one of 
the fundamental principles of good design, is a most glaring defect 
in much of our modern work. 

On every hand one sees in our modern buildings, the dictates of 
common sense in the use of materials violated, and nothing is more 
certain than that until such abuses are corrected we need not expect 
good results, either from the artistic or practical standpoint. How 
can one expect, for instance, to crown a building with a sheet-metal 
cornice to which has been given a stone profile, and expect his work 
to be classed as a work of art? Common sense is violated ; the thing 
is unreasonable on the face of it and cannot possibly be good. If 
the limitations of cost prescribe the use of sheet metal for the cornice, 
why should not that material be frankly used in a common-sense way 
and be given a form adapted to its qualities and limitations, so that 
it will appear to be what it is ? When a man who is acquainted 
with the qualities and limitations of sheet metal sets himself to work 
to think how he can make use of this knowledge in designing a 
cornice that is appropriate to the building, in forms that are appro- 
priate to the material he intends to use, all sorts of new forms and 
possibilities will suggest themselves to him, and he may accomplish 
a result truly artistic, for it will at least have in it one of the prin- 
ciples of good taste, that is to say, truth. 

Or, as another illustration, say the architect wishes to use iron 
for a column ; how can he expect a good result if he gives it a form 
which would be suitable for stone, when the nature of the material 
calls for an entirely different treatment? To do so is to violate the 
laws of common sense, and he can hope for praise only from those 

who are deficient in that quality 
or from the ignorant. 

It ought to require no argu- 
■ ment to convince any one that to 
each material should be given the 
forms and profiles adapted to its 
nature. Profiles suitable for gran- 
ite are unsuitable for marble, and 
7'tce versa; profiles suitable for a 
soft stone are unsuitable for a hard 
one. Forms adapted to wood are 
not adapted to iron, and forms 
suitable for iron are not suitable 
for stone. Cast iron calls for 
forms of one kind and wrought 
iron for forms of another kind, 
and so on indefinitely through the 
whole list of building materials. To each material should be given 
the forms adapted to its qualities and limitations, and only by so do- 
ing can one hope for good results. The study of each material will 
suggest new possibilities, and the designer, letting his reason dictate, 
may venture in safety upon new and interesting fields of design. 

His work will be interesting because it will display the working 
of the human mind and will appeal to the reason of those who see it. 
This principle of good design should be inculcated into the architec- 
tural student at the very beginning. Unfortunately, it is a principle 
which he will see violated on every hand by men standing high in 
the profession, whose works are admired by the unthinking or igno- 
rant. But the progress in art in this country is going to be rapid, 
and not many decades will pass before it will be pretty thoroughly 
understood here, even among the laity, as it is understood in France, 
that common sense is a necessary factor in good design ; and a 
man, to stand high in the profession, will find it necessary to call 
into play all the highest qualities with which the Almighty has 
endowed him. 

In the use of none of the building materials in this country are 
the principles of common sense more generally disregarded than in 
brickwork. In the use of this material we easily lead the world in 
absurdity. So true is this that good brickwork is a thing practi- 
cally unknown among us, or perhaps one should say unpractised 
among us, for every one who knows anything about brickwork, or 



Ti 



\r^Tr~\nr\ 



BRICKWORK FOR SINGER BUILDING 
Joints Recessed Ji Incli. 



26o 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



who has given the subject a moment's thought, knows that the 
nature of the material requires that there should be practically no 
vertical joints more than one brick high, but that every brick should 
interlock with the surrounding bricks both lengthwise with the wall 
and transversely through it ; in other words, that the brick should 
be laid up in regular bond, of which there are several standard 
varieties, and which the apprentice everywhere but in the United 
States is supposed to be taught. With us, workmanship of this 
character is deemed unnecessary, and our brickwork consequently 
loses in strength and character, both artistically and constructively, 
for it lacks a quality of solidity and technique which in good work- 
manship impresses itself upon the imagination and constitutes a real 
beauty. So utterly has this common-sense principle of good work- 
manship in bricklaying died out among us that it is ne.xt to impossi- 
ble to find a mechanic who can lay up a wall in regular bond. In a 
large force of bricklayers, all passing as skilled mechanics, the writer 
has often been unable to find one who knew how to lay up a wall 
all the way through and at the corners in regular bond. Every fifth 
course a header course, for rough work and backing, and that 
abomination known as diagonal bond and microscopic joints for the 
face work, is what now passes here as good workmanship. 

Every now and then one reads of the collapse of some building 
finished or in process of construction ; those casualties are usually 
ascribed to the use of poor material, but in 
nine cases out of ten they are due to im- 
proper bricklaying. New York is full of 
buildings which stand apparently in defiance 
of the laws of statics, and doubtless the 
same conditions exist in other places ; it is 
extraordinary that there are not many more 
accidents than there are. If provisions 
were made for the proper bonding of brick- 
work in all building laws for cities, these 
accidents would be almost unknown. 

In the United States if a building lasts 
fifty years it is about all that can be ex- 
pected of it; they are mostly constructed 
on thriftless principles of economy. The 
builder loses sight of the fact that for a 
very slight increase in the cost, or for a 
little more care in the construction, the life 
of a building can be almost indefinitely pro- 
longed, and that the saving in repairs alone 
will far more than offset the increased e.x- 

pense. When in Paris, the writer lived in a building erected in the 
time of Louis XIII. ; it had recently been remodeled at a slight ex- 
pense, and was as good as new and may be used for hundreds of 
years to come. The first cost of building in this way was perhaps 
lo or 15 per cent, greater than it would have been if built for a life 
of fifty years. One would think that common dictates of economy 
would introduce this sort of construction here. 

The practise of running up certain walls or parts of walls of a 
building in advance of others is another practise which should never 
be tolerated by the architect. It is nevertheless a practise which is 
so common here that one may say it is the general custom to carry 
up the walls which are composed entirely of common brick in ad- 
vance of the ornamental facades, and then to connect the two by 
means of an abomination in bricklaying called toothings. The work- 
man accustomed to laying up his work without proper bond sees 
nothing inconsistent or slovenly in such a proceeding. It is, indeed, 
on a par with the rest of the work, that is to say, about as bad as 
could be contrived ; but how can an architect who takes pride in his 
work permit such practises ? They are proceedings which could 
only be tolerated where pride in good bricklayirtg is unknown, and 
that they are common now serves as clearly as anything could to 
show the present degradation of bricklaying in this country. They 
are makeshifts, which result from a mistaken notion on the part of 
the builder that by resorting to them he can hasten the work, but it 




FIG. 2. 



is evident that the building cannot be inclosed or finished until all 
the walls are up, and if one part is carried up before the rest nothing 
is gained. The supposed gain is entirely imaginary, and is accom- 
plished at the expense of good workmanship and in defiance of the 
common-sense laws of good construction. 

It needs no argument to demonstrate that the way to build well 
is to carry up all the walls simultaneously, interlocking all the mate- 
rials as the work proceeds. To do otherwise involves an unequal 
distribution of weight on the foundation during the process of build- 
ing, which should not be tolerated even if it could be done consist- 
ently with good bricklaying, but when this is done in connection with 
the so-called toothings, it cannot be too strongly condemned. 

In the manufacture of fine grades of brick, our progress during 
the last twenty-five years has been very rapid, and we now produce 
them in extraordinary variety and of most excellent quality. Strange 
to say, this progress in brickmaking has not conduced to progress in 
bricklaying, but rather the contrary. The fine grades are used only 
for face work, and our designers, losing sight of the fine effects which 
might be produced by laying them up in regular bond with the 
backing, have used them solely as a veneer, independent of the main 
body of the wall, and adding practically nothing to its strength. 
They are laid in a sort of running bond and are tied to the backing 
at every fifth or sixth course by what is called diagonal bond. That 
is, their inner corners are clipped off and 
the corners of common brick laid diago- 
nally on the wall are lapped over the face 
work, a process as insecure and slovenly as 
it is ugly, for by this method the outer veneer 
has little or no connection with the body of 
the wall, and looks as if it had absolutely 
none, appearing to be what it is, weak. The 
writer has often noticed workmen in taking 
down old buildings — -buildings which would 
be called new anywhere else — remove great 
slabs of this outer veneer with a crowbar, 
showing that there was practically no bond 
between it and the backing. It seems in- 
credible that such unscientific and inarti.stic 
methods could take root anywhere to an ex- 
tent that architects will deliberately specify 
this sort of thing ; but one who observes our 
progress in other directions must have far 
too much faith in the future of good art and 
its handmaiden, good workmanship, among 
us to believe for a moment that these methods will endure. At 
present, this way of laying brick, considered very ugly everywhere 
else, seems to be admired here. It was first adopted through false 
notions of economy, but we now find it used almost everywhere in 
buildings where such considerations evidently did not govern, as well 
as in buildings of the cheaper kind. 

With the introduction of the fine grade of bricks, we have devel- 
oped a love for fine joints, and this class of work is laid up with joints 
so thin as to be of no use constructively, and which rob the work of 
all character, and give to it a hard, dry, sleek appearance, which can 
appeal to no artistic instinct. Now and then we find an attempt at 
Flemish or English bond, doubtless made by some one who has seen 
and admired the genuine article abroad or in old buildings, in this 
country, but almost all such attempts are sham, for the face is not 
really bonded to the backing. The headers are not headers, but bats, 
because the designer cannot bring himself to give up the small fine 
joints, and to use joints of a size which is necessary to insure good 
workmanship ; with the thin joint retained it is impossible to inter- 
lock the face work with the backing. In other words, our brickwork 
is laid upon the theory that honesty is inconsistent with art. To 
vary the general monotony sometimes recourse is had to bricks of 
peculiar shapes, such as the long, narrow, thin bricks called Roman, 
which do not and could not bond with the backing. Many people 
think this variety truly artistic. Few seem to realize that the finest 



BRICKWORK OF HOUSE FOR 
CLARK KST.'VTE. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



261 



and most artistic effects can be produced by simple means, or to un- 
derstand what needs only to be tried to be proven, that brick of the 
commonest kind laid up in interesting and logical bonds will produce 
far finer effects than the most expensive bricks or the craziest shapes 
that ever were made, if laid up without regard to the rules of com- 
mon sense. 

One has but to try to find how easy it is to devise all sorts of 
interesting patterns and endless varieties of beautiful wall surfaces 
by the use of brick of the standard size regularly bonded to and 
forming an integral part of the body of the wall. The supposed 
economy of the present methods, like many other thriftless attempts 
in the same direction not founded on reason, which spring up in 
new countries, will be found upon examination not to be economical, 
but the reverse. With a very slight increase in the number of face 
brick, the outer 4 ins. of the wall, now practically useless, can be 
made to contribute its proportionate share to its strength. Let us 
make some calculations to show how slight is this increase, and how 
out of all proportion to it is the saving effected. In New York face 
brick is generally laid up ten courses to 25 ins. and common bricks 
nine courses to 2 ft. If the face brick is made to bond with the 
backing, it too will lay up nine courses to 2 ft., or better still, for face 
brick and backing, nine courses to 25 ins. ; then 8.64 face bricks and 
10.8 common bricks will be required to each square foot of a wall 
r ft. thick. By the common method there would be required to ac- 
complish the same result 7.2 face bricks and 13.5 common bricks, 
so that by the use of 1.44 more face bricks, against which there is a 
saving of 2.7 common bricks, we obtain a wall which is practically 
one third stronger, for the outer 4 ins. is an integral part, whereas in 
the other case it is a veneer of little or no value as regards strength. 

This calculation is made upon the supposition that for every 
stretcher there is used a header (Fig. I) ; but, if greater economy in 
the use of face brick is required, good results may be obtained, and 
interesting patterns devised, by the use of a less number of headers 
in proportion to the stretchers (see Fig. 2), where one half as many 
headers are used as in Fig. i. In this case a square foot of wall 
surface i ft. thick would require 7.56 face bricks and 11.88 common 
bricks, so that this would require only .36 more of a face brick, 
against which there would be a saving of 1.62 common bricks. 

The taste for good workmanship is fortunately a taste very 
easily acquired ; familiarity with it breeds a desire for more, and 
when the difference between the appearance of good bricklaying and 
bad bricklaying is once understood, the demand for the former will 
spread rapidly. There is now urgent need for good manual training 
schools where young mechanics can be taught good workmanship in 
bricklaying ; or rather, perhaps one should say, there is urgent 
need that good bricklaying should be taught in the manual training 
schools which are already established. It ought to be no more ex- 
pensive to lay up brick in regular bond than by the " every fifth 
course a header course " system. That it is more expensive to do so 
is entirely owing to the fact that the bricklayers are unskilled in the 
art of good bricklaying. They do not know how to lay the regular 
bonds because they have never been taught, and if they attempt to 
do it, of course the progress is slow, and time means money. Rut if 
the architects would specify work of this character, there would soon 
spring up a demand for skilled workmen, and the mechanics would 
soon adapt themselves to the new conditions ; it would soon be dem- 
onstrated that good bricklaying costs no more than bad bricklaying, 
and the benefit both from the artistic and constructive standpoints 
would be worth a thousand times the cost of introducing this reform. 

In the large Eastern cities there is fast being created a great 
body of skilled mechanics in almost every line, except bricklaying, 
that has to do with building. This has come to pass because there 
has been a demand for fine workmanship which has been specified 
regardless of expense. The building up of these industries and the 
creation of this body of skilled labor has been of incalculable benefit 
to the country, and is worth a great deal more than it has cost. 
Bricklaying is the only building industry which seems to have made 
rather the reverse of progress during this century. 



Brick and Terra-Cotta Work 
In American Cities^ and 
Manufacturers' Department. 

NEW YORK. — The year of 1899 promises to be an excep- 
tionally busy one, if the amount of work which has been 
postponed on account of the war is any criterion. 

In the meantime architects are preparing in every way to make 
the Fourteenth Annual Exhibition of the Architectural League a 
great success. In connection with this exhibition two prizes and a 
gold and silver medal will be awarded to winners of three competi- 
tions, details of which are given elsewhere in this issue. 
Among items of new work may be mentioned : — 
C. L. W. Eidlitz, architect, has planned a four-story brick tele- 
phone exchange office to be built on East 30th Street; cost, $30,000. 
H. T. Howell, architect, has planned a seven-story brick apart- 
ment to be built on 90th Street, near Central Park ; cost, $95,000. 

Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan has purchased for $148,000 a site for a 
new club house for the New York Yacht Club, and presented it to 
the club; $75,000 has been 
subscribed toward the 
building itself, and a lim- 
ited competition is now be- 
ing held, in the result of 
which considerable interest 
is felt. Among the archi- 
tects who have been in- 
vited to compete are 
Charles C. Haight, Car- 
rere & Hastings, and Mc- 
Kim, Mead & White. 



PHILADELPHIA. — 
The recent Peace 
Jubilee has left the desire 
in many minds to have a 
permanent memorial 
erected in the heart of the 
city, — a memorial that 
would not only serve to 
keep fresh before us the 
successful termination of 
war, but one that would, in 
addition, be an architec- 
tural ornament to the city- 
The public were intensely 
pleased with the Jubilee 
Court of Honor, designed 
by Joseph M. Huston, ar- 
chitect, consisting of an 
arch spanning Broad Street 
with what was really a 
court north and south of 
it, formed by detached tri- 
umphal columns. At first 
blush an outcry was made 
to have this reproduced in 
white marble (the original 
being staff), but this was, 
of course, out of the ques- 
tion, both on account of 
expense and inconvenience 
resulting from blocking 




TERRA-COTTA FIGURE, RITTENHOUSE 
APARTMENTS, PHILADELPHIA. 

Executed by the Perth Amboy Terra-Cotta Company. 
Willis G. Hale, Architect. 



262 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 




with the present fagade will be curious to note the 
change. 

Cope & Stewardson's design for the new law 
school at the University of Pennsylvania is about to 
be put into execution. To be built in the neigh- 
borhood of the dormitories, by the same firm, its ma- 
terial will be approximately the same, while the ar- 
chitecture is of a later period of English Renais- 
sance. Like the dormitories, the cornices, window- 
frames, etc., will be of light stone, while the body of 
the walls is of reddish brick with Flemish bond. 

-Mr. Seeler is about to put up the east portion of 
his high building at Hroad and Chestnut Streets, for 
the Real Jistate Trust Company. This building, 
although of one continuous design, had to be built in 
two sections, on account of an unfinished lease on 
part of the old property. 



M' 



RKSIDENCK KOK HARVEY CHILDS, JR., ESQ., PITTSBL RGH, 
Peabody S Stearns, .Architects. 

the sidewalks of a main street. Then came suggestions for various 
substitutes, which gave architects generally grave fears for the ouL 
come. The T Scjuare Club pledged themselves to give a handsome 
subscription, and it is the hope of all, that, should the memorial 
finally be built, the leading members of the club may see to it that 
some entirely satisfactory design be selected. 

Architectural exhibitions have been growing year by year more 
and more important, and perhaps in no city has this fact been more 
noticeable than in Philadelphia. For years the Pennsylvania Academy 
of the Fine Arts had been running an architectural exhibit, but only as 
an aside to its annual fine arts exhibition, and architecture was 
gradually becoming very poorly represented, until a few years ago 
the T Square Club assumed charge. The improvement was immediate 
and lasting, for each year's exhibit has been an improvement, both 
in quantity and quality, over the last. The entries for this season's 
exhibition are now in and promise to keep up the advance. It would 
seem that one helpful adjunct to the usual array of original drawings 
of current architectural work might be found in the best of the 
architectural magazines, the latest yearly volume of each of which 
could be placed convenient to the hand of the visitor, thereby giving 
him a broader view of architectural achievement. 

Mr. F'rederick M. Mann, architect, who, within the year, has 
aiioweci the calls of his practise to take him away from professor- 
ship at the University .Architectural School, has just been successful 
in a most fairly conducted competition for a church at Overbrook. 
As showing the proper feeling that exists amongst architects here, it 
may be stated that after the award was made, an exhibition of the 
competing designs was held by permission of the competitors, when 
Prof. Warren P. Laird, who had acted as adviser to the church com- 
mittee, gave an interesting talk on the method that had been followed 
in getting up the terms of the competition and in the decision. It 
seems that the interested members of the profession met, when a 
draft of the proposed terms was laid before them, and their criticism 
and suggestions taken before the terms were finally adoi)ted. Pro- 
fessor Laird deprecated the fact that there were eleven competitors 
instead of from four to six, as he would have wished, but the com- 
mittee had, in the main, followed his ideas of equity, outside of this 
one point. Cope & Stewardson were placed second, and David K. 
Boyd, third. 

A new front for the Academy of the Fine Arts building on Broad 
Street is reported from the office of F. M. Day & Bro. All familiar 



l.NNEAPOLIS.— I was impressed, upon read- 
ing the current Brk khuilder, with the 
very general sentiment as to next year's business 
promises. .'Ml reports indicate a stagnation just at 
present, but the prospects for 1.S99 are conceded to 
be the best for years. So it seems to us here in the 
Twin Cities. While the past year has been a dis- 
appointment to most of us, perhaps, we can readily 
understand it when the eventful year now closing is considered. 
No doubt the enforced (|uietude of the past two or three years will 
result in a healthy forward movement that will average matters up 
in an eminently satisfactory manner. 

The closing up of the year's work is practically all that is stir- 
ring with us to-day. Winter has set in at an earlier date than for 
several years past, so nothing new of importance will be undertaken 
now before spring. The new Milwaukee depot is now being used, 
although not entirely finished. It is a credit to its owners and a sub- 




.-.^.M 




^t.,i , 



FIRST FLOOR I'L.VN, HOUSE FOR HARVEV CHILDS, JR., ESQ., 

PITTSBURGH, PA. 

Peabody & Stearns, .Architects. 

(Scale Drawings of Elevations shown in Plate Form.) 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



263 




EAGLE ON DOME OF I'UBLIC LIKRARY AND MUSEUM, MILWAUKEE, WIS 
Executed in Terra-Cotta by the Northwestern Terra-Cotta Company. Ferry & Clas, Architects. 



stantial addition to our business architecture. The residences of 
George T. Partridge and S. A. Harris are nearing completion, and 
will rank with our finest residences. They are all of Roman buff 
brick and terra-cotta and mark a substantial advance in our develop- 
ment as a city, a foretaste of what is to come. Our new State Capitol 
is nearly ready for roof framings and is a decided credit to the State. 
The periodical agitation looking to completion of our new City Hall 
has set in, and we hope this time it will result in something tangible, 
as it is a much-needed improvement. 

Among the projects for next year that are known to date are : 
a new chamber of commerce, three or four new churches, two or three 
new school buildings, two new buildings at State University, hotels, 
warehouses, store and office buildings, and residences, etc., almost 
innumerable. We are promised a new government building in the 
near future, a promise we fervently hope to see fulfilled. Our present 
building has never been adequate, the business having outgrown the 
building during its construction. We trust, in the event of a new 
building, to see it made the subject of local competition and awarded 
to a Minneapolis man. We know it will mean a better adaptation to 
necessities and more vigorous prosecution of the work, as well as a 
substantial saving in cost. 




'^•*^4j^ 



ST. LOUIS. — At a special meeting of the St. Louis 
' Architectural Club, held on October 22, the con- 
stitution and by-laws were so amended that the annual 
meeting will be held the first Wednesday in April here- 
after instead of January, and the monthly meetings on 
the first Wednesdays of each month instead of the first 
Saturdays. The changes were thought advisable that 
the social features, which still occur on the first Sat- 
urday evenings of the month, might not be curtailed 
or of themselves interfere with the business meetings, 
while the annual meeting will take place at the close 
of the working season, that it may not interfere with 
the club work by a change of administration. 

An important event in the history of the local Young 
Men's Christian Association was celebrated on Novem- 
ber 30, in the formal dedication of their new building, 
corner of Franklin and 
Grand Avenues. It is 
five stories, fire-proof, and 
cost $200,000. Tully & 

Clark were selected architects, through 

a competition held in the spring of 

I S94. Work was commenced at once, 

but the financial depression prevented 

raising sufficient money to finish it 

until this season. The secretary's 

office and general reception room. 

reading room, etc., are on the second 

floor. The gymnasium is in the rear, 

extending from basement to second 

floor, and above this is the main 

auditorium, with a seating capacity 

for one thousand. .Swimming tank, 

baths, bowling alleys, etc., have been 

provided in the basement. The roof 

has been designed for use for summer 

concerts, etc. 

During November the Board of 

Education, W. B. Ittner, architect, 

took out building permits for a three- 
story school, 106 by 90 ft., cost, 

$69,000 ; a two-story school, 28 by 90 

ft., cost, $15,000; and a two-story 

school too by 50 ft., cost, $30,000. 

It is with considerable embar- 
rassment that St. Louis acknowledges 

that she cannot get that which she 

most needs; and her confession is the 

strongest evidence that she needs it. 

Two unsuccessful attempts have been 

made to vote a half mill on the dollar 

tax for five years, for the purpose of 

erecting a public library building. 

The present building is wholly inad- 
equate, either for the service required 

or as a proper protection, it being 

neither fire-proof nor designed for the purpose, it having been ar- 
ranged for the library when it was merely the public school library. 

Since becoming a free library it has grown greatly and should have 

a permanent home. 

Messrs. Barnett, Haynes & Barnett have prepared plans for a 

$150,000 residence in Belle Place, and architect Louis MuUgardt 

has an apartment house on the boards, to be built opposite the Grand 

Avenue entrance to Vandeventer Place, at a cost of $30,000. 




TERRA-COT'i'A FIGURE, 
RESIDENCE AT KANSAS 

CITY, MO. 
Kxecuted by the Winkle Terra- 
Cotta Company. 
V. E. Hall, Architect. 



SEAL OF NEW JERSEY, EAST ORANGE TOWN HALL. 

Executed in Terra-Cotta by the C»nkling, Armstrong Terra-Cotta Company. 

Boring & Tilton, Architects, 



CURRENT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 
The Winkle Tkrra-Cotta Company are furnishing the 
architectural terra-cotta for the new armory building at St. Louis, 



264 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 





TERRA-COTTA PANEL, CONVERSE BUILDING, BOSTON. 
Executed by the Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company. Winslow & Wctherell, ArchitecU. 

also for the Reliance Realty Company's new ottice building (eleven 
stories). 6th and Olive Streets, St. Louis. 

The Kittanning Brick and Fire Clay Co.mpany have se- 
cured an order for interior linings for Allegheny County House, 
Woodville. Pa. ; also have brick specified for interior of St. Francis de 
Sales Church. McKee"s 
Rocks, Pa. 

The Powhatan 
Clay Manufacturing 
Company are supplying 
their cream-white bricks 
for the new Hall for the 
Hoard of Education, New 
York City, N. LeBrun & 
.Sons, architects ; also for 
the new theater building 
being erected at 42d 

Street and Seventh Avenue, New York City, for the Hammerstein 
Amusement Company. 

The Brick, Terra-Cotta, and Supply Company, Corning, 
.\. Y., have commenced the erecting of another muffled kiln. This is 
the third muffled kiln constructed this year by the company, who 
have also built a large brick kiln, enlarged dryers, and made other 
necessary improvements to their property. 

The Illinois Supply and Construction Company report 
contract to furnish 100,000 gray brick to be used in the new armory 
building now being erected for Light Battery A, of Missouri, at 
Grand Avenue and Rutger Street, St. Louis ; also contract from Lin- 
coln. Neb., and one at Muncie, Ind., for the same kind of press brick. 

The Canton Sparta Brick Company, Canton, Ohio, have 
recently added new screens anS shape machinery to their plant ; 
built a large storehouse to facilitate shipping brick in winter, and 
otherwise enlarged and improved their works. The company state 
that under their present advantages they are making a better brick 
than ever before. 

The Fawcett Ventilated Fire-proof Building Company, 
Ltd.. have just completed the structural steel and fire-proofing for 
boiler house in yard of House of Correction. East Cambridge, Mass.. 
O. W. Cutter, architect ; also fire-proofing of Home for Aged 
People, Mt. Auburn Avenue, Cambridge, Mass.. Stickney & Austin, 
architects. 

The Celadon Terra-Cotta Company is supplying the roof- 
ing tiles for residence, E. T. AfHeck. Columbus, Ohio, Yost & Pack- 
ard, architects; Episcopal Church, Ambler, Pa.. M. B. Bean, 
architect; Memorial Library Annex, Westerly, R. L, Longstaff & 
Longstaff, architects; residence Geo. Crilly, Chicago, W. C. Zim- 
merman, architect. 

The Excelsior Terra-Cotta Company, of New York, have 
just executed for Mr. Robert Maynicke, architect, the semi-glazed 
white terra-cotta for a ten-story office building on the northwest 
corner of Fifth Avenue and 19th Street. This is the only building, 



TERRA-COTTA PANEL. 
Executed by Gladding, McBean & Co., San Francisco, Cal. 



with but one e.\ception, in which semi-glaze terra-cotta has been 
used in New York City, and the material has attracted a great deal 
of favorable attention. 

The Dagus Clay .Manufacturing Company, Daguscahonda, 
Pa., report that they are supplying the brick for three Pittsburgh 
buildings having ornamental fronts. Colors are to be dark Haslied, 
gray and old gold speckled. They are also supplying 50.000 pink 
brick for P. J. Carlin & Co., Brooklyn; the front brick for the new 
store building of Reynolds Hardware Company, Reynoldsville, Pa., 
and for a number of buildings at Philadelphia. 

The Berlin Iron Bridge Company, of East Berlin, Conn., 
■ are erecting for the Waterbury Manufacturing Company, Water- 
bury, Conn., a new blacksmith shop, two stories high. The building 
is to be of fire-proof construction throughout. The roof has steel 
trusses supporting the covering of corrugated iron, lined with the 
Berlin Iron Bridge Company's Patent Anti-Condensation Lining. 
The building is about 40 ft. square. 

At a special meeting of the board of directors of the Atlantic 

Terra-Cotta Company, 
held last month, De For- 
est Grant was elected 
president and general 
manager ; W. Harris 
Roome, vice - president : 
Richard T. Wainwright, 
secretary. The company 
wish announced the fact 
that they are now making 
a specialty of extra large 
pieces of terra-cotta with 
true alignment; also 
white terra-cotta without slip, guaranteed not to dissolve. 



A NEW factory is being erected at Lowell by the American 
Mason Safety Tread Company, of Boston, to accommodate its in- 
creasing business. The demand for the product of the company is 
growing by leaps and bounds, as architects throughout the country 
become acquainted with its merits. It is found particularly applicable 







pp^ 


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V { 










^.^ ii 



seal of the new YORK ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY BIRD HOUSE, 

BRONX PARK, NEW YORK CITY. 

Executed in 'I'eria-Cotta by the Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company. 
Heins & La Farge, .Architects. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



265 




COMPKTITION DESIGN FOR THE METHODIST CHURCH AT SOUTHPORT, ( ONN. 
Hobart A. Walker, Architect. 



to schoolhouse stairs, whether of wood or iron, and its use has been 
specified in a great many of these buildings in various cities. Work 
on the equipment of the great South Terminal Station, Boston, has 
just been completed. 

The Ohio Mining and Manufacturing Company, through 
their Pittsburgh agents, Burgy & McNeill, have closed a contract with 
the board of school control to furnish 200,000 face brick for the new 
building to be erected in twenty-second ward, Pittsburgh, Pa. ; E. J. 
Carlisle & Co., architects; building will cost #.175,000. Messrs. 
Burgy & McNeill are furnishing 150,000 buff brick for new court- 
house and jail, Washington, Pa. ; also the Norman gray brick for 
W. A. Zahn residence, Crafton, Pa., and 100,000 buff brick for 
Crafton M. E. Church. 

The Mosaic Tile Company, Zanesville, Ohio, report the fol- 
lowing orders: tiles for the floors and walls of the new convent 
building of the Sisters of St. Francis, at Oldenburg, Ind., in which 
will be used about 28,000 sq. ft. of their Ceramic Roman Mo- 
saic Tile; 15,000 sq. ft. of Ceramic Roman Mosaic Tile in the floor 
space of Montgomery Bros.' jewelry store at Los Angeles, Cal. ; 
30,000 sq. ft. Ceramic Florentine Mosaic Tile, 6 by 6 in. plate with 
inset designs, for the floors of the C. H. Allen & Co. building, at 
Fort Wayne, Ind., B. S. Tolan, architect. 

The Atlantic Terra-Cotta Company are supplying the 
architectural terra-cotta for the following buildings: Bird House and 
Reptile House for the New York Zoological Society, Heins & 
La Farge, archi- 
t e c t s ; apartment 
house, 129th Street 
and Third Avenue, 
New York- City, 
Kurtzer & Rohl, 
architects ; Home 
for Indians, Buffalo, 
N. Y., Barney & 
Chapman, archi- 
tects ; apartment 
house, 65th Street, 
New York City, 
J. E. Ware & Son, 
architects; apart- 
ment house, 123 E. 
i6th Street, New 
York City, Alex. O. 
Finkle, architect. 

At the annual 
meeting recently 



held by the stockholders of the Burlington Ar- 
chitectural Terra - Cotta Company, T. Arlington 
Macan was appointed general manager. This is 
a radical change, by which the responsibility of con- 
ducting the entire plant is placed under new control. 
Mr. Macan has an extended reputation in the terra- 
cotta industry, as being thoroughly conversant with 
all the details of manufacture, and being fully compe- 
tent to successfully conduct any business in this line 
put under his supervision. The company report the 
general condition of their business as being most prom- 
ising, their past season having been very successful. 

The recently constructed subway under Avon 
Street (Boston), connecting the main store of Jordan, 
Marsh & Co. with their new building, contains a very 
handsome lining of enameled brick tile furnished by 
The Grueby Faience Company. The side walls of 
the whole interior are finished in this material, from 
the coping of the ceiling arch to the floor, some six 
feet. The color treatment is most effective, consist- 
ing of cream-white tiles between an 8 in. base of green slate and 
a frieze and cornice of dull green enamel. The company wish 





HOUSES, BROOKLINE, MASS. 
Shepley, Rutan & Coolidge, Architects. 



PLAN, COMPETITION FOR THE METHODIST CHURCH 
AT SOUTHPORT, CONN. 

announced that Mr. Philip McKim Garrison, Mohawk Building, 160 
Fifth Avenue, New York, N. Y.,has been appointed New York agent 

to handle their prod- 
uct in enameled and 
faience building ma- 
terials. 

Chambers Bros. 
Company, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., report that 
they have the pres- 
e n t month either 
made shipment or 
received orders to 
ship the following 
machines : one of 
their largest size au- 
tomatic end -cut 
brick making ma- 
chines shipped to 
Virginia; one large 
size automatic side- 
cut brick machine, 
with other fixtures, 



266 



THE BRICKBUILDER 




to Louisiana ; an intermediate size automatic side-cut machine to 
Georgia: and an automatic end-cut machine to Alabama; besides 
these, they have other work in preparation on orders calling for 
shipment after January i. 
The company call atten- 
tion to the fact that the 
machine sent to Louisiana 
is to be erected in a yard 
adjoining that on which 
was placed, about a year 
ago, their first No. i Auto- 
matic Side Cut Machine, 
— a good evidence that the 
first machine has given 
thorough satisfaction. 

Wk were much inter- 
ested to learn recently of 
what we believe is the first 
instance of a firm of Amer- 
i c a n manufacturers o f 
burnt clay fire-proofing be- 
ing awarded contracts to 
supply their product to 
building operations in for- 
eign countries. This has 
been done in the following 
instances by The Pitts- 
burgh Terra-Cotta Lum- 
ber Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. The contract for fire-proofing a 
building for The Tramway Power Company, Dublin, Ireland, was 
awarded to them several months ago. This material, amounting to 
about 1,500 tons, was shipped from their works at East I'alestine, 
Ohio. They also sent men to Dublin to set the material, and have 
since been advised that everything in connection with the work was 
satisfactory, and the parties exceedingly well pleased. Another con- 
tract amounting to about 1,000 tons for a municipal building has 
been awarded them from 
Mexico City, Mexico. 
The construction on this 
has not yet been started, 
but the tile, which was 
made at their works at 
Port .Murray, N. J., is 
now en route. Men to 
set this material will be 
sent by the company. 

Wk have received 
the following communi- 
cation from Messrs. Ran- 
dolph & Clowes : — 

Wateriuky, Conn., 
Dec. 3, 1898. 

Because of the ex- 
cessive storm in this lo- 
cality, the roof of our 
brass and copper rolling 
mill caved in on Sunday 
morning, November 27. 
on account of which we 
have been somewhat de- 
layed in filling orders for 
this class of material dur- 
ing the past week. 

The entire brass and copper mill will be in full operation Decem- 
ber 12. No damage or interruption occurred in any other depart- 
ment of the works, and the seamless tube, brazed tube, kettle boiler 



RESIDENCK AT BUFFALO, N. V. 
McKim, Mead & White. .Architects. 




HAVEMEYER STABLE, NEW YORK CITY. 
Thayer & Wallace, .Architects. 



plants were in full operation Monday morning. November 28, as 
usual. The damage to the machinery was very small, less than 
$1,000, and the cost of replacing the roof with a permanent and sub- 
stantial wooden roof will 
not exceed $6,000. or if 
an iron roof is used will 
not exceed $12,000, which 
expenditure will put the 
mill in better condition 
than before the accident. 

The Boston & 
Maine Railroad Com- 
pany are erecting at I'urt.s- 
mouth, N. H., a building 
for their Electric Power 
Station. The building is 
1 1 8 ft. wide and 64 ft. long, 
divided into two rooms: one 
for the boilers, and the other 
for the engines and elec- 
tric generators. The side 
walls are of brick, the roof 
construction fire-proof ; the 
trusses are of steel, and 
they support steel beams 
for the purlins, on which is 
to be placed a concrete 
roof. The contract for the 
steel work was given to the Berlin Iron Bridge Company. 

For the past month the Grueby Faience Company have been 
holding an exhibition sale of their products in pottery at the Westmin- 
ster Chambers, Boylston Street, Boston. From an artistic and also a 
commercial standpoint, this exhibition has been deservedly success- 
ful, attracting much interest among those appreciative of fine ware. 
The tirueby pottery has an individuality that gives it a distinctive 

position in this art, both 
in its glazes, which vary 
from the rich and bril- 
liant in character to tho.se 
with soft, dull blooms, 
and in its beauty of 
design, wherein every 
line is indicative of natu- 
ral forms of rtoral life. 
We have in our pages 
recently descri bed at some 
length the remarkable 
qualities of this ware, so 
will not now touch further 
on the matter, except to 
say that their latest efforts 
have been productive of 
even finer results than had 
been achieved at date of 
our article. 

The American En- 
ameled Brick and 
Tile Company have re- 
cently furnished, through 
their Boston agent, John 
W. Hahn, the enameled 
brick used in the Rhode 
Island Hospital, at Prov. 
idence, Stone, Carpenter & Wilson, architects : also the enameled 
brick used in a new primary school at South Boston, William H. 
Besarick, architect. 



THE BRICKBUILDER, 



XXIX 



CURRENT ITEMS OF INTEREST. 

We are in receipt of a very interesting treatise issued by 
Merchant & Co., Philadelphia, entitled, " How Roofing Tin, Good 
and Bad, is Made." The facts contained in this little work are, 
we believe, not known to the architectural profession generally, 
and are certainly well worth their attention and consideration. The 
methods of manufacturing roofing plates are briefly outlined, and the 
two ways by which such plates are coated are described. Particular 
stress is made of the fact that it is quite impossible to determine by 
the eye, or any known test, whether or no a plate has been coated by 
an acid flux or by a palm oil flux, and for this reason the architect 
should satisfy himself that all plates employed by him in his work 
are made by reputable concerns, that manufacture goods by that proc- 
ess only which uses the palm oil as a flux. Considerable informa- 
tion is given regarding the system of stamping of sheets as indicating 
their relative weight, etc., also what to guard against in being mis- 
led in this respect by unscrupulous manufacturers. Merchant & 
Co. will be pleased to mail a copy of this work to any parties inter- 
ested in same. 

In connection with the Convention of the National Brick Manu- 
facturers' Association to be held at Columbus, Ohio, February 7-10, 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad Company announce that they will 
take pleasure in reserving a special car for the exclusive use of the 
members from New England and New York going via their system. 
A similar courtesy was extended by this company last year when the 
convention was at Pittsburgh, and proved most agreeable to the 
members from this section. The fare for the round trip will doubt- 
less be based, as heretofore, on the rate of a full fare one way and 
one third. Privileges of stop-over at Pittsburgh and Washington 
will be included. In order that the railroad company may know 
how many to provide accommodations for, they request members in 
New England and New York that are likely to go via the Baltimore 
& Ohio System, to communicate before February i with Mr. A. J. 
Simmons, New England Agent, Baltimore & Ohio Railway, 211 
Washington Street, Boston. 



0. W. Peterson & Co., 

New England Agents 



For 



Standard Terra-Cotta Company, 

Perth Amboy» N.J. 

Mosaic Tile Company, 

Zanesville, Ohio. 

A full line of Plastic Mud and Semi-Dry Press 
Brick in all Shades, Shapes, and Sizes. 

OFFICE : 

JOHN HANCOCK BUILDING, 

t78 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 

TELEPHONE 484. 



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mmmmmmmmmmmm m-^mmB-^Bmmm^^m»»mmB& 




Artistic 
Designs. 



There's a most charming and pleasing 
look about the Fireplace Mantels which 
we make of Ornamental Brick. They are 
exceedingly rich, harmonious, and effect- 
ive. That's why they have met with 
such immense popular favor. 

They are not too expensive and can be 
easily set up by local brick masons. 

Our Sketch Book shows 53 of our own 
designs, and our detail catalogue will en- 
able you to make designs of your own. 
Either or both books will be sent you 
free on request. 



Phila, & Boston 
Face Brick Co,, 

4S LIBERTY SQ., - BOSTON, MASS. 



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XXX 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



MASON SAFETY TREAD, 



UNWEARABLE. 
NON-SLIPPING. 




ACKNOWLEDGED 
STANDARD. 

A Perfect and Durable Safeguard Against Wear and Accident. 

The Mason Safety Tread consists of a Plate of steel (or other hard metal), provided 
with dovetail grooves which firmly retain strips of lead. The softer metal being of equal 
height with the steel, gives a bearing for Ihe foot, firm, pleasant, and noiseless. Rapid 
wear of the lead is prevented by the steel ribs, and the steel base also preserves the 
stairway. The efficiency of the tread is not affected by many years of constant use. 

ENDORSED BY 100 ARCHITECTS. 

Used on 34 stairways of Brooklyn Bridge, all approaches to Boston Subway, school- 
houses, city halk, courthouses, and other public buildings, markets, railroad stations, 
hospitals and institutions, office and mercantile buildings, department stores throughout 
the country, and upon vessels of the U. S. Navy. 

SEND FOR SAMPLE, CATALOGUE, AND BLUE PRINT, 

AMERICAN MASON SAFETY TREAD CO., 

40 WATER STREET, BOSTON, MASS. 
















Cabot^s Mortar Colors 



BRILLL\NT, DURABLE, RELIABLE 

Not the lowest priced, but so strong and 
durable and so easy to work that they are 
actually the cheapest. Used fifteen years by 
people who insist upon quality. 

Cabot's Brick Preservative 

The only waterproofing for brickwork that 
is permanent. Three times as waterproof as 
linseed oil, and goes farther. Prevents 
water-soaked walls, efflorescence and disinte- 
gration by frost. 

Send for circulars 
and prices. 

SAMUEL CABOT, Sok Manufacture^ 

70 Kilby Street, Boston. 






DODGE REPORTS 

Furnish Advance, Authentic, and Specific Data on all Build- 
ing and Engineenng Enterprises, contemplated or in progress, 
throughout the territory tributary to the New England, New York, 
and Philadelphia markets. The requirements of each client are 
carefully studied, so that he may receive no irrelevant matter. 

Dodge Reports 

enable concerns to concentrate their efforts on live projects and 
thus save time and money. 

Their special value in the Clay Line has been proven by the con- 
tinued patronage of a large number of representative firms. 

Write for full particulars. 



BOSTON : 

146 Franklin Street. 



THE F. W. Dodge Co. 

NEW YORK: 

310 Sixth Avenue. 



PHILADELPHIA: 

642 Bourse Building. 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



XXXV 




Renwick, Aspinwall & Owen, Architects, 

New York City. 




SEAM-FACE GRANITE 

Furnished by 

Gilbreth Seam-Face Granite Co» 



See May issue ot this magazine. 




XXXVl 



THE BRICKBUILDER. 



AGENTS WANTED. 

Contractors and dealers in builders' materials wanted to take agencies for the leasing of the Gilbreth Scaffold to Building 
Contractors. 

Preference given to parties having an opportunity to show this scaffold in actual operation on a building. 

Correspondence solicited. 

See April issue of this magazine. 




U 




Address, 



GILBRETH SCAFFOLD CO., 



85 Water Street, Boston, 







•■J 







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